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HISTORY 



OP THE 



TOWN" OF MILFOKD. 



WORCESTER COUNTY MASSACHUSETTS, 



FROM ITS FIRST SETTLEMENT TO 1881. 



En Eton Parts. 



PART 1. — STRICTLY HISTORICAL. 
PART H. — BIOGRAPHICO-GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



BY 

ADIjST ballou. 



PUBLISHED BY THE TOWK. 



BOSTON: 
FRANKLIN PRESS : RAND, AVERY, & CO. 

1882. 




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PREFACE. 



f I ^HIS History of Milford was commenced, under an engagement 
with the town authorities, in the spring of 1876, and has occu- 
pied nearly all the time I could spare from other regular duties during 
nearly six years. It has proved a more laborious undertaking than 
at first I anticipated. It also covers more ground, and is more elab- 
orate, than I then contemplated. But, getting fairly started, the 
vista opened before me in widening expansion ; and I saw that I 
could not produce such a volume as would at once do honor to the 
town and m}-self, without enlarging its scope, particularity, and com- 
prehensiveness. I therefore did so, with more labor and pains than 
any bod}- can appreciate who has not executed some similar enterprise. 
The results now appear in their very ample proportions, subject to 
the various criticisms of divergent mental judgment. I have had 
hard work to satisfy myself, and do not expect the unanimous ap- 
proval of others ; yet I hope the majority of my judges will pro- 
nounce favorably. I do not claim perfection, either in matter or 
st}de. Doubtless my general arrangement has faults, my execution 
errors, and my specification inaccuracies ; but I have been at great 
pains to render these as few and unimportant as the nature of such 
a work permitted. Probably I have been too prolix on some topics, 
too brief on others, and too omissive on others. Also, that in my 
biographical sketches I have over-eulogized some, under-eulogized 
others, and neglected to eulogize several who deserved creditable 
notice. But in all these, as in other respects, I have followed my 
own best judgment, and do not shrink from the responsibility. 



iv PREFA CE. 

It will be seen that I have divided the work into two general parts, 
— History and Genealogy. Part I. is almost exclusively historical, 
with only some incidental exceptions which seemed allowable. It 
comprises seventeen chapters of various length, arranged in what 
seemed to be the natural logical order. Each of these embodies the 
themes and topics that belong legitimately under its caption. Thus 
the reader, by looking at the Table of Contents, will, for the most 
part, perceive at once where to find any particular matter treated of, 
that may be the subject of special inquiry. But. in default of this, 
my carefully prepared Index will give him the very page that contains 
the topic or name desired. Most of these chapters are subdivided 
into sections with specific appropriate headings. This may also be 
a help to research in some cases. I must here observe, that some of 
the earlier chapters were written before Dr. John G. Metcalf s His- 
tory of Mendon was published. His " Annals " were then in manu- 
script ; and he kindly permitted me, through my copyist, the late 
Alex. H. Allen, to take liberal extracts necessar}- for this history; 
which I made use of verbatim et literatim. Very naturally, when the 
Doctor came to pass his manuscript through the press, he slights- 
changed some of his verbalism. But I have let my extracts stand 
nearly as Mr. Allen copied them; and, therefore, some apparent dis- 
crepancies may appear in the printed texts of the two published his- 
tories. In glancing at them, however, I did not think them impor- 
tant enough to require much re-writing of my own manuscripts. 

Part II. consists of what ma}* be called a Biographico-Genealogical 
Register, arranged in alphabetical order of surnames. Of these 
surnames there are more than four hundred, many of them branch- 
ing into numerous family records. All our ancient, prominent inhabit- 
ants are brought into conspicuous notice, and many others, of more 
or less note, all the way down to the present time. This has been by 
far the most arduous, complex, difficult, and perplexing portion of my 
undertaking, — necessitating much delay in sending it to press. It 
may be useless to tell, and tedious to read, of mj' researches in the 
three County Registries of Probate and Deeds, where our records 
have been made since 1667 ; in town clerks' and parish clerks' offices 
far and near ; in the State archives ; in graveyards old and new ; 



PREFACE. v 

in family Bibles and memoranda, mauy of which were vexatiously 
conflicting ; or of genealogical blanks sent forth, and newspaper 
advertisements for information, heeded and unheeded ; or of mani- 
fold personal and mail-sent calls on individuals in quest of data ; 
or of numerous emendations necessitated by defective returns sent 
in : mere allusion to these must suffice. In all cases where my 
genealogical resources enabled me, I have gone back to the ancestral 
immigrants of our families, and designated the successive male de- 
scendants, in consecutive generations, bv small numerals at the right 
hand of each lineal name. Thus the earliest progenitor found is 
numbered \ his son 2 , his grandson \ etc. ; so that those of the pres- 
ent generation can see at a glance the successive links of their pedi- 
gree. In this I have had quite too little help from those most 
interested ; who generally thought themselves sufficiently well in- 
formed, if able to name their grandparents. Not a few will regret 
neglecting to answer my repeated calls for their family records, when 
the}' see that their more considerate neighbors have wisely reported 
for posterity their lineage. I have enhanced the usefulness and value 
of the work, both to insiders and outsiders, by liberally disregarding 
town lines, and giving the genealogv of manv families originating in, 
or emigrating to, other localities more or less distant from Milford. 
Our Irish-American citizens ought to have represented themselves 
more largely in my Genealogical Register for the sake of their chil- 
dren, grandchildren, etc., who, I am sure, will not thank them for 
their remissness. Perhaps, however, few of them are realby blame- 
worthy, all circumstances considered. 

The common soldiers, as well as officers, in the great civil war, 
will find themselves commemorated in Chap. VIII., as specifically 
as the space of even that long chapter would allow. Their names 
are alphabetical!}- arranged, aud can easily be found. Let them only 
be careful to study the abbreviations which preface the names. I 
have used many other abbreviations in this work, and especially in 
Part II. I have therefore presented at the outset an Abbreviation 
Key, from which any one can easily learn to understand most of 
those abbreviations. This will immediatelv follow the Table of Con- 



vi PREFA CE. 

tents, Part I., and will itself be followed by an article headed Free- 
man's Oath and Ballot ; all which see in their order. 

Without multiplying words further, I now submit and commend 
this volume to all classes of its expected readers. The}' will see that 
the historian, the Publication Committee, and the Town have spared 
no reasonable expense to furnish them a historical work, replete with 
well-digested matter, fine pictorial embellishments, and every thing 
adapted to render it a household treasure for present and coming 

generations. 

ADIN BALLOU. 
Hopedale, Mass., Dec. 1, 18S1. 



CONTENTS. -Part I. 



CHAPTER I. 

MATTERS OF INTRODUCTORY INTEREST. 

Name and Aboriginal Ownership. — Milford a Favorite Name. — The Nip- 
muck Indian Country, whereof our Milford is a Section. — How tbe Eng- 
lish Settlers regarded the Nipmucks, and acquired Possession of their 
Lands. — Eliot's " Praying Indians." 

Origin of Quin'shipaug Plantation. — This Plantation became Mendon, and 
included our Territory. — Projected by Enterprising People of Braintree 
and Weymouth. —Tbe Preliminaries and Grant of General Court. 

First Purchase of Indian Territory. — Tract of Eight Miles Square bought. — 
The Indian Deed. 

Settlement, Incorporation, and Desolation. — Records of the Town for Several 
Years destroyed or lost. — Struggles of tbe Pioneer Settlers. — Last Act 
of the Plantation Commissioners. — First Town-Meetiug. — Division of 
Meadow-Lands. — Other Proceedings. — King Philip's War. — Murders, 
Dispersion, and Destruction. — Return of the Fugitives, and Re-organiza- 
tion of the Town. 

The North Purchase. — An Acquisition of Three Square Miles, more or less, 
to our Territory. — The Deed. — Remarks about the Indian Names, Wapo- 
voage aud Qainshipaug. — An Error corrected 

CHAPTER II. 

GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, SOIL, AND PRODUCTIONS. 

Situation, Topography, and Geology. — Situation, Boundaries, Size, Distance 
from the Seacoast, etc. — Mr. Aluion Th wing's Report on Certain Features 
of our Topography, and Altitude at Various Points ; giving Interesting 
Facts relating to our Rivers, Hills, and other Particulars. — My Amplifica- 
tion of the Same Topics. —Geological Formation and Peculiarities of our 
Soil. 

Vegetation and Animality. — Forest State Two Hundred and Fifty Years 
Ago. — Native Trees and Woods ; Herbage and Grasses. — Tbe Natural 
Meadows, how formed ; their Extent and Productions Greater and More 



vni - CONTENTS. 

Valuable than now. — Hnw they were esteemed and shared by the First 
Settlers. — The Aboriginal Animals, Beasts, Birds, Fish, and Reptiles. — 
How the Most Dangerous, as well as some Harmless and Useful Ones, 
have been exterminated. — About the Rattlesnakes, etc. — Contrast of 
Then and Now. 
Indian Rtlics and Names. — Not Many Relics. — Indian Inhabitancy. — Its 
Probable Transient Nature. — Their Departure, etc. — Only Two of their 
Names survive, Maspenock and Magomiscock. — Meaning of these Names. 
— Probable Indian Name of Bear Hill. — Reference to Wapowage. — 
Meaning of Nipmuck. — Conclusion 15 



CHAPTER III. 

EARLIEST LAYINGS-OCT OF LAND SETTLEMENTS. 

Rules of Allotment and Division. — How Quinshipaug Plantation was origi- 
nally governed. — Rules for Division of Lands to the Proprietors explaineil. 

— House- Lots of Various Sizes at the Town-Seat and their Belongings, etc. 
The First Layings-out on our Territory.— The Raw/ton Farm, so called, set 

off, 1719, to Bellingham. — Benjamin Albee's One- Acre Mill-Lot. — John 
Sprague and his Son William, our Earliest Settlers. — Layings-out, 1670. 

— Several Mendon Proprietors, always resident at the Town-Seat, have 
Lands laid out here. — Names, Localities, and Dates specified. 

Early Settlers down to 1710, — Concerning Capt. Seth Chapin and his Settle- 
ment in South Hopedale. — Elder John Jones and his Settlement in the 
"Dale," contemporaneously with Capt. Seth Chapin. — Ebenezer and 
Joseph Sumner's Settlement at the Dexter Walker Place. — William 
Cheney's Settlement on the Highland now owned by Charles F. Chapin, 
etc. — Benjamin Wheaton's Settlement easterly of the Jones Place. — 
Settlements of the Haywards in Howardtown Neighborhood. — Probable 
but not Certain Settlements, during this Decade, of Thomas White, sen., 
John Green, Obadiah Wheelock, Benjamin Alby's Descendants, Jonathan 
Thayer, John Rockwood, and Others. — Reflections on the State of Things, 
and Circumstances of our First Settlers 31 



CHAPTER IV. 

A GENERATION OF PROGRES8 DOWN TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF 

THE PRECINCT. 

Increase of Population, and Origin of the Precinct. — Causes of Alienation and 
Separation from Old Mendon. — Began in 1727, with the Project of building 
a New Meeting-House for the Town, soon after the Incorporation of Ux- 
bridge. — The Long Series of Town-Meetings, Agitations, and Contentions 
about that Meeting-House. — The Mill-River "Aggrieved Party;" their 
Protests and Efforts to get set off as a Town or Precinct. — Secession of 
the "Aggrieved" Members from the First Church and Pastor Dorr. — 
Growth and Success of the Separation Movement. — Copy of their Petition 
to General Court. 

Incorporation and Organization of the Second or Easterly Precinct. — The Act 
of Incorporation, its Terms and Provisos. — Comments on its Peculiari- 
ties — Legal Formal Organization. — Proceedings for the Erection of a 
Meeting-Honse. — Disagreements respecting its Location. — Referred to 
an Outside Committee to state the Spot. — Delays, and Judgment of the 



CONTENTS. ix 

Committee. — Troubles in getting the Edifice (40x35) begun. — The Frame 
at length covered. — Difficulties about Funds, Disaffected Parishioners, etc. 

— Fasting and Prayer of the Church seeking a Pastor. — How Preaching 
•was sustained. — Mr. John Bass called, but declines. — Mr. Amariah Frost 
called, and accepts. — Meeting-House, as to the Outside. — Reconciliation 
with the First Church, and Parson Dorr. — Ordination of Mr. Frost, and 

its Incidents 47 

CHAPTER V. 

PRECINCT AND CHURCH DOWN TO 1780. 

Principal Acts, Actors, and Events of the Precinct. — Many Minor Details ne- 
cessarily passed over. — Concerning the Settlement, Salary, and Support of 
Mr. Frost, at first by Rate, and finally by Contribution. — Concerning the 
Site, Erection, and Slow Completion of the Meeting-House. — Some Curious 
Particulars. — Concerning the First Burying-Place, our Oldest Graveyard. 

— The Proceedings. — Names of Precinct Moderators, Clerks, Executive 
Committee, Treasurer, etc. 

Church Affairs. — Brief Narrative of Transactions, Experiences, and Events. 

— Number of Admissions to Membership, Baptisms of Children, etc. — Its 
Strict Accordance as to Covenant, Creed, Ordinances, and Discipline, with 
the Congregational Standards. — Later some Relaxation. — Its Comple- 
ment of Officers. — Its Sore Troubles for a Few Years with Certain Seceders, 
or Come-outers. — Its Relations with the Baptists. — How it compromised 
with Prejudices against using in the Pulpit a Large Bible donated to it. — 

Its Succession of Ruling Elders aud Deacons 65 

CHAPTER VI. 

INDUCTION, INCORPORATION, AND ORGANIZATION OF MILFORD. 

Inception and Consummation of the Town's Incorporation. — How the Old Am- 
bition for a Separate Town never died out, but slept and woke at Inter- 
vals, till it gained its Object. —The Repeated Struggles from 1753 down to 
177i>, as shown by the Records. — The Contending Parties come to an 
Amicable Agreement May 3, 1779 ; which is given in Full. — Ratified May 
1'J, ensuing. — The Act of Incorporation dated April 11, 1780. — The Town 
legally organized May 1, 1780. — First Officers elected. 

General Status of Affairs and Responsibilities assumed. —The Population at 
the Time of Incorporation. — Probable Number of Families, Legal Voters, 
Dwellings, Public Buildings, Means of Subsistence, and Employments of 
the Inhabitants. — Small Mechanical Industries, and no Manufactures 
now so termed. — Settlements made with Mother Mendon. — Relations to 
Other Towus, the Commonwealth, and Natiou. — Shay's Rebellion.— 
Religious Matters, Meeting-House, etc. — Pauperphobia, Financial Diffi- 
culties, etc. — Minor Items down to the Year 1800 82 

CHAPTER VII. 

ANNALS OF WARLIKE AND MILITARY SERVICE. 

Previous to and during the Revolutionary liar.— Martial Patriotism always 
Predominant here; down to the French and Indian War of 1750-bo. — 



X CONTENTS. 

Reference to the Old Muster-Roils. — Down through the Revolutionary 
War. — Men and Officers. —Events and Incidents. — Town Action. — 
Gen. Alexander Scammell. 

From the Revolution to the Secession Rebellion. — Disbandment of the Army. — 
Military Organizations in Town, and Expenses. — Occasions of Alarm. — 
Sliay's and Whiskey Insurrections, Threatened War with France, etc. — 
Artillery Company organized in 180.5. — Ita Brilliant Career. — March to 
Boston in 1S14, at Call of General Order. — Names of Officers and Men, 
Compensation, etc. — Organization of the " Lafayette Guards" in 1826. — 
Disbandment of both these Companies between 1843 and 1846. — Milford 
Captains and Higher Officers. — Changes in Militia Laws. — Enrolmeuts. 
— Organization of "Company A" in 1853. —Its Career and Captains. 

During and since the Secession Rebellion. — Gen. Schouler's Summary of Mil- 
ford's Action, Contributions, a»d Sacrifices in Behalf of the National 
Cause. — Extracts from Headley on Gen. A. B. Underwood's Heroism and 
Sufferings in the War. — Concerning Milford's Officers in the same, and 
Losses of Soldiers. — Grand Army Post, etc. — More Recent Military 

Companies organized, etc 99 

I 

CHAPTER VIII. 

WAR RECORD OF THE REBELLION. 

Memoranda of Soldiers and Officers furnished by Milford to the Union Ar- 
mies for suppressing the great Secession Hebellion; abridged from the 
Town-Clerk's originally compiled Record; all arranged in Strict Alpha- 
betical Order, with carefully designated Abbreviations, duly denned and 
explained. This is a long chapter, including the names and a brief specifi- 
cation of the services rendered by all our officers and soldiers during the 
Civil War 122 



CHAPTER IX. 

RELATING TO EDUCATION AND KINDRED MATTERS. 

School Districts and their Changes. — Originally Four. —In 1784 divided into 
Eight. — Altered in 1790. — In 1802 arrauged into Six. — A Partial Revision 
in 1824.— The First District divided in 1829, and a Seventh created. —New 
Boundaries defined without Gores. — An Eighth District set off in 1836, 
called " Deer Brook." — In 1841 a New Division into Eleven Districts. — 
The Twelfth set off in 1847. —In 1851 the Twelve re-arranged into Eight, 
etc. — All aholished in 1854. 

Schoolhoitses and Expenditures. — No Schoolhouses in Town at Incorporation. 
— Schools kept in Private Houses. — Schoolhouses first mentioned in our 
Records, 1791. — A Few Poor Things at that Date. —One built Earliest in 
the Centre District. —The Second Generation of Houses in Several Dis- 
tricts. — Notices of all the subsequently built Schoolhouses in Town. 

School Moneys and Management. — Moneys variously raised, derived, and dis- 
tributed. — Amount and Details. — School-Committee Members since the 
Town was incorporated. —Progressive Improvements in Educational 
Management, etc. 

Miscellanies of an Educational yat7ire. —Select Seminaries and other Private 
Schools —Graduates from Colleges. —The Town Library, etc. . . .189 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTER X. 

OUR RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES AND CHURCHES. 

History of the Congregational Parish completed. — Awkward Relation of Town 
and Parish dissolved. — The New Meeting-House built in Troublous Times, 
with much Prayer. — Dedication and Rejoicings. — Rev. Mr. Long's Pros- 
perous Pastorate till 1844, when he resigned, and was dismissed. — His 
Successors down to 1878. — Succession of Deacons, and Status of the 
Church. — Thorough Renovation and Enlargement of the Meeting-House, 
and other Particulars of Interest. 

The Universalist Society. — Its Origin in 1781. — Organization in 1785, under 
the Murray " Charter of Compact." — Its Members and Ministers down to 
1820. — Its New Strength from the Controversy of 1819. —Brick Meeting- 
House erected, and dedicated with Enthusiasm. — Succession of Ministers 
and Officers. — New Church Edifice built, and dedicated in 1851. — Other 
Recent Particulars. 

The Methodists and their Societies. — Early Society in North Purchase in 1792, 
etc. — Meeting-House built, and finally burnt. — Parsonage built and sold. 
— Succession of Ministers, Society Officers, etc. — Changes and Final De- 
cay. — The Present Prosperous Society originated in Prayer-Meetings. — 
Services held in Town-House, 183G. — Organization in 1844. — Meeting- 
House and Parsonage built in 1849. — Succession of Ministers and Offi- 
cers, etc. 

Central Baptist Church. — Brief History of its Origin. Progress, and Standing. 

The Episcopalian Society. —Historical Particulars of its Origin, Progress, and 
Status. 

St. Man/'s Church (Roman Catholic). — Its Origin, Growth, and Prosperity in 
Detail. 

The Hopedule Community and Parish. — Exposition of the Community's Pecu- 
liarities, and its Submergence into the Hopedale Parish, etc. 

Miscellanies 230 



CHAPTER XI. 

PAUPERISM, BOARD OF HEALTH, AND FIRE-DEPARTMENT. 

Maintenance and Management of the Poor till 1825. — Reference to Chap. VI., 
where the Subject is opened. — Early Agreements and Settlements with 
Mendon. — Approximate Conjectural Estimates of Numbers and Cost for 
Many Years. — The Vendue Custom, its Abuses and Supercession. — The 
Contract System, its Abuses and Peculiarities. —The Town decides to buy 
a Farm, and establish an Asylum, and does so in 1825. 

Management and Operations since 1825. —Historic and Statistical Statements, 
exhibiting the More Important Facts relating to the Support of our Poor 
in and out of the Asylum, as derived from Annual Reports by the Select- 
men and Overseers of the Poor, especially their Printed Reports; closing 
with a List of Superintendents and Matrons of the Establishment. 

History and Statistics of the Board of Health. — Its Organization in 1859.— 
Rules and Regulations then adopted. — Names and doings of its Members 
briefly given, so far as ascertainable, to 1881. 

History and Statistics of our Fire-Department. — First Fire-Engine in Milford, 
1831. — First Volunteer Engine Company. — Subject first acted on by the 
Town in 1837. —Two Engine Companies in 1839. — Town Encouragements 



Xll CONTENTS. 

and Action. — Annual Expenditures down to 1835. — Organization of the 
Fire-Department. — Rules aud Regulations.— Tabulation of the Principal 
Facts and Statistics down to 1SS1, compiled from Annual Reports. — 
Names of Engineers and their Officers 278 

CHAPTER XII. 

CEMETERIES, ROADS, STREETS, COMMONS, ETC. 

Burial of the Dead, and Cemeteries. —Earliest Burials at the Town-Seat of 
Mendon.— The Old Precinct Buryiug-Place is historically treated of in Chap. 
V. — No Town Action concerning Burials till 17!>2.— The South Milford 
Graveyard established by the Town in 17'Ji). — About the Deed first taken, 
etc. — A Heaxse and Hearse-House provided in 1S05. — Addition to Burying- 
Gronnd bought 1809, and Tombs built. — Particulars of Interest relating 
to the Old Cemetery ; the New One, Vernon Grove, South Milford. — North 
Purchase. — Full History of all the Town Cemeteries. —The Pine-Grove, 
Catholic, and Hopedale Cemeteries noticed. — Remarks on the Treat- 
ment, Present State, and Conjectural Future of our Old Burying- 
ground. 

Roads, Ways, Streets, Commons, etc. — History of our Oldest Roads and Prin- 
cipal Thoroughfares from the First Settlement of our Territory. — Mendon 
Layings-out. etc., down to the Present Time; in which the Old "Country 
Road," "Eight-Rod Road," " Sherborn Road," etc., are fully treated of. 
— All our Streets named by the Town in 18153. — They are taken up in 
Alphabetical Order. — Their History briefly given, with Descriptions of 
their Position, Length, "Width, and Contents, including Public Grounds 
and our Railroads. — Fiual Summary of Extent in Miles and Number of 
Acre9 305 

CHAPTER Xni. 
STATISTICS OF FINANCE, POPULATION, PRODUCTION, ETC. 

The Town's Financial Affairs, Operations, and Exhibits. — Lack of Early Fi- 
nancial Documents and Records, by Reason of Negligence, Fire, etc. — 
What Funds the Town started with by Settlement with Mendon. — Copy 
of Reported Settlements. — Moneys raised for its Principal Purposes by 
the Town, from Year to Year, during its Century of Corporate Existence, 
in Tabulated Statements, showing Receipts and Expenditures. — Town 
Assets and Indebtedness. — Its Taxable Resources of All Kinds 

Productive Industries and Pursuits. — Statistics collected by the State for 1837, 
1845, 1855, 1865, and 1875. —Our Manufactures. — Rise and Growth of the 
Boot and Shoe Business. — Various other Branches of Manufacturing En- 
terprise, more or less Successful at Different Periods. — The Small Begin- 
nings and Ultimate Triumphs of the Most Successful. — Descriptions and 
Statistics of those in the Centre and at Hopedale. — The Results of Enter- 
prise, Improvements, and General Progress, now Prominent . . . 338 

• 

CHAPTER XIV. 

BY-LAWS, LAWSUITS, CRIMINALITY, ETC. 

By-Laws of the Town. — Why, how, and when established. — Copied in 

Full. — Remarks on their Enforcement and General Operation. 
Important Lawsuits, and Reports of the Same. — Compiled and prepared for 



CONTENTS. Xiu 

this "Work hv Thomas G. Kent, Esq , with a Brief Introduction and Ex- 
planatory Notes by the Author. — Some Historical and Interesting Legal 
Adjudications presented by Mr. Kent. 
The Criminal Status of Milford since a Town. — The Population shown to have 
been always comparatively free from Capital Crimes and Gross Misde- 
meanors, though with enough of Offences and Disorders to deplore . . 368 

CHAPTER XV. 

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS AND PARTICULARS. 

Our Voluntary Associations, organized for Various Purposes. — 1. The Merely 
Secular.— " Horse-Thief Detecting." — The " Agricultural ' ' — The " Medi- 
cal."— The Pecuniary, Industrial, and Literary. — 2. The Fraternal, 
the Masonic, Odd Fellowship, etc. — 3. The Reformatory, Temperance 
Societies, etc. — 4. The Mutual Benefit Societies. —5. The Religious and 
Semi-religious Organizations. — Social and Amusemental Characteristics. 

Abandoned Home-Sites. Descent of Farm-Lands, Local Changes, etc. — Descrip- 
tions and Historical Particulars of Thirty-seven Abandoned Home-Sites 
in Different Parts of the Town. — The Numerous Changes in Ownership of 
Real Estate. — The Few Persons who now inherit Real Estate in the 
Fourth Generation, etc. — Four Specimens of Numerous Changes in the 
Ownership of Homesteads. — Origiual Land-Owners of Milford Centre. 

Real Estate ever owned bg the Town, and Interesting Chronicles. — Table I., 
showing all the Parcels conveyed to the Town. —Table II., all the Par- 
cels conveyed from the Town. — Divers Interesting Chronicles. — Inuhold- 
ers and Retailers of Spirituous Liquors 381 

CHAPTER XVI. 

SUCCESSION OF CIVIL OFFICERS, ETC. 

Opening Explanatory Statement. —The Easterly Precinct of Mendon. be- 
fore becoming a Town, honored with its Share of Municipal Officers. — 
Concerning Wardens, Deer Reeves, and Tything Men. whose Offices be- 
came sooner or later Obsolete. —A Table of Milford's Legal and Actual 
Voters since Incorporation. — Lists of the Principal Town Officers, and 
the Years in which they served, omitting the Minor Grades below Over- 
seers of the Poor. — Military, Religious, and Educational Officers referred 
to as presented in their own Distinctive Chapters. — The Names of all our 
Moderators during the Century, and the Years when they presided once 
or more. — Our Town Clerks and Treasurers during the Century. — Our 
Selectmen, and their Years of Service. — Our Assessors, and theirs. — Our 
Overseers of the Poor, and theirs —Representatives sent to General 
Court. —Delegates to Consultive and Constitutional Conventions. — Sena- 
tors to General Court living in this Town. — Governor, Councillors, etc. 
— Eminent Natives of the Town that rose to Official Distinction. — Our 
Justices of the Peace. — Police Court, and Officers. — Our Post-Offices and 
Postmasters. — Our Lawyers. — Our Physicians 409 

CHAPTER XVIL 

OUR CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS, ETC. 

Indebtedness of the Historian to the Publishers of " The Milford Journal " for 
their Masterly Reports of both the National Centennial Celebration in 18T(i, 
and the Municipal one in 1880. — 1. The Most Important Portions of Pro- 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

ceedings selected from their Published Report of the National Celebra- 
tion: viz., Prefatory Annunciation; Executive Committee of Arrange- 
ments: Officers of the Day; The Grand Parade; At the Town Hall; 
Mr. Ballou's Address, etc.; On the Park; Evening Entertainment; Gene- 
ral Deportment. —2. The Most Important Portions of Proceedings select- 
ed from their Published Report of the Municipal Celebration: viz., Pre- 
liminary Preparations; At the Depot Grounds, etc.; The Procession; 
The Decorations; At the Tent, etc.; Hon. A. C. Mayhew's Remarks; 
Address of Welcome by Samuel Walker, Esq.; Dinner; Act of Incorpo- 
ration read by Hon. Henry B. Peirce, Secretary of State; Original Hymn 
sung; Gen. Adin B. Cnderwood's Address; Original Poem by Hon. 
Charles Thurber; Hymn sung; Toasts, Evening Assembly, and Rev. Mr. 
Howard's Poem; Fire- Works; Letters of Absent Invitees, Notes, and 
Incidents 430 



PAET II. 

BIOGRAPHICO-GENEALOGICAL REGISTER . . . .515 



INDEX 1145 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



837) 



[Several of these illustrations are not placed where they naturally belong, to avoid, if possi- 
ble, their weakening the binding of the volume by nearness to each other; but the reader will 
see that in such cases reference is made to pages where their subjects are more prominently 
mentioned.] 



Adin Ballou, the author, steel plate (see p. 556, etc.) 

Capt. Rufus Thayer, steel plate (see p. 105") . 

Gen. A. B. Underwood, steel plate (see p. 1080) 

Lieut. "William H. H. Johnson, steel plate (see p. 847) . 

Hon. George W. Johnson's Residence, heliotype (see pp. 3G3, 847) 

First Congregational Church, lithotype 

Hon. Lee Claflin, steel plate (see p. 648) 

Milfoud National Bank, lithotype 

Music Hall, or Opera House, lithotype .... 

Ethan C. Claflin, town treasurer, steel plate (see p. 651) 

Ex-Gov. William Claflin, steel plate (see p. 648) . 

Hiram Hunt, rep. to Gen. Ct., P. M., etc., steel plate (see p. 

Hopedale Establishments, heliotype (see p. 365, etc.) . 

The Town Hall, lithotype (see p. 405) .... 

John Claflin, Esq., steel plate (see pp. 491, 647) 

Aaron Claflin, manufacturer, merchaut, etc., steel plate (see p 

William H. Cook, rep. to Gen. Ct., editor, etc., steel plate (see p 

678) 

Col. James H. Barker, heliotype 

Seth P. Carpenter, Esq., steel plate .... 
Horace B. Claflin, eminent merchant, steel plate (see p. 49 
Hon. Albert A. Cook, wood engraving .... 
George Draper, manufacturer, steel plate (see p. 721, etc.) 
Warren "W. Dutcher, manufacturer, steel plate . 

Allen C. Fay, M.D., lithotype 

Zibeon C. Field, Esq., steel plate 

Col. Lewis Johnson, steel plate (see p. 846) 

Silas W. Hale, A.M., rep. to Gen. Ct., etc., steel plate 

William A. Hatward, merchant, steel plate . 



2) 



648) 





PAGE 


Opp. 


title 


<< 


110 


it 


117 


1 1 


158 


I I 


217 


CI 


239 


M 


250 


(t 


367 


fl 


388 


it 


414 


•• 


421 


CI 


426 


II 


439 


1. 


449 


II 


478 


II 


491 


II 


511 


II 


564 


II 


610 


II 


649 


II 


680 


II 


719 


II 


725 


1 1 


741 


II 


745 


II 


770 


l< 


780 


II 


809 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAOE 



Pkarley Hunt, Esq., heliotype, from an oil painting by Steere . . Opp. 833 

Col. Adam Hunt, steel plate <« 333 

Capt. He>-ry Nelson, iitbotype (see p. 927) " 353 

Hon. Aaron C. Mayhew, steel plate «• 394 

Newell Nelson, Esq., steel plate " 926 

Oris Parkhurst, an official citizen, steel plate ... . " 947 

Col. Sullivan Sumner, lithotype <• 1942 

Thomas B. Thayer, manufacturer an&merchaut, steel plate . " 1060 

Gen. Orison Underwood, steel plate ■« iq78 

Samckl Walker, manufacturer, etc., steel plate " losy 

Elias Whitney, long overseer of the poor, steel plate . . . . " \\\- 



AN ABBREVIATION KEY. 



"jV/TANY abbreviations are used, especially in Part II. of this work, and more 
- LV - L or less in Part I. Those in Chapter VIII., " War Record of the Rebel- 
lion," are most numerous. They are nearly all explained in the opening of the 
chapter. Some of the more common, in both Parts, hardly need explanation. 
Many others may need one. I therefore make the following specifications : — 

A. 

A., for age, aged; adj., for adjutant, adjacent, adjoining; ack., for acknowledge- 
ed-ment; etc., acs., acre, acres; admr., administrator-trix, administer-ed; adm., 
admitted; amt., amount, amounting ; acct., A.D., A.M., etc., are common, and 
well understood. 

B. 

Bap., baptized, Baptist, baptism; batt., battery, battalion; Bell., Bellinghani; 
b., born, birth; bd.. bound-ed-ing; bro., bros., brother, brothers; B., Brown, 
in connection with the university; brig., brigade, brigadier. 

c. 

Capt., captain; cer., ceremony; cA., church; chap., chapter; chn., children; elk., 
clerk ; cler., clergyman; co., company, county; coll., college; col., colonel; 
Cong., congregation, Congregational; Ct., court, Connecticut; cor., corporal. 

D. 

Ds., days; Dec, December; dea., deacon; ZJ.,Deed; d., died, deceased, death, dead; 
dr., daughter; dist., district; div., division, divided, etc. 

E. 

E., east; ely., easterly or eastwardly; Eng., England; eld., elder; en., enlisted; 
ens., ensign; est., estate. 

F. 

Fam., family, families; /r., father; fol., follows-ed-ing; From., Framingham; Feb., 
February. 

G. 
Gen., General, generation; gt., great; gd., grand; grad., graduate. 



H. U., Harvard University; Soil., Holliston; Hon., honor, honorable; Hop., Hop- 
kinton; hr., hour; la., house, houses; hus., husband; hist., history, etc. 



XVI AN ABBREVIATION KEY. 

I. 

Incor., incoqjorated ; inft., infant, infantry, etc.; inhab., inhabitants, etc. 

J. 
Jan., January; J. P., justice or justices of the peace; jt., joint. 

K. 

Et., knight; k., killed; kn., known. 

L. 

Ld., land; lat., latitude; //., life; Lt. or Lieut., lieutenant; lv., lives, or living; 
long., longitude; Id., lord; It., lot. 

M. 

J/., married; mge., marriage; Mar., March; mead., meadow-a; Med., Medway; 
Men., Mendou ; Mil., Milford; ml., mis., mile, miles; mo., month; mr., mother. 

X. 

N., or jYo., North; nw., new; JVot?., November. 

* 

O. 
0., old; Oct., October; obj., object, objection, etc. 

P. 

Pt., parent; ptge., parentage; prob., probable, probably; poss., possess, possession, 
etc.; prop., property, or proposition; pub., public, publish, etc. 

Q. 

Qr., quarter; qr. mr., Quartermaster. 

R. 

Rec, record, recorded; reed., received; reg., registry, etc.; regt., and, in Chapter 
VIII., R., stands for regiment; riv., river; remvd., or mvd., removed; res., 
resides, resided, residence, resident, etc.; rt., right; r., rod, or rods; rd., road; 
R.R., railroad. 

S. 

St., saint, also street; set., settle-ed, settler, etc.; So., South; sold., soldier, etc.; 
svp., suppose-ed; S., style, as, O. S., old style, N. S., new style; stud., student, 
study-ied, etc. 

T. 

Temp., Temperance, Templars, etc.; ten., tenor. 

u. 

U., university; Ux., "Oxbridge; Up., Upton; um., unmarried. 

W. 

Wk., week; wid., widow-ed, etc.; inf., wife; wvs., wives. 

Y. 

Tr., year, etc.; yng., young. 



THE ANCIENT FREEMAN'S OATH AND 

BALLOT. 

I COPY the following valuable and interesting statement from Hudson's 
History of Marlborough, which I am sure my readers will appreciate: 
"As we have frequent occasion, especially in the Genealogy, to speak of 
freemen ' and of individuals being ' admitted freemen,' it seems proper that 
a few words should be said upon the subject. A ' freeman ' was one who 
was allowed the right of suffrage, and was eligible to office. Our pious an- 
cestors guarded the ballot-box with peculiar care. As early as 1631, they 
ordered that ' uo man shall be admitted to the freedom of the Common- 
wealth, but such as are members of some of the churches within the Hmit3 
of this jurisdiction.' This law operating hardly against some recent immi- 
grants, it was so modified in 1662, that all Englishmen ' shall present a cer- 
tificate, under the hand of the minister or ministers of the place where they 
dwell, that they are orthodox in religion, and not vicious in their lives; 
and also a certificate from the selectmen, that they are freeholders, ratable 
to the county in a single country rate to the value of ten shillings,' and 
they may then present themselves to the General Court for admittance as 
freemen, and, if accepted by the Court, may enjoy the privileges of free- 
men in the Commonwealth. 

" But before, or rather as a part of, the induction into the high and respon- 
sible post of freeman, the following solemn oath was to be taken : — 

" ' I, A B, being by God's providence an inhabitant and freeman within the 
jurisdiction of this Commonwealth, do freely acknowledge myself to be subject 
to the government thereof, and therefore do swear by the great and dreadful 
name of the everlasting God, that I will be true and faithful to the same, and 
will accordingly yield assistance and support thereunto with my person and estate, 
as in equity I am bound, and also truly endeavor to maintain and preserve all 
the liberties and privileges thereof, submitting myself to the wholesome laws 
and orders made and established by the same: and further, that I will not plot 
nor practice any evil against it, nor consent to any that shall do so, but will 
timely discover and reveal the same to lawful authority now here established 
for the speedy preventing thereof; moreover, I do solemnly bind myself in the 
sight of God, that when I shall be called to give my voice touching any such 
matters of this State wherein freemen are to deal, I will give my vote and suf- 
frage, as I shall judge in my conscience may best conduce and tend to the public 
weal of the body, without respect of persons, or favor of any man. So help me 
God, in the Lord Jesus Christ.' 



xvm THE ANCIENT FREEMAN'S OATH AND BALLOT. 

" After being thus qualified by the vote of the Court, and by taking the 
above oath, the freeman was allowed to vote in the elections iu the following 
manner, and under the following penalty : ' It is ordered by this Court, and 
by the authority thereof, that for the yearly choosing of assistants, the free- 
men shall use Indian corn and beans — the Indian corn to manifest election, 
the beans the contrary; and if any freeman shall put in more than one corn 
or bean for the choice or refusal of any public officer, he shall forfeit, for 
every such offence, ten pounds; and that every man that is not a freeman, 
or hath not liberty of voting, putting in any vote, shall forfeit the like sum 
of ten pounds.' 

" The freemen at first were all required to appear before the General Court, 
to give their votes for assistants; but it was found inconvenient, and even 
dangerous, for all of them to assemble in one place, leaving their homes 
unprotected; and hence it was ordered, ' That it shall be free and lawful for 
all freemen to send their votes for elections by proxy in the next General 
Court in May, and so for hereafter, which shall be done in this manner: 
The deputy which shall be chosen shall cause the freemen of the town to 
be assembled, and then take such freemen's votes, as please to send them 
by proxy, for any magistrates, and seal them up severally, subscribing the 
magistrate's name on the back side, and to bring them to the Court sealed, 
with an open roll of the names of the freemen that so send them.' 

" But, though corn and beans were sufficient to elect an assistant, for 
governor, deputy-governor, major-general, treasurer, secretary, and commis- 
sioners of the United Colonies, it was required that the freemen should make 
use of written ballots " (pp. 239-241). 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



PART I. 



CHAPTER I. 

MATTERS OF INTRODUCTORY INTEREST. 

Name and Aboriginal Ownership. — Milford a Favorite Name. — The Nipmuck 
Indian Country, whereof our Milford is a Section. — How the English Settlers 
regarded the Nipnmcks, and acquired Possession of their Lands. — Eliot's 
" Praying Indians." 

Origin of Quinshipavg Plantation. — This Plantation became Mendon, and in- 
cluded our Territory. —Projected by Enterprising People of Braiutree and 
"Weymouth. — The Preliminaries, and Grant of General Court. 

First Purchase of Indian Territory. — Tract of Eight Miles Square bought. — The 
Indian Deed. 

Settlement, Incorporation, and Desolation. — Records of the Town for Several Years 
destroyed or lost. — Struggles of the Pioneer Settlers. — Last Act of the Plan- 
tation Commissioners. — First Town Meeting — Division of Meadow-Lands. — 
Other Proceedings. — King Philip's "War, Murders, Dispersion, and Destruc- 
tion. — Return of the Fugitives, and Re-organization of the Town. 

" TJie North Purchase." — An Acquisition of Three Square Miles, more or less, to 
our Territory. — The Deed. — Remarks about the Indian Names, Wapowage and 
Qvinshipuug. — An Error corrected. 

NAME AND ABORIGINAL OWNERSHIP. 

rr^HE English-speaking people seem to have a remarkable partialit}* 
-L for the name Milford. Lippincott's Gazetteer describes no less 
than forty-three towns, post-villages, and other places in this country, 
called Milford, besides six in England. Doubtless the family will 
continue to multiply, since enterprise and prosperity have generally 
accompanied the name. 

Our Milford covers a territorial area of over nineteen square miles, 
or 12,170 acres by exact measurement. It is comparatively a small 



2 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

section of what, two centuries ago, was called "the Nipmuck coun- 
trj'," because owned aboriginally and inhabited by several clans, or 
hordes, of Indians bearing the general designation of Nipmuck, alias 
Netmooke, alias Nipnet, etc. I shall speak of them as the Nipmuck 
Indians. Their country extended westward from within a few miles 
of Boston to Connecticut River, and northward from Rhode Island 
and Connecticut into New Hampshire. It included, with large por- 
tions of Middlesex and Norfolk Counties, the whole of Worcester 
County. It lapped over considerably into Rhode Island, Connecti- 
cut, and New Hampshire. "When the vicinity of Boston began to be 
settled on lands purchased of the Massachusetts tribe, the Nipmucks 
are said to have been governed by one squaw sachem, whose regal 
home was near Wachusett Mountain ; but the tribe soon broke into 
four or five clans, or hordes, with each a sachem almost independent 
of the others. The consequence was, that some of these hordes be- 
came partially tributary to the more powerful neighboring chiefs, 
such as those of the Massachusetts, Pokanokets, Narragansetts, 
Mohegans, etc. 

Our Puritan forefathers soon began to sp}' out the Nipmuck coun- 
try ; and. as fresh cargoes of immigrants filled up their young towns, 
they coveted new possessions. They saw goodly lands stretching 
out westwardly before them, sparsely inhabited by a people whose 
sachems were ready to sell them on moderate terms, with only the 
reserved right to hunt and fish on them in common with the whites. 
They became ambitious to Christianize, both the wilderness and its 
heathen inhabitants, — the soil for their own possession, and the sav- 
ages for the sake of their eternal salvation. But, as usual, their own 
temporal interests predominated. It can, however, be justly said, 
that in most cases they dealt with the Indians rather equitably, at 
least in respect to the purchase of land ; for, while the royal charters 
gave them broad grants of general sovereignty, they were enjoined 
not to override the acknowledged rights of the natives to ownership 
in the soil. Both civil law and religion required them to extinguish 
the Indian title by fair purchase before assuming actual proprietor- 
ship ; and though they undoubtedly made shrewd bargains, to their 
own great advantage, the} - appear to have paid the Indians fairly 
according to agreement, and sometimes a liberal surplusage to keep 
on good terms with them. The purchase prices they paid for speci- 
fied tracts of soil were, indeed, comparatively small, but were realty 
larger than they seem, as the nominal inone} - of those days must 
have been at least six times more valuable than in ours, and all im- 
provements had to be made by the hard struggles of the purchasers. 



THE NIP MUCK INDIANS. 3 

The work of Christianizing the children of the forest went on for 
a time with considerable apparent success, under the apostleship, 
mainly, of the celebrated John Eliot. His zeal and devotion seem 
almost incredible through a long ministry ; and our Xipmuck country 
was the principal theatre of his achievements. He mastered the 
Indian language, translated the whole Bible into it, established four- 
teen towns of "praying Indians" within the then jurisdiction of 
Massachusetts, numbering at least eleven hundred souls, and wore 
himself out in manifold exertions for their civilization. His labors 
commenced, after much preparation of study, on the 28th October, 
1646, in the forty-second year of his age. and ended with his life, 
May 20, 1690, at the age of eighty-six. But the great war of 1675, 
renowned as King Philip's, fatally blasted his missionary enterprise. 
The majority of his converted Nipmucks apostatized, joined Philip, 
and perished. Those who remained faithful were so suspected and 
ill-treated by the Provincial authorities during the war, that what 
little Christianity had been worked into them was almost driven out. 
Only a beggarly remnant at Xatiek and a few other Indian settle- 
ments were under the apostle's watch-care in his old age. Their 
history is one of sad decay and extinction. I refrain from details, 
and have given this brief outline, merely as a necessary introduction 
to the leading facts of purchase and settlement, which are indispen- 
sable to a proper understanding of our own local history. In all the 
old deeds of the Xipmuck sachems throughout this general region, 
there is seen a strange jargon of Indian and Christian names, which 
can only be explained on the ground that a part of them, if not all, 
had become so-called "praying Indians." 

ORIGIN OF QUINSHIPAUG PLANTATION. 

Next in order comes the origin of Quinshipaug Plantation, alias 
Mendham, alias Mendon, whereof Milford was an integral portion. 
It seems that the project of starting this plantation originated among 
the enterprising people of Braintree and Weymouth. The}- began to 
be crowded with a continually increasing population, and aspired 
to colonize on the Xipmuck lands farther west. Dedham and Sher- 
born people had already purchased, and commenced settlements on, 
the general territory bounding westwardly nearly with the present 
lines of Holliston, Medway, and Bellingham. The}' must, therefore, 
find a tract still farther to the west, and must also have the sanction 
of the General Court to all their proceedings. Here I will present 
certain documents, which I have been permitted to cop}' from histori- 
cal collections carefully made by Dr. John ft. Metcalf, preparatory 



4 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

to his History of Mendon. All matter furnished me by Dr. M., 
from his manuscript "Annals." has his initials, J. G. M., attached, 
and is enclosed in brackets, [ ]. Some years after this chapter was 
written, Dr. Metcalf 's history was published, entitled "Annals of the 
Town of Mendon." If any verbal differences appear between my 
extracts and his printed matter, they result from his revision of his 
original manuscript in passing it through the press. 

[At the second session of this Court, held at Boston, May 28, 1659, 
the first record relating to the settlement of Mendon is found, and 
in the following words : — 

" In answer to the petition of Braintree, humbly desiring some relief 
relating to several persons brought in by the owners of the Iron works, that 
are likely to be chargeable to them, especially in relation to John Frauncis, 
his poor condition calling for present relief, &c, this Court refers this part 
of their petition to the next County Court in Suffolk, where all parties 
concerned may have liberty to present their respective plans and evidence: 
and in reference to (heir desire of a new plantation, the Court judgeih it meet to 
grant them liberty to seek out a place and present their desires, with the names of 
such persons as will engage to carry on such a work, unto the next sessions of this 
Court." 

This answer was made at an adjourned session of the General Court, 
held at Boston, May 28, 1659, John Endicott being Governor. 

At the same session, — 

" In answer to the petition of Samuel Basse, the town of Braintree 
having petitioned for a new plantation, it is ordered, that the petitioner 
with his sons may have liberty to join with those of his neighbors which 
will carry on such a work, with allowance of one hundred and fifty acres 
within the bounds of the said plantation, more than his just proportion 
with the rest of his neighbors." 

We hear nothing more of the petition " of the town of Braintree ; " 
but at an adjourned session of the General Court, held in Boston, 
Oct. 16, 1660, we find a petition from "such persons as will engage 
to carry on such a work," and to which the General Court made the 
following response : — 

" In answer to the petition of the inhabitants of Braintree, i e , Gregory 
Belcher, James Penneman, Thomas Mekins, Moses Payne, Edmond Quinsey, 
Robert Twelves, and Peter Brackett; the Court judgeth it meet, to encourage 
the petitioners to proceed in their settling themselves and an able minister 
with them, in the place desired for a new plantation within their time limited : 
and that those that begin the said plantation may not want due encourage- 
ment in their accommodation, and yet the place preserved from unnecessary 
waste, it is ordered, that Capt. Daniel Gookin of Cambridge, Mr. William 
Parkes of Roxbury, Lieut. Roger Clap of Dorchester, Ephraiin Child of 



QUINSHIPAUG PLANTATION. 5 

Watertown, and William Stiltson of Charlestown, or any three of them, 
shall be and hereby are appointed a committee, and hereby impowered to 
appoint unto each inhabitant there, any time within these three years, as 
they shall see meet, and that when a full number of persons appear, this 
Court will, on the Committee's information, order them due bounds. In 
further answer to said Braintree petition, the Court declares, that they judge 
meet to grant a plantation of Eight miles square, and that the persons 
named have liberty to enter thereupon and make a beginning thereof, and 
to take such persons into their society as they shall judge meet, and that 
Major Humphrey Atherton, and Lieut. Roger Clap of Dorchester, Capt. 
Eliezer Lusher of Dedham and Deacon Parkes of Roxbury, or any three of 
them, shall, and hereby are appointed Commissioners, and impowered to 
make a valid act thereof." 

Peter Brackett, one of the petitioners, was a member of the General 
Court, for this year (1660), from Braintree, as deputy. 

So far as is known, the committees above mentioued held no meet- 
ing, and nothing was done, except the purchase of the " eight miles 
square " of the Indians, until Maj* 5, 1662, when the committee last 
above mentioned met at Dorchester, and took order in regard to the 
settlement of the plantation " granted at Netmooke," as follows : — 

" Dorchester 22: 5: '62, — 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed, being the Committee im- 
powered by the General Court to assist the ordering and settling the planta- 
tion granted at Netmooke, do agree and declare therein as followeth, viz.: 

" 1. That the Divisions of land there, shall be by these ensuing Rules: 
that to One hundred pounds Estate b*e granted one hundred and fifty acres 
of land: viz , Thirty acres to the House Lot, and Ten acres of Meadow and 
Five acres of Swampy or low land, being capable of being made Meadow, 
and more, one hundred and fifty acres for the Great Lot; and according to 
this proportion for all Estates be they more or less, and this to be the Rule 
for the Division of all the lands of the Plantation that shall be divided 
before the place, or the people there, shall be allowed to be a Township and 
enjoy the privileges thereof. 

- " 2. That the public charges already disbursed, or that shall be disbursed 
before the time of Town privileges aforesaid, shall be borne and defrayed 
according to proportion of Allottments as before said. 

" 3. The persons whose names are presented being (as we understand) of 
honest and good report, are accepted, and allowed to take up Allottments in 
said Plantation. 

" 4. That it shall not be in the liberty or power of an Inhabitant now 
accepted, or hereafter to be accepted, before the time of privileges aforesaid, 
to sell or lease or alienate his said Allottment or any part or parcel thereof 
to any person whatsoever, without the consent or approbation of the major 
part of the Inhabitants, or of those then chosen to regulate the affairs of 
the Plantation, upon penalty of forfeiting to the said Plantation all and 
every part and parcel so sold or alienated. 



6 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



4 1 



5. There shall be an Able and approved Minister settled with them 
there, according to the order of Court in that case provided. 

44 6. That, whereas experience shows it not to be the best expedient for 
Transaction of public work, to be left to the whole Number of Inhabitants, 
we therefore advise that the said Inhabitants now accepted should, in their 
first opportunity, make choice of 5 or 7 meet persons for the management of 
their said occasions for the space of one year, and that Mr. Peter Brackett 
and Ensign Moses Paine be two of them, and the men so chosen should have 
the whole power of accepting Inhabitants and disposing Land, according to 
the Rules above written. 

44 7. And whereas it appears that the said Mr. Brackett and Mr. Paine, 
hath already taken much pains and been at charges to promote this Planta- 
tion, and, we suppose, must yet continue their assistance therein, we Judge 
but just and equal, that each of them be gratified with convenient Farms of 
upland and meadow, proportionable to the quantities of Each in the Planta- 
tion, to be laid out to them at convenient distance from the seat of the 
Town, that is, not less than two miles, and in such places as they shall 
accept, and that the quantity of these be not above 300 acres to each of 
them. 

44 8. It is also agreed further, and ordered that each of the persons now 
accepted to Allottinents there, and all others that shall be so accepted before 
the time of obtaining Town privileges, shall be settled at the said Plantation 
before the end of the seventh month 1663, with their persons and estates. 

44 The names of the persons now accepted are as followeth, viz.: 

John Moore, Goodman King, senior, 



v George Aldridge, 
Nathaniel Hareman, 
Alexander Plumbly, 
Mathiaa Puffer, 
John Woodland, 
Fardinando Teare [Thayer], 
Daniel Lovett, 
John Harbor, 
Josiah Chapin, 

Joseph Peniemen [Penniman], 
John Savill, 
John Gurney. 

These are of Braintree. 

" Subscribed by us, 

Elizr. Lusher, 
Roger Clap, 
William Sables. William Parke. 



Walter Cook, 
William Holbrook, 
Joseph White, 
Goodman Thompson, 
Goodman Raynes, 
Goodman Botter, Senior, 
Abraham Staples, 
Samuel Pratt, 
Thomas Botter. 

These are of Weymouth. 



William Holbrook, 
Josiah Chapin, / These are chosen 

John Raynes, ( for this year." 

John Harbor. 



PURCHASE OF INDIAN TERRITORY. 7 

FIRST PURCHASE OF INDIAN TERRITORY. 

As the preliminaries to a settlement were now well advanced, and 
as the plantation had no corporate authority, it is supposed that the 
Indian deed was made to Moses Payne and Peter Brackett, with the 
understanding that the title thereby acquired should be assigned to 
the town after its incorporation, and which assignment, we shall see, 
was made by Messrs. Payne and Brackett to the town May 12, 1670. 

The deed given to Messrs. Payne and Brackett reads as follows : 
viz., — 

INDIAN DEED. 

To All Christian people to whom these presents shall come, Annawassamauke, 
alias, John, and Quashaamit, alias, William of Blue Hills, and Great John 
Namsconont, alias, Peter, and Upanbohqueen, alias, Jacob of Natick, Send- 
eth Greeting, Know ye, that the said Annawassamauke, Quashaamit, Great 
John Namsconont, and Upanbohqueen, for divers good and valuable conside- 
rations them there unto moving, and especially, for and in consideration of 
the sum of Twenty four Pounds Sterling to them in hand paid by Moses 
Payne and Peter Brackett both of Braintree, the receipt whereof we do 
acknowledge by these presents, and thereof, and of every part and parcel 
thereof, doth exonerate, acquit and discharge them, the said Moses Payne 
and Peter Brackett, their heirs and Assigns forever by these presents, Hath 
given, granted, bargained, sold, enfeoffed and confirmed, unto Moses Payne 
and Peter Brackett of Braintree aforesaid, their heirs and assigns forever, 
A Tract of Lands of Eight Miles Square, lying about fifteen miles from 
Medfield; and is bounded one Mile to the East of a small River which lieth 
about three Miles to the Eastward of Nipmug Great Pond, and so from the 
line of one mile on the East of that small River, is to run Eight Miles West, 
or westerly, and is to lie three miles to the South or Southward of the Path 
that leads to Nipmug Great Pond, and five Miles on the other side of that 
path, north, or northwards, together with all the trees and timber, woods 
and underwoods, standing, lying, and growing thereon, with all the Meadows 
Swamps, Rivers, Ponds and Brooks, lying within the Eight Miles square, 
with all the privileges and appurtenances belonging, or any ways appertain- 
ing thereunto. To Have and To Hold the said Eight Miles square as it is 
bounded, together with all the Trees, and Timber, with underwoods standing, 
lying and growing thereon, with all the Meadows, Swamps, Rivers and 
Pouds, and Brooks lying within this Eight Miles square, as it is bounded, 
with all other privileges and appurtenances belonging or any ways apper- 
taining thereunto, unto the said Moses Payne and Peter Brackett, their heirs 
and assigns forever, and to their only proper use and behoof of them the 
said Moses Payne and Peter Brackett, their Heirs and Assigns forever, to 
be holden in free Socage, and not in capite, nor by Knights Service. 1 

And the said Annawassamauke, alias, John, and Quashaamitt, alias, Wil- 
liam, Great John Namsconont, alias Peter, and Upanabohqueen, alias Jacob, 

1 Corrected according to Suffolk Record. 



8 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

doth promise and grant by these presents, that they the said Annawassa- 
mauke, Quashaamitt, Great John Xamsconont and Uppanabohqueen, are the 
true and proper owners and proprietors of the said bargained premises at 
the time of the baigain and sale thereof, and that the said premises are free 
and clear, and freely and clearly acquitted, exonerated and discharged of, for 
and from all, and all manner of former bargains, sales, gifts, grants, titles- 
. mortgages, actions, Suits, arrests, attachments, Judgements, executions, ex- 
tents or incumbrances whatsoever, from the beginning of the World, until 
the time of the sale and bargain thereof. 

And the said Annawassamauk, Quashaamit, Great John Namsconont and 
Upanabohqueen doth covenant, promise and grant by these presents, all and 
singular the said bargained premises, with the appurtenances, to warrant 
and defend unto the said Moses Payne and Peter Brackett, their heirs and 
assigns forever, against all Indians or English people, by, for or under them 
claiming any right, title or interest of, or unto the same, or any part thereof, 
forever by these presents. 

And that it shall and may be lawful to, and for the said Moses Payne and 
Peter Brackett to Record and Enroll, or cause to be recorded and enrolled, 
the title and tenor of these presents, according to the true intent and mean- 
ing thereof, and according to the usual order and manner of Recording 
Deeds and Evidences, in such cases made and provided. 

In witness whereof, the said Annawassamauk, Quashaamit, Great John, 
Namsconont, and Upanabohqueen have set to, their hands and Seals, this 
twenty two of April, One thousand six hundred and sixty two. 

The words " by, from or under them " in the sixth line, as also, that the 
Indians specified in this deed, together with their heirs forever, have liberty 
to fish, fowl, and hunt, so far as any law of this Jurisdiction alloweth in 
other places, notwithstanding any thing in this Deed. This was before the 
Ensealing hereof. 



Signed, Sealed and delivered, the day and 
year above written, in the presence of us. 
John Elliott, Senior. 
John Elliott, Junior. 
Daniel Weld, Senior. 



Great John set to his hand and seal and delivered the Deed to Moses 
Payne and Peter Brackett, this eighth day of September 1662. 

As Witnesses, 
William Allis, 
Nathaniel Brackett. 

We Moses Payne and Peter Brackett do assign over all our right, title and 
interest in this Deed, unto the Selectmen of the Town of Mendon, for the 
use of said Town, as witness our hands, 

Peter Brackett, 

Moses Payne. 
May y« 12, 1070. 





his 




ANAWASSAMAUKE 3. 


[L.S.] 




mark 






his 




Quashaamitt 


X 

mark 
his 


[L.S ] 


Namsconont 


s 

mark 


[L.S.] 


(No hand.) 




[L.S.] 



SETTLEMENT AND INCORPORATION. 9 

The above is believed to be a true copy of the original deed as it is 
entered in the first volume of the town records of the town of Mendon 
by the person who was especially deputed by the committee to enter 
the "public acts from the beginning of the plantation," and was 
transcribed as early as 1G67. The original was probably lost at the 
destruction of the town during King Philip's war in 1675. l 

SETTLEMENT, INCORPORATION, AND DESOLATION. 

Of what transpired from this period until the incorporation of the 
plantation as a town in 1667, we know but little, as no l-ecord was 
left b}- those who were set apart to look after the prudential affairs of 
the place, or, if kept, was long since lost. As the power of admitting 
persons to the rights of citizenship had been surrendered to the people 
b}" the committee, it is presumed that they, or those to whom they 
had delegated the power, admitted such persons to their company as 
in their discretion the}" saw fit. 

The pioneer settlers of this place, we must remember, held the far- 
thest outpost of civilization in this direction. They were surrounded 
by Indians, who were daily jealous of the encroachments of a race, 
who, since the landing at Plymouth, had taken no step backward. 
They were in the midst of a wilderness, and fifteen miles from succor 
in case of distress or disaster. Considering the circumstances of their 
case, we can readily suppose that most of their time must have been 
occupied in providing themselves with suitable shelter, and in planting 
and gathering the crops upon which they mainly depended for a supply 
of food. 

1667. The last act of the Committee for " Xipmug " is recorded 
in the following words : — 

" We the Subscribers do nominate and depute Colonel "William Crowne 
to Enter the public Acts respecting Mendon from the beginning of the Plan- 
tation to this time, and to finish his work with speed, and make return to 
us under named, 

44 The'Committee Respecting the Prudential affairs of Mendon. 

Eliezer Lusher, 
William Stoughton, 
William Parke. 
Dedham, 2: 2: '67." 

Major Humphrey Atherton, originally appointed one of this Com- 
mittee, having died at Dorchester, Sept. 16, 1661, in consequence of 
a fall from a horse, William Stoughton of Dorchester was appointed 
in his stead. 

i Compared with the deed recorded B. 6, pp. 288, 289, in Suffulk Resr., 7, there i» one trifling 
difference. Instend of the words " to be bolden in fee aockage and in capitc," the Suffolk version 
reads, " to be holden in free sockage, and not in Capite nor by Knight's Service." 



10 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



16G7, July 1st. — At a Town Meeting held this day, it was voted to make a 
Division of the Meadows, and goodman White and goodman Cook and good- 
man Harbor and goodman Puffer were joined with the Selectmen for that 
purpose. The names of those who shared in this Division of the Meadows 
were, 



1. William Crowne. 

2. Benjamin Albee, 

3. Ferdinand Thayer. 

4. John Rockwood. 

5. Thomas Barnes. 

6. John Gurney. 

7. Mathias Puffer. 



8. John Harbor. 

9. John Thompson. 

10. Joseph White. 

11. John Jepson. 

12. Abraham Staples. 

13. Peter Braekett. 

14. George Aldrich. 



15. Daniel Lovett. 

16. John Moore. 

17. Samuel Read. 

18. Joseph Juell. 

19. Thomas Juell. 

20. The School. 

21. The Glebe. 



July 14, 1667. — Granted to Col. William Crown and to his assigns, and 
the present Minister, their shares of Meadow, in that which is called the 
Rock Meadow. 

The first record of the proceedings of the town after its incorpora- 
tion is preceded by the following preamble : — 

" The Honored General Court was pleased to make this Plantation a Town, 
the 15th day of May 1667, and named it Mendon, and adorned it with 
several large Privileges, and confirmed their line and the lands within the 
bounds thereof, to the present Inhabitants and their Successors, as by the 
said Court's Act doth appear, which land was purchased of the Indians, as 
by their Deed will appear. 

"In this Book is set down the Transactions of the Town since they had 
their Privileges, being a Day Book for this year '67 and so on yearly. 

"The Freemen and the rest of the Inhabitants met, and June 7th, '67, 
then did choose for their Selectmen, Col. William Crown, Goodman Benja- 
min Albee, Ferdinand Thayer, Daniel Lovett and John Thompson, Senior, 
and Col. Crown, Register. " — J. G. M.] 

Dr. Metcalf continues his transcription of the Mendon records with 
minute fidelity, in the form of annals ; and my copyist, Mr. Alexander 
H. Allen, furnished me very ample materials for a detailed history of 
the infant settlement. Many interesting particulars are given of the 
acts and proceedings of the town, the proprietors, the selectmen, etc., 
respecting roads, settlement of a minister, erection of a meeting- 
house, building of a parsonage, etc. These curious particulars, how- 
ever, belong more properly to the history of Mendon, for which Dr. 
Metcalf has made careful and ample preparation, and are in little dan- 
ger of falling into oblivion. I shall, therefore, select from the mate- 
rials before me only such as seem to have some necessary relation to 
our own town histon*, expecting that the whole will soon be pub- 
lished in their complete order; (now in print). 



KING PHILIP'S DEVASTATING WAR. 11 

We have arrived at the date of June 7, 1GG7. It has been shown 
how the plantation at '• Netinook," first called Quinshipaug, then 
Mendham, and finally Mendon, originated ; how the eight miles square 
of its territory was acquired of the Indian sachems ; how the General 
Court ordered the incipient affairs of its settlement : and how it be- 
came an incorporated township May 15, 16G7. The difficulties, hard- 
ships, aud successes of the pioneers in this important enterprise down 
to the act of incorporation can hardly be imagined ; but a terrible 
calamity, King Philip's war, in 1675, almost swept their thriving set- 
tlement out of existence. King Philip enlisted nearly all the Nipmuck 
Indians, as well as the more powerful neighboring tribes, into his 
warlike alliance. The speed}- result was six actual murders of the 
Mendon settlers, the flight of all their survivors to the seacoast towns, 
and finally, in February, 1676, the burning of every dwelling-house. 
Their first meeting-house, aud nearly or quite all their out-buildings, 
shared the general devastation. With comparatively slight exceptions, 
they lost the fruits of twelve years' progress from their wilderness 
beginning. 

I cannot ascertain, that, down to the period of this dreadful calam- 
ity, a single dwelling-house had been built within our present town 
limits. There is, however, some reason to believe that Benjamin 
Alb\' (Albee) had erected his famous first "corn-mill" at the Lewis 
B. Gaskill place, and made himself a home near by on the now Mendon 
side of the road, not far from Willis Gould's residence. If so, the 
probability is that his house and mill were burnt by the savages. 

When the war ended by the overthrow of King Philip and a sweep- 
ing destruction of his confederates, the Mendon fugitives began to 
return, but in a poverty-stricken condition, and with a deep-seated 
dread of the savages that lingered in reduced numbers about the gen- 
eral neighborhood. Not more than half the original settlers returned ; 
but the heirs and assigns of the others, with new adventurers, soon 
joined the old proprietors, so that the year 1680 witnessed a promising 
resumption of lauds and corporate privileges. 

Here it may be proper to present an authentic list of persons, heads 
of families mostly, to whom lands had been granted before .the war. 
I quote from Dr. Metcalf. 

[At the breaking out of Philip's war, the following persons are all to 
whom the Town had granted land: — 

Col. William Crown, Benjamin Albee, Ferdinand Thayer, John Rockwood, 
Thomas Barnes, John Gurney, Mathias Puffer, John Harbor, Walter Cook, 
Peter Brackett, Joseph Aldrich, Daniel Lovett, George Aldrich, John More, 
Samuel Read, Joseph Juell, Thomas Juell, Samuel Spenser, John Thompson, 



12 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

sen., Joseph White, John Jepson, Abraham Staples, John Woodland, 
Samuel Hayward, John Parris, Job Tyler, Deacon Hide, Job Hide, Gregory 
Cook, Steven Cook, sen., Joseph Stevens, John Aldrich, Hope Tyler, John 
Sprague, William Holbrook,Mrs. Tappinge, Joseph Emerson, John Bartlett, 
James Albee~rSimon Peck, John Paynes, The Ministry and The School. — 
J. G. M.] 

"THE NORTH PURCHASE." 

Passing in silence over numerous transactions of the re-organized 
Mendon authorities for several years, we come at length to one of 
special interest to our inhabitants. I allude to a new acquisition of 
lands from the Indians, comprising three square miles, more or less, 
of our present territory. This acquisition has always been designated 
"The North Purchase." It was made by a committee of Mendon, 
and consummated by a deed from the heirs of the old Natick sachem, 
John Awasamog. alias Awasamauke, who, I presume, was a leading 
grantor of the original Quinshepaug purchase, — the eight miles 
square. The deed bears date Feb. 19, 1691-2. 

A COPY FROM MENDON RECORDS. 

To all Christian People to tchom these Presents may come : — 

Know ye, that John Awasamog and Amos Awasamog and Peter Ephraim, 
Heirs to John Awasamog, late of Natick, deceased, for good and valuable 
consideration, them thereunto moving, and especially for and in considera- 
tion of the sum of Three pounds Sterling Money to them in hand paid, by 
Ferdinando Thayer, Joseph White, Senior, Josiah Chapin, Abraham Staples, 
Senior, Samuel Haywardr~Ja~mes Xovett and Samuer Read, Senior, Com- 
mittee for the Town of Mendon, in the County of Suffolk, in the Colony of 
Massachusetts, in New England, the receipt whereof they do acknowledge 
themselves by these Presents, and thereof every part and parcel thereof, 
doth exhonorate, acquit, and discharge, the said Ferdinando Thayer, Joseph 
White, Josiah Chapin, Abraham Staples, Samuel Hayward, James Lovett, 
and Samuel Read, their Heirs and Assigns forever, by these Presents, have 
given, grauted, bargained and sold, enfeoffed and confirmed, and do by these 
Presents, give, grant, bargain, sell, enfeoff, and confirm unto Ferdinando 
Thayer, Joseph White, Josiah Chapin, Abraham Staples, Samuel Hayward 
and James Lovett of Mendon aforesaid, their Heirs and Assigns forever, A 
certain tract of land laying upon the North side of the Township of Mendon, 
butted and bounded, as followeth: Southerly upon Mendon line, and Easterly 
upon Sherburne line to the height of Maspenock Pond, and northerly upon 
a line of marked trees until it comes to Maspenock Pond, westerly, partly 
upon the above said Maspenock Pond, and partly upon a River commonly 
known by Mendon Mill River, home to Mendon line aforesaid, with all the 
Trees, Timber woods and underwoods standing, laying and growing thereon, 
with all the Meadows, swamps, watercourses, ponds and brooks laying within 



THE NORTH PURCHASE. 13 

the said tract of land as it is bounded, with all the other privileges and 
appurtenances thereunto belonging or anyways appertaining thereunto, 
together with a full and free confirmation of all lands formerly sold by 
John Awasamog, father of the abovesaid Awasamogs, late of Natick, 
deceased, to the Town of Mendon aforesaid, as it is butted and bounded in 
the Deed, and confirmed by the General Court. To Have and To Hold the 
said Tract of land as it is bounded, together with all the Trees, Timber, 
woods and underwoods, standing, laying and growing thereon, with all the 
Swamps, Meadows, Brooks, watercourses within the said Tract of land, 
with all other privileges and appurtenances, anyways appertaining or belong- 
ing thereunto, unto Fardinando Thayer, Joseph White, Josiah Chapin, 
Abraham Staples, Samuel Hayward, James Lovett aud Samuel Read, to 
them their Heirs and Assigns forever, to the only proper use and behoof of 
them, the said Thayer, White, Chapin, Staples, Hayward, Lovett and Read, 
their Heirs and Assigns forever. 

The said John and Amos Awasamog and Peter Ephraim doth covenant 
and promise and grant, by these Presents, that the said Awasamogs and 
Peter Ephraim, are the proper owners of the said tract of land, that they 
are free from all manner of bargains, sales, gifts, grants, titles, mortgages, 
actions, suits, arrests, attachments, Judgements, executions, extents, incum- 
brances whatsoever, from the beginning of the World, until the time of the 
Sale and bargain thereof. And the said Awasamogs and Peter Ephraim 
doth covenant, promise and grant by these Presents, all and singular, the 
bargained Premises with all the appurtenances, to warrant, acquit and 
defend unto the said Thayer, White, Chapin, Staples, Hayward, Lovett 
and Read, their Heirs and Assigns forever, against all Indians, or any other 
persons, whatsoever, from, by or under them, claiming any right, title or 
interest of or unto the same, or any part thereof, by these Presents, and that 
it shall, and may be lawful, for the said Thayer, White, Chapin, Staples, 
Hayward, Lovett and Read, their Heirs and Assigns, to record and enroll, 
or cause to be recorded and enrolled, the Title and Tenor of these Presents, 
according to the true intent and meaning thereof, and according to the usual 
order and manner of recording Deeds and Evidences in such case made and 
provided, and to acknowledge the same before legal authority when called 
thereunto. In witness whereof, the said John Awasamog, Amos Awasamog, 
and Peter Ephraim set to, their hands and seals, this Nineteenth day of 
February, in the year of our Lord, Sixteen hundred Ninety and one, or two, 
and in the third year of the Reign of our Sovereigns, William and Mary, 
King and Queen of England, &c. 

his 

John Awasamog 2E 

Signed, Sealed and delivered, and possession mark, 

given in presence of us. his 

Amos Awasamog (E 
Joseph White, Jr. mark. 

Samuel Read, Jk. his 

Peter Ephraim P. E. 

mark. 



14 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

REMARKS ON INDIAN NAMES. 

Hayward's Gazetteers of Xew England and Massachusetts, fol- 
lowed by Nason's Massachusetts Gazetteer, and perhaps other works, 
say that the Indian name of our Milford was Wapoivage. As I had 
re-echoed the same statement, on what I supposed sufficient authority, 
I set on foot an inquiry into the meaning of the name Wapoivage. It 
was referred to J. Hammond Trumbull, Esq., of Hartford, Conn., a 
very eminent savant in Indian lore. He soon informed me, — not 
what the name signified, but that it was the Indian name of Milford, 
Conn., never of our Milford, and that the latter had no distinctive 
name apart from old Mendon, — the original eight miles square, — 
which was Quinshipaug. Thus my error, copied from the Gazetteers, 
stands corrected, and the Connecticut Millbrdians are left in clear 
possession of the name Wapowage, whose signification they may 
ascertain at their leisure. 

As to Quinshipaug, Mr. Trumbull says its literal signification is 
" Pickerel Pond," by which, I suppose, the Indians meant a tract of 
territory whose ponds and other waters abounded with fine pickerel. 
From what I have seen and heard the name is truthfully appropriate. 
Maspenock, alias North Pond, Nipmuck Pond, and the smaller ponds, 
both natural and artificial, throughout ancient Quinshipaug, have 
always bred pickerel rapidly, and of the best quality. Even now, 
though overdrawn and much exhausted by excessive fishing, they 
vindicate the good judgment of the aborigines. If, however, any 
of us deem " Pickerel Pond " a name wanting in dignity, we must 
either forget or make the best of it. 



SITUATION AND TOPOGRAPHY. 15 



CHAPTER II. 

SITUATION, TOPOGRAPHY, SOIL, AND PRODUCTIONS. 

Situation, Topography, and Geology. — Situation, Boundaries, Size, Distance from 
the Seacoast, etc. — Mr. Almon Thwing's Report on Certain Features of our 
Topography, and Altitude at Various Points; giving Interesting Facts relating 
to our Rivers, Hills, and Other Particulars. —My Amplification of the Same 
Topics. — Geological Formation and Peculiarities of our Soil. 

Vegetation and Animality.— Forest State Two Hundred and Fifty Years Ago. — 
Native Trees and Woods; Herbage and Grasses. —The Natural Meadows, how 
formed: their Extent and Production Greater and More Valuable than Now. — 
How they were esteemed and shared by the First Settlers. — The Aboriginal 
Animals, Beasts, Birds, Fish, and Reptiles. — How the Most Dangerous, as 
well as some Harmless and Useful Ones, have been exterminated. — About the 
Rattlesnakes, etc. — Contrast of Then and Now. 

Indian Relics and Xames. — Not Many Relics. — Indian Inhabitancy: its Probable 
Transient Nature. — Their Departure, etc. — Only Two of their Names survive, 
Maspenock and Magomiscock — Meaning of these Names. — Probable Indian 
Name of Bear Hill. — Reference to Wapoioage. — Meaning of Xipmuck. — Con- 
clusion. 

SITUATION, TOPOGRAPHY, AND GEOLOGY. 

MILFORD is situated in about 42° 8' north latitude, and 71° 9' 
west longitude, from Greenwich. It is bounded north by 
Hopkinton ; east by Holliston, Medway, and Bellingham : south, 
south-west, and west by Mendon ; and north-west by Upton. As 
before stated, it has an area of over nineteen square miles, or about 
12,170 acres; being about six miles in length, with an average 
breadth of a little over three miles. It lies in the south-easterly part 
of Worcester County, skirting on Middlesex and Norfolk Counties. 
Its nearest approach to the sea-coast is in the direction of Provi- 
dence. R.I., a distance of twenty-two to twenty-five miles on a 
slightly south-east right line. From Massachusetts Bay at Boston, 
in a north-easterl}- direction, its distance is not far from thirty air- 
line miles. From its county-seat at Worcester, it lies south-east about 
eighteen miles. 

In respect to its topography, and altitude above the level of the 
ocean, I engaged Mr. Almon Thwing of Hopedale to make examina- 
tion and measurements, which would enable me to place on record 
numerous interesting particulars worthy of transmission to after-times, 
as well as gratifying to the curiosity of the present generation. He 
made the following 



16 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

REPORT. 

The undersigned, having been engaged by Mr. Ballou, the town his- 
torian, to examine and report to him certain particulars of the topography 
of Milford and its altitude at various points, has done so with care and pre- 
cision. I submit the following statements as substantially accurate and 
reliable: to wit, — 

There are two small rivers that run through the town in a southerly 
direction, almost parallel to each other, dividing it into three nearly equal 
parts. Charles River, the easterly stream, rises in a large highland swamp 
near Hopkinton line, about one-third of a mile east of where Haven Street 
crosses said line, and is there four hundred and thirty-two feet above tide- 
water. Running in its general southerly direction, with considerable descent 
to the mill-privilege at Wild Cat, so called, it there receives an important 
confluent stream known as Deer Brook. Some have contended that Deer 
Brook ought to be regarded as more properly Charles River; but old deeds, 
maps, and outline drawings of the town, show conclusively that the one I am 
describing is the real Charles. Deer Brook rises in Hopkinton, on the east- 
erly side of Hayden Row Street, perhaps a mile south-easterly of the town 
centre; crosses said street half a mile or more north of Hayden Row school- 
house; and thence pursues its way, a little west of said street, into the 
extreme north-east corner of Milford, through what was formerly the north- 
west corner of Holliston, to its junction with the Charles at Wild-Cat. 
Thence the Charles passes on through Cedar-Swamp Pond to the falls at 
Milford Centre; and thence to Bellingham, at the south-east corner of our 
town. There are but two mill-seats occupied on the Charles within our 
limits, — that at Wild Cat, for sawiDg; and that of Aaron Claflin, in the 
Centre, for grinding grain. Where the Charles leaves Milford, it is three 
hundred and seven feet nine inches above tide-water, — our lowest level. 
Thence it passes on through Bellingham, Medway, Medfield, Dover, Sher- 
born, and Xeedham, to Dedham. There it divides into two branches, — one 
running northerly through various towns into Charlestown Harbor, and the 
other through Dedham and Dorchester into the Bay. 

Mill River rises in Xorth Pond, — only a fraction of which is in Mil- 
ford, — and forms its outlet. At that point, it is four hundred and fifty-two 
feet and nine inches above tide-water. Running in a southerly direction, it 
falls one hundred and thirty-six feet nine inches before leaving town. At 
that, point it is three hundred and sixteen feet above tide-water, being eight 
feet three inches higher than the Charles where it leaves our limits. I make 
the fall of Mill River within our borders considerably less than some for- 
merly estimated it; that is, one hundred and four feet three inches less than 
heretofore given by guess-work. Mill River affords eleven mill-seats of 
greater or less power, six of which are occupied. Its first three seats have 
thirty-three feet fall, and are unoccupied. The fourth is occupied by Fisk's 
grist and saw mills, having eleven feet fall. The fifth, with six feet fall, 
at the "City" so called, is idle. The sixth is occupied by Hopedale 
Machine Company, with twelve feet fall. The seventh is occupied by 



TH WING'S REPORT. 17 

Dutcher Temple Company; fall, sixteen feet. The eighth runs Samuel 
Walker's grist-mill, etc., with nine feet fall. The ninth runs the works at 
Spindleville, latterly so called, with a fall of eleven feet. The remaining 
two have about thirteen feet fall, and are unoccupied. Thus about twenty- 
five feet fall is absorbed by ponds and slack-water. Mill River pursues a 
southerly course through Mendon, Blackstone, and VVoonsocket, R.I.: and 
thence therewith to tide-water at Pawtucket and Providence. I hnd, after 
considerable pains to ascertain, that tide-water at Boston and Providence 
has almost the same level, with only the slight geographical difference, and 
that ray several measurements are thereby confirmed. 

I find that the drainage of the "Great Meadow," once famous on our 
records, which lies northerly and north-easterly of Bear Hill, leaves town in 
a small streamlet called Stall Brook, and runs through Medwav and Belling- 
ham into Charles River. I was somewhat surprised to learn, by critical 
examination, that a little run of water seems to start from the immediate 
skirts of Cedar-Swamp Pond, just this side of the hither corner of Pine- 
Grove Cemetery, and creeps along east of the Catholic Cemetery, southerly 
across East Main Street; then under the railroad near Medway Street; 
thence easterly across Birch Street, down through what must once have been 
a pond of considerable size; and thence through the narrows into Medway, 
under the name aforesaid. I found the water in Cedar-Swamp Pond three 
feet higher than where this brooklet runs under the railroad, where it was 
two feet higher than at the crossing of Birch Street, and there three feet 
higher than at the narrows below Medway line; in all, a fall of nearly eight 
feet from Cedar-Swamp Pond to said narrows. Thus a dam at the narrows 
of five feet high would flow the "Great Meadow," and all its numerous 
coves, back to the railroad. The natural formation of the land between 
Pine-Grove Cemetery and the Catholic Cemetery, and the land where Charles 
River crosses Main Street at Claflin's Mill, is so nearly level, that, in all 
probability, a part of the water from Cedar-Swamp Pond, long ago, must 
have run off through the " Great Meadow," in the course I have described. 
In fact, a slight portion of it does so run now. And when the further fact 
is considered, that the now cultivatable lowlands adjacent to that ancient 
meadow, in large quantity, are only a few feet above the brooklet described 
(all the way from two to ten), we can well understand that the Great 
Meadow was a prize worth contending for by the first settlers of Mendon 
and Sherborn. 

The several heights of land and positions in Milford I found, by careful 
levelling, to be as follows: At the Boston and Albany branch railroad depot, 
the level was long ago settled to be three hundred and thirty feet above tide- 
water. Main Street, at the head of Central Street, is fifty-six feet nine 
inches above the depot, or three hundred and eighty-six feet nine inches 
above tide-water. Congress Street, at the top of Silver Hill, is two hundred 
feet above Main Street, at the head of Central, or five hundred and eighty- 
six feet nine inches above tide-water. Tunnel Hill, near Haven Street, at 
Hopkintou line, is thirty feet above the point on Silver Hill last noted, or 
six hundred and sixteen feet nine inches above tide-water. The highest 



18 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

point of land in town is on Highland Street, near Reuel Cleveland's house. 
This is two hundred and fifty-one feet nine inches above Main Street, at 
the head of Central, or six hundred and thirty-seven feet nine inches above 
tide-water. Thus the average altitude of Milford, computing it from the 
extremes, — three hundred and eight feet at the outgo of Charles River, and 
the aforesaid six hundred and thirty-seven feet nine inches near Reuel 
Cleveland's, — is about four hundred and seventy-two feet above sea-level. 

Going from the head of Central Street on Main Street, towards Men- 
don, I found the following levels: At Greene Street, near the brook, the 
ground is eighteen feet below the head of Central; on the top of the hill, 
near the Adams place, it is thirty-five feet higher than at the head of Central 
Street: at the crossing of Hopedale Street, it is forty feet below the head of 
Central Street; and on the hill, at Mendon line, it is one hundred and 
twenty-two feet above Hopedale-street crossing, or four hundred and sev- 
enty feet above tide- water. The hill on the old road to Mendon, up west of 
the "salt-box " so called, is two hundred and thirteen feet above said Hope- 
dale-street crossing, one hundred and eighty-six feet above the head of Cen- 
tral Street, and five hundred and seventy-two feet above tide-water, being 
the highest land in the extreme westerly part of the town. Hopedale Street, 
opposite my house, is thirty-seven feet two inches lower than Main Street at 
the head of Central; and, at the junction with Adin Street, it is thirty-five 
feet five inches lower than said head of Central Street. 

Proceeding easterly from Milford Centre, I found the peaks, ridges, 
hollows, and adjacencies of Bear Hill to measure as follows: The highest 
peak (which is south of Central Street, and near Charles River) is two hun- 
dred and two feet above the depot, and five hundred and thirty-two feet 
above the sea-level ; the highest ground on Central Street, which passes over 
Bear Hill, is one hundred and eighty feet above the depot-level, and five 
hundred and ten above tide-water; the hollow on the east side of the hill is 
only thirty-two feet above the depot-level; and the high land at the ancient 
Holbrook place, on Maple Street, is one hundred feet above the depot-level, 
or four hundred and thirty feet above tide-water. 

The southerly part of the town is much less broken; has a gentle, plain- 
like inclination down to Mendon line; has few or no hills that are many 
feet above the depot-level; and its lowest depression is only about twenty feet 
below that level. 

I have been thus particular, in regard to the rivers, hills, and valleys of 
the town, to find and verify their altitudes, etc., in hope to settle some dis- 
puted points, and to correct erroneous ideas among our inhabitants, derived 
from former topographical surveys, or from crude estimates founded on mere 
appearances to the common eye. I have spared no reasonable pains to be 
accurate and reliable in my statements ; and, believing that no tests will ever 
invalidate their substantial correctness, they are respectfully submitted for 

publication. 

Almox Thwing. 
Hopedale, April 24, 1879. 



TOPOGRAPHY COMPLETED. 19 

I will add a few historic, explanatory, and descriptive sentences, on 
our topograph}-. The river now known as Charles was designated as 
" Second Bridge River " in our oldest records, deeds, and other docu- 
ments. Its Indian name, at least in the vicinity of Boston, was Mas- 
sachusetts. The famous Massachusetts tribe, dwelling on it east of 
the Nipmucks. were quite powerful when Salem and Boston first 
began to be settled by the whites. But how high up into the country 
this river then b >re the name Massachusetts, I have never been 
informed. Mill River has always borne its present name since the 
first white settlement of Quinshipaug Plantation, alias Mendham, 
alias Mendon. in 1G63 or thereabouts. "Whether it ever had an 
Indian name, I know not. If it had one, it was probably Mas- 
penock, after the pond whence it issues, called Maspenock by the 
natives. Its numerous mill-privileges led our forefathers to give it 
the current name, though Maspenock would certainly be more grace- 
ful. At the point where it leaves our territory, on the present Lewis 
B. Gaskill place, the early Mendon authorities, in 1GG7. provided for 
the erection of their first "corn-mill." so called. Benjamin Alby, 
the patriarch of all our Albees, received a grant of land, and engaged 
to maintain the said mill for the public convenience. It is supposed 
that he built it accordingly, but that it was burned, with nearly all the 
buildings of Mendon's first settlers, in King Philip's War. Before 
any bridges were built, this river had several conspicuous fords, 
familiar to the Indians, and used fur some years by the early white 
settlers. Hence tradition whispers that Mill River and its fords 
suggested our town's name. 

It will be seen that these two intersecting rivers divide our territory 
into three sections. The first is a narrow strip of land on the west 
side of Mill River, adjacent to Mendon. It extends from a little 
above the "City" mill-privilege on the Upton line, to the old 
" country road," later the turnpike, and now common highway, from 
Mendon town over Neck Hill towards Bellingham. It is bounded 
westerly, much of the way, by the famous " Eight- Rod Road." Its 
length may be four miles or more, and its average width perhaps one 
hundred and fifty rods, more or less. It lies on the eastern declivity 
and along the bases of Neck Hill and its higher adjunct, formerly 
called North Hill, towards Upton line. The larger portion of it 
is woodland and swamp, little adapted to tillage. Minor portions 
have long been cleared, and are now used for pasturage, tillage, and 
meadow purposes. Other tracts, once cleared, have been allowed to 
return to forest. 

The middle section, between the two rivers, extends virtuallv the 



20 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

whole length of our municipal domain, from Hopkinton on the north 
to Mention on the south, about six miles. It is much the largest of 
the three: being, on an average, perhaps nearly a mile and a half in 
breadth. Its highlands and. plains constitute our most conspicuous, 
habitable, and productive territory ; though minor tracts are otherwise. 
Magomiscoek Hill presents the most elevated and picturesque feature 
of this section, and. as is shown in Mr. Thwing's report, is our 
highest land, being, near Reuel Cleveland's residence, six hundred 
and thirty-seven feet nine inches above tide-water. The whole range, 
called bv the Indians Magomiscoek, affords many admirable views of 
the surrounding countrv. 

The third or easterly section of the town includes all east of Charles 
River. Its northerly extremity, for three-fourths of a mile, is narrow. 
Then for two miles southwardly it has an average breadth of perhaps 
one mile and a half. The residue, adjacent to Bellingham, is an 
obtuse triangle, containing only a few hundred acres. In the 
northerly central part of this section we have the k ' Rocky "Woods." 
long fitly so called. South-easterly of the Rocky Woods lies "the 
Great Meadow," on the skirts of Med way, though, as the town lines 
once ran, anciently bordering on Sherborn territory, later Holliston. 
This •• Great Meadow " was. for a time, a subject of sharp rival 
claims between the early Mendonians and Sherbornians. Tradition 
says that the first settlers found a considerable portion of this meadow 
a muddy beaver-pond ; that they drained off the water by cutting 
a channel through the old beaver-dam ; and that they were soon 
delighted to behold a luxuriant growth of blue-joint and other nutri- 
tious grasses spring up over the whole surface. In the southerly 
central part of this section rises our grand swell of land, called for 
over one hundred and seventy years " Bear Hill." Its highest peak 
is five hundred and thirty-two feet above tide-water. There is con- 
siderable feasible land in the third section, partly smooth plain, and 
partly a strong loam, more or less stony. 

The geological formation of our territory deserves at least a brief 
exposition. Its basis is primitive rock, perhaps the original crust 
of the once molten earth, as its surface first cooled and crystallized 
unimaginable ages ago. This appears to have been granite and 
gneiss, chiefly the latter. Nearly one-third at the north end exhibits 
granite, more or less imperfect in its upper strata, but growing better 
as opened downward. In some quarries it is of great excellence, in 
others inferior, by reason of impure ingredients liable to oxidation. 
See Chapter XIII. 

If we go back to that very remote period when the whole mass of 



GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. 21 

our globe is conjectured to have been in a molten state, surrounded 
to a vast distance by tumultuous gases, we can imagine, at length, a 
time when the surface had cooled and crystallized into a stony crust of 
many feet in thickness. Meanwhile it settled down here and there, 
with various fissures, into the seething fluid underneath, thus causing 
it to ooze up through those fissures so as to form the remarkable veins 
which are seen in many rocks. These veins are often of a different 
hue, and sometimes different substance, from the first cracked crust 
which they cemented together. At later stages of the cooling pro- 
cess, when hydrogen and oxygen gas had been resolved into water, 
we can conceive of its progressive action on the still intensely hot 
shell of the earth. It would disintegrate the outer surface into every 
form of earthy substance, from the finest sand and clay to clefts and 
bowlders of manifold size. And next its increasing quantities would 
cause depressions in the general crust, create lakes, break through 
here and there into the fiery vaults below, be converted into tre- 
mendous steam force, and cause a continuous succession of earth- 
quakes. Hence our mountains, hills, and valleys of every size and 
structure. These uplifted masses, and their intervening hollows, in 
our quarter of the world, are sometimes circular, but generally appear 
in ranges running more or less northerly and southerly. In many 
instances the great earthquake plough seems to have torn its way 
through the rocky strata, and formed sharp ridges and precipitous 
dells. What the explosive steam left undone was gradually accom- 
plished by the subsequent surging floods and grinding glaciers. 
These gradually formed the peculiar features of this and other 
habitable regions. 

Many geologists, too, have reasonably supposed that most of North 
America, long ages ago, was covered by the ocean, and gradually 
rose above its tides. There are numerous indications of this on our 
rocks, highlands, and plains. For the conjecture includes not only 
the flux and reflux of tidal billows, but also the phenomena of ice- 
bergs and glaciers. Thus only can we account for larger and smaller 
bowlders, removed in a southerly direction from their native locations 
very considerable distances, and sometimes left perched on high 
ledges composed of quite different ingredients. We have also much 
earthy drift which affords concurrent evidence for the same conclusion. 
The northern half of our territorial surface is strewed with larger and 
smaller rocks, mostly moved southward from their primary beds. 
Some of these are of decent granite, akin to small sections of under- 
lying material which project in upon us from beyond, as first men- 
tioned. But, with few exceptions, these multitudinous surface 



22 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



bowlders and stones are of coarse grav gneiss, more burdensome 
than useful. What ma}- be called our rock in situ, to the extent of 
four-fifths, is gneiss, of different varieties. Some of it is amorphous, 
and has either no rift, or a very uncertain fracture. .Some of it is 
"well stratified in layers of various thickness, and breaks into decent 
shapes for use. Quartz predominates largely in most of it, with feld- 
spar next in quantity, but smaller portions of mica and hornblende. 
A singular kind of it ranges through from Central North Purchase 
south-westerly, across Ilopedale and Neck Hill, far into Mendon. It 
has an overplus of quartz, is sharp-gritted, brittle, ill-shaped, and 
of refractor}' grain. Some of it turns up in uncouth layers, whilst 
portions seem fire-cracked and of ragged structure. Nearly all of it 
has a reddish hue, as if colored by iron or some other metallic oxides. 
It is not a very desirable kind of rock, yet not of the worst kind. 

Of course the native soil of our territory is chiefly gneissic, like our 
principal rock in situ, and almost all our surface stones ; for it is 
mainly gneiss, more or less decomposed. Some of our ridges and 
hills have been much denuded by the perpetual washing of ages, 
either by the ancient ebb and flow of ocean tides, or later drenching 
rain-falls, or perhaps both. Consequently the primitive ledges and a 
superabundance of various-sized rocky fragments prevent the profit- 
able tillage of considerable portions, whilst the plain lands are largely 
composcd of the drift washed down from these rugged elevations. 
But some of our highlands, though quite stony, have gentler ascents 
and broader summits, with a good depth of productive soil. Gneissic 
soils are generally poor. Ours, however, exhibits a medium average 
between the best and worst of such soils. This is probably due to a 
larger portion of feldspar in the primitive rock of this whole region 
than generally prevails in basic gneiss. But our rocks have not feld- 
spar enough to afford eminent fertility. Our soil is, therefore, rather 
deficient in alumina and potassa. We have but one small deposit of 
clay, as yet discovered and opened. This is on the ancient "Whitney 
farm, in the south-easterly part of North Purchase, adjacent to Deer 
Brook. Perhaps another deposit may yet be found by deep digging 
on our southern border, just east of where Mill River passes into 
Mendon. Possibly other localities of small extent may be discovered. 
But our lack of clay is obvious ; and our primitive potassa is so small 
that its yield from feldspar in the native rock, by natural evolution, 
hardly supplies the demands of annual vegetation. Hence our pasture- 
lands have been running out ever since their early days, and our arable 
fields produce meagre crops without frequent manuring. The soil 
generally, especially where it is not marshy or quite low, needs more 



FLORA AND FAUNA. 23 

alumina and potassa. This is \\\\y wood-ashes show such decidedly 
good effects on all our farms and gardens. We have a comparatively 
thin covering of vegetable loam, excepting in some of our swamps ; 
and this is mostly a sandy or gravelly one, which too quickly parts 
with heat and moisture. More of clay and ashes would improve it in 
these respects. As to our swamps, most of their peat-muck has too 
much earthy matter intermixed with its decayed vegetable substance 
to be very rich. We have only a few peat deposits with carbon 
enough to render them valuable for fuel. Our lowland surfaces are 
most valuable where they are. or their muck is utilized for manurial 
purposes. Of minerals, precious or ordinary, none have been dis- 
covered on our territoiy. except in small particles, — none of practical 
value. Nor have we limestone, or slate, or handsome flagging quar- 
ries, — nothing but the granitic strata before mentioned. We hope 
these, when fully quarried, will prove valuable. The foregoing must 
suffice for the present in respect to our geology. 

VEGETATION AND ANIMALITY. 

If we sro back two hundred and fiftv vears in imagination, before 
any white man's foot had entered our territorial area, it may ration- 
ally be conceived of as mainly covered with a heavy forest, many of 
whose trees were vastly larger and taller than any of their offspring 
that survive. From the nature of the soil, chestnut probably pre- 
dominated on nearly all the uplands, especially in the northerly sec- 
tions. Next in abundance was the oak, chiefly of the coarser varieties, 
such as gray, red, and black oak. but intermingled here and there 
with considerable white oak. Hickory had its place, but could never 
have been largely prevalent. Ash, maple, pine, birch, and several 
smaller kinds of wood, occupied the lower lands in considerable quan- 
tities. Elm, hornbine. hemlock, and spruce were probabby always 
scarce. In the deeper swamps, pine and cedar prevailed. At that 
time our now almost desolate Cedar Swamp — all around its deep 
miry pond, and down stream, nearly to "the falls," the Parkhurst 
mill-seat — was covered with massive cedars, such as would now, if 
standing, fill the beholder with wonder at their magnificence. Even 
sixty years ago, as now remembered by our older citizens, that swamp 
abounded with lofty trees from fifteen to twenty inches in diameter at 
their butt ; and those were far inferior to their elders previously felled. 
So, if we contemplate in imagination the mighty chestnuts, oaks, 
cedars, etc., on which the old Nipmucks gazed, we may say, iu 
scripture phrase, " There were giants in the earth in those days." 

As to the alders, and numerous varieties of shrubbery which we 



24 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

call underbrush, it is presumable that they were plentiful in many 
parts of our territory ; though some historians of aboriginal times 
conjecture, that, in all these regions, the Indians annually set fire to 
and burnt over such tracts as were thereby rendered capable of 
affording grassy food for wandering herds of deer. This is not im- 
probable, but somewhat doubtful. The Indians had undoubtedly a 
great interest in promoting the growth of deer, in view of their own 
food and clothing thence derived. But whether our particular region 
was much adapted to deer-pasturage, except perhaps some of the 
meadow-lands on the rivers, I can hardly decide in the affirmative. 
Anyhow, we may conclude that the present undergrowth and shrub- 
bery which prevail in our woodlands, and spring up so very readily 
in our cleared grounds, high and low, are mostly native to the soil. 
Among this shrubbery the several varieties of whortleberry are 
somewhat conspicuous, and latterly have become considerably valu- 
able. It is not unlikelv that thev, as well as other berrv-bearing 
bushes, afforded the aborigines acceptable sustenance in their season. 
The grapevine is indigenous, and some of its fruitful varieties have 
always afforded pleasant eating. 

In respect to herbage, it is hardly necessary to go into particulars, 
further than the meadow grasses. When the first white settlers took 
possession of land in our general region, the}' found many natural 
meadows, of greater or less extent, which yielded large crops of 
nutritious grasses. As cattle were indispensable to their subsistence, 
comfort, and wealth, the natural meadows were held in high estima- 
tion. They were made a distinct kind of real estate, as were the 
cedar-swamps, and in proprietary allotments were divided up into 
small parcels, so that landholders might have a limited section, and 
each get a share. Hence meadows were greatly coveted in those 
early times. We wonder at this now, because those very lands seem 
to produce comparatively worthless bog-grass, rushes, brakes, and 
briers. At least, this is the case with man}' of them. It was not so 
originally. In early times most of them produced large mowings 
of blue-joint, fowl-meadow, and other valuable fodder. Those kinds of 
grass propagated themselves by seed annually shed, and were fostered 
bv the sediment of much richer overflows than occur in our davs. 
Our ancestors kept cutting off those grasses for hay before the}- had 
gone to seed, clearing up the adjacent woods whose decaying leaves 
formerly furnished much sediment, setting up saw-mills whose dust 
and litter changed the fertility below them, and meantime elsewhere 
removing many cloggy obstructions from the streams which in olden 
times had served to retain manurial substances. These and kindred 



FLORA AND FAUNA. 25 

• 

causes killed out the nutritious grasses, and encouraged the growth of 
our present rubbish. 

But whence the ancient meadows? Some of them were probably 
created by the sagacious and industrious beavers, who. hundreds of 
rears ago, were numerous in our general re<rion. They built their 
palatial dams, and formed considerable ponds. "When their ponds 
filled up with continual wash and sediment from above, or when, 
for some other reason, the animals abandoned their homes, or per- 
haps at length were exterminated by over-hunting for their skins, 
they left those nice grass meadows, so prized by our forefathers. It 
is likewise probable, that, before the days of beaver-dams, there were 
natural ones here and there, up and down our two rivers, where we 
now find narrows. Those for a long time exhibited falls, but at length 
were worn down by the current, and their ponds let off. The result 
would be meadows of larger or smaller extent. It is likely, too, 
that the Indians threw up some imperfect log-dams, where a few 
fallen trees, accumulated boughs, and convenient earth, favored it, in 
order to make fish-ponds, and thus increase their means of subsist- 
ence. All such flowages would leave grass meadows at last. "What- 
ever the probability of these suggestions, one thing is certain. — that 
our early meadows not only yielded much better hay, but were of 
greater extent, than at present. For instance, what our first settlers 
magnified as " the Great Meadow." situated north-easterly from Bear 
Hill, and which drains itself through North Bellingham into Charles 
River, was deemed to be of so much importance that the proprietors 
of Mendon and Sberborn, whose boundaries in 1700 were thought to 
give them conflicting claims to this meadow, had a serious legal con- 
troversy about it, which lasted several years. Yet now, if we look 
for that " Great Meadow." it seems to have dwindled into compara- 
tive insignificance. It mav have been of considerable size in the vear 
1700, perhaps containing, in its whole extent, many hundred acres; 
but it has been so encroached upon by upland border and wood}- 
growths, that, to ordinary observation, a small showing remains. 
Various other causes may have contributed to its apparently dimin- 
ished area. For some such reasons all our natural meadows are 
smaller than the old records seem to represent them. 

THE ABORIGINAL ANIMALS, ETC. 

I need not particularize many of these, whether land, water, or 
amphibious creatures. They were such as generally inhabited the 
inland parts of southern New England. Several species of the more 
formidable and dangerous have been extinct for more than half a 



26 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

centurr, having; been fairlv exterminated. I include in this class the 
bear, wolf, panther, and smaller ferocious beasts. The harmless 
deer and admirable beaver disappeared much earlier. Nearly all 
the ordinary wild animals, such as the fox, woodchuck, rabbit, skunk, 
squirrel, musquash, mink. etc.. have been hunted down to a compara- 
tively thin remnant. They now scarcely hold their own from year to 
year. The larger birds of prey are rarely seen. The eagle, perhaps, 
never had a home on our humble hills, and was only a transient visitor 
in wilderness times. The great owl is nearly or quite extinct. The 
cranes and larger fish-eating birds only come and go on infrequent 
occasions. Wild geese, ducks, and other birds of passage, which 
in olden times are said to have rested themselves often in our ponds 
and meadows, now ordinarily hold on their flight to safer regions. 
Hawks, crows, partridges, and numerous kinds of smaller birds, are 
still among us. some of them rather sparsely, and others more 
plentifully, but none of them in great abundance. 

Of serpents we have few. They have been sedulously exterminated 
from generation to generation. Tradition tells that in earl}' times 
there were many large black snakes, — some of them eight to ten 
feet long. Now their descendants are comparatively few and small. 
Rattlesnakes once abounded, especially in the vicinity of the Cedar 
Swamp, east and north of Pine-Grove Cemetery, in Rocky Woods, 
in the ledges towards Hopkinton, and all up and down Deer Brook. 
In that neighborhood the early settlers made it their business to hunt 
them vigorously in the months of May and early June. About that 
season they would crawl out of their winter dens to sun and limber 
their torpid bodies for summer dispersion in all directions. Many 
scores of them are said to have been drawn out with snake-hooks, and 
killed, by expert hunters, in a single day, and large numbers in the 
course of a few favorable weeks. Yet. for two or three generations, 
they continued to be a terror, and especially in haying-time, when they 
haunted the meadows ami water-brinks in quest of food and drink. 
It was then that the mowers and haymakers never felt safe without 
leather moccasins, reaching almost to their thighs, and similar pro- 
tectees for their hands and arms, being liable at any moment to stir 
up one of these venomous reptiles. Sometimes the}' quartered about 
their barns, wood-piles, and even their houses, — crawling in at the 
open doors. The old people tell startling stories of rattlesnake 
adventures, either of their own experience or that of their progeni- 
tors. But the rattlesnake is now almost extinct within our borders, 
even in its old favorite haunts. When I first came to reside in 
Milford, in 182-1, I was told that rattlesnakes were still to be found 



FLORA AND FAUNA. 27 

not far from what was called the Wild Cat neighborhood. I was 
somewhat astonished, and, as I had never seen one, had a strong 
curiosity to find a specimen. My friend Carmel Cheney said if I 
would go on a hunt with him he was sure we might kill some. So, 
toward the end of May. he took me along with himself and one or 
two others to their old dens in Rocky Woods, east of the now 
beautiful Pine-Grove Cemetery. .There we succeeded in finding and 
despatching one. He then took us to a known resort of these reptiles, 
west of Deer Brook, and considerably north of the ancient Day place, 
— though perhaps on the farm. — to a thinly-wooded, ledgy hill, 
sloping southward. There we killed four or five more, and returned 
satisfied. Now and then a wanderer has been killed, from time to 
time, since. Latterly I have heard of few. We have some hateful 
water-snakes, and considerable numbers of the garter and smaller 
harmless kinds. Of tortoises, lizards, frogs, toads, etc., we have 
the several varieties common in this general region. 

Of fish, the principal kinds sought after — i.e., natives of our 
waters — are the black sucker, pickerel, pout, perch, and eel. These 
have not multiplied in proportion to consumption, but still are of some 
importance. 

The precious trout, I think, never abounded in our waters, and 
now is scarcely found at all. Our inferior and smaller kinds of fish 
are numerous enough, but of little account unless as bait for the 
larger species. 

It is obvious that the contrast must be great between the present 
meagre show of wild-animal life, on our nineteen square miles, and 
that which presented itself to the Nipmucks two centuries and more 
ago. Then the dense and towering forest teemed with ferocious 
bears, wolves, panthers, and venomous reptiles, as well as the more 
harmless multitude ; and then fish and fowl abounded luxuriantly in 
their hisrhest excellence. Let us indulge a momentarv glance at the 
scenes of the aboriginal wilderness, only to rejoice the more grate- 
fully that we live amid the innumerable blessings of a hard-earned 
civilization. The old savage grandeur and wealth of vegetable and 
animal life presents but a beggarly exhibition, compared with the 
fruits of cultivation and our manifold domestic animal wealth. 

INDIAN RELICS. 

Whether the Indians ever occupied our territory, except as roving 
bands for hunting and fishing purposes, is doubtful. Probably not. 
No traces of continuous settlement have come to nry knowledge ; 
though the first John Hero, who settled in the north-east corner, 



28 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

formerly within the limits of Holliston, close upon Hopkinton, sus- 
pected, as his descendants say, that on his farm there had some 
time been at least a burial-place. Many arrow-heads, and perhaps a 
few rude implements of domestic use, were ploughed up there ; but 
no thorough research deeper into the ground was ever made. Arrow- 
heads, either whole or in pieces, and other unimportant relies, have 
been found, from time to time, in all parts of our vicinage. If these 
had been duly preserved, doubtless a very interesting collection might 
now be shown ; though I du not recollect ever having heard of anv 
strikingly remarkable implement or utensil brought to light. It is 
not unlikely that the natives may have had planting-grounds for 
Indian corn, in small parcels, on our plains ; but even this is more 
a matter of conjecture than strong probability. As to travelled ways 
or paths, it seems, from the first Indian deed, that they had at least 
one of some distinction close on our southern border, running west- 
wardly from their eastern possessions into, and perhaps through. 
Mention. It is possible they had a trail from Xatick through our 
centre. Of this, however, I have found no sufficient indication. It 
is said that they knew all the fords and best crossing-places of our 
two rivers, and pointed them out to the first settlers. Of course, 
they had several minor trails here and there, along which the}- were 
accustomed to travel ; but those paths were probably indistinct, and 
soon obliterated when abandoned. 

How late, after King Philip's War (1G76). any of the Xipmucks 
sojourned on our territory, is somewhat uncertain. They held re- 
served rights here, as elsewhere in our general neighborhood, to hunt, 
fish, and gather materials for their peculiar manufactures. Some- 
thing like this was stipulated in most of the ancient deeds ; and these 
rights were fully accorded to them, at least in respect to all common 
lands and waters. But they were so destroyed and thinned off by 
Philip's War, that only small bands, single families, and straggling 
individuals ever afterward made their appearance within our borders. 
Rev. Abner Morse, in his interesting history of Sherborn and Hollis- 
ton, published in 1856, says. p. 266, "A band of them resided in the 
unimproved part of Medway in lG'JS, and probably later." A por- 
tion of this band seem to have frequented Bear Hill ; and our elderly 
people have a tradition of one or two murders committed between 
thein and the whites in that vicinity, perhaps a few years earlier or 
later than 1700. Of this tradition I may speak more definitely in 
another place. I conclude that very few Indians have trod our soil 
since that period, and such only as temporary sojourners or mere 
wanderers. 



INDIAN NAMES AND RELICS. 29 

INDIAN NAMES. 

Of these, only two survive, and they have become almost obsolete. 
I should never have come to the knowledge of them but by search of 
the old land records. One of these is Maspenock, the aboriginal 
name of North Pond, of which I have said a mere fraction is properly 
ours. This name appears in the deed of North Purchase, as pre- 
sented in Chapter I. It would almost seem that our Mill River, issu- 
ing from Maspenock Pond, must have been called by the Indians 
Maspenock River ; but, as yet, I have found no proof of it. I should 
be glad to do so, as I take a liking to the name. Having some curi- 
osity to ascertain its original signification, I carefully examined the 
Indian vocabularies, reprinted from ancient editions for preservation. 
One of these was made by Roger Williams, with reference to the 
language of the Narrasjansetts and kindred tribes ; the other bv 
Josiah Cotton, chiefly with reference to the Niprauck language, into 
which the great Indian apostle, Eliot, translated the Bible. If I have 
interpreted the Indian etymology correctly, Maspenock literally means 
choice fishing -place, or excellent fish-pond: from nainas, fish, or re- 
lating to fish ; pepenam, to choose ; and ohke (pronounced gutturally, 
ooke, avg. auke, ock. uck, etc.), which signifies earth, land, ground, 
place, or some substantial object belonging to the earth. Thus I 
deduce Maspenock, choice or excellent fishing-place. 

The other name is that of the highland which extends southwardly 
from the Cleveland place, through the Scammell place, east of Hope- 
dale, to the new highway called Adin Street, etc. The Indians 
named this highland Magomiscock. As nearly as I can deduce its 
meaning from the lingual roots, it may be rendered, ground afford- 
ing a grand show, or prospective view. Its components appear to 
come from, or be, magko, to afford, give, or grant; misse, swollen, 
large, showy, grand, etc. ; and ohke, earth, ground, or place: liter- 
ally, a high swell of land affording a grand prospect of the surround- 
ing country. And such it really is. The Rev. Peter Whitney, in his 
History of Worcester County. 1793, says, " From the highest places 
there is a large and variegated prospect. From these heights may be 
seen the Wachusett and Monad nock Mountains, and also the hill 
south of Boston" (Milton Blue Hill). Whoever will visit these 
easily accessible heights, and survey the vast landscapes, can hardly 
fail thenceforth to admire the aboriginal name, Magomiscock. The 
old records spell this name rather barbarously in half a dozen differ- 
ent ways, but I believe I have given its best orthography. 

Whether the name of our prominent eminence, called Bear Hill, is 
of Indian or English origin, is uncertain. It obviously indicates a 



30 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

haunt for bears in olden times. Though I have found nothing in the 
records relating to the derivation of the name, it seems probable to 
me that it originated with the Indians. The} - called the bear, in 
their language, moshq. Therefore, if the}' gave name to this hill, it 
would be Moshcock. This would not be a bad exchange to make, 
if our people so choose. "What other Indian names might be framed 
or conjectured, as applicable to natural objects within our territorial 
limits. I will not trouble myself to surmise. 

Having been misled by the gazetteers to assume that Wapowage 
was the Indian name of our township. I took considerable pains to 
ascertain its signification. In doing so, I at length got' the infor- 
mation stated in Chapter I., that it belonged to Milford, Conn. So 
that matter ended. I have since directed my attention to the mean- 
ing of Nipmuck, alias Nipmook, etc. I find that the Narragansett 
language, and perhaps, with some variation, that of the Niprnucks, 
gives nips for ponds. I infer that it may denote not only ponds, 
but other collections of water, including moving streams. Hence the 
Nipmuck name would signify a country abounding with ponds and 
streams of water. — a remarkably well-watered country or land.' This 
agrees aptly with the geographical facts. Hence, also, the name 
would fitly apply to the inhabitants, or tribe of people, dwelling on 
such general territory. The Blackstone River was originally called 
the Nipmuck River, because it arose in and flowed through the Nip- 
muck country. So the Nipmuck Pond in Mendon got its name from 
its aboriginal owners, who long held it in high estimation. 

Here I must close this chapter. That it will be as interesting to 
general readers as the collection and arrangement of its particulars 
have been to me. perhaps is more than I ought to expect. I have 
taken much pains to render it valuable to posterity, and can only 
hope that it will in some way repay its cost. At least, I seem to 
myself to have fairly prepared the way for a narration of the facts 
next in order. 



RULES OF DIVISION. 31 



CHAPTER III. 

EARLIEST LAYINGS-OUT OF LAND AND SETTLEMENTS. 

Rules of Allotment and Division. — How Quinshipaug Plantation was originally gov- 
erned.— Rules for Division of Lands to the Proprietors explained.— House- 
Lots of Various Sizes at the Town-Seat, and their Belongings, etc. 

The First Layinr/s-out on our Territory. — The Rawson Farm, so called, set off, 1719, 
to Bellingham. — Benjamin Albee's One-Acre Mill-Lot. — John Sprague and his 
Son William, our Earliest Settlers. — Layings-out, 1670. — Several Mendon 
Proprietors, always resident at the Town-Seat, have Lands laid out here. — 
Names, Localities, and Dates specified. 

Early Settlers down to 1710. — Concerning Capt. Seth Chapin and his Settlement 
in South Hopedale. — Elder John Jones and his Settlement in the "Dale," 
contemporaneously with Capt. Seth Chapin. — Ebenezer and Joseph Sumner's 
Settlement at the Dexter Walker Place. — William Cheney's Settlement on 
the Highland now owned by Charles F. Chapin, etc. — Benjamin Wheaton's 
Settlement easterly of the Jones Place. — Settlements of the Haywards in 
Howardtown Neighborhood. — Probable but not certain Settlements, during 
this Decade, of Thomas White, sen., John Green, Obadiah Wheelock, Beujamin 
Alby's Descendauts, Jonathan Thayer, John Rockwood. and Others. — Reflec- 
tions on the State of Things, and Circumstances of our First Settlers. 

RULES OF ALLOTMENT AND DIVISION. 

QUINSHIPAUG PLANTATION, afterwards Mendon, was gov- 
erned bj' a committee, or board of commissioners, appointed 
b\- the General Court for that purpose. This committee was to con- 
sist of not less than three nor more than five men. For their names 
and powers see Chapter I. That committee agreed on certain arti- 
cles, according to which the affairs of the Plantation should be gov- 
erned. See those articles, as copied in full in Chapter I. The first 
article prescribes as follows: "1. That the Divisions of land there 
shall be by the ensuing Rules ; that to one hundred pounds Estate be 
granted one hundred and fifty acres of land, viz. : Thirt}- acres to 
the House Lot, and Ten acres of Meadow and Five acres of swampy 
or low land, being capable of being made Meadow, and more, one 
hundred and fifty acres for the Great Lot ; and according to this 
proportion for all Estates be they more or less ; and this to be the 
Rule for the Division of all the lands of the Plantation that shall be 
divided before the place, or the people there, shall be allowed to be a 
Township," etc. This article is very obscure in its phraseology. 
Either some words in the original document were lost in transcribing 



32 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

it, or the awkwardness of the draughtsman left it undesignedly am- 
biguous and equivocal. I have assured myself that my copyist has 
accurately followed the existing record. As it stands, quite different 
constructions may honestly, and perhaps plausibly, be put on some of 
its language. "Without being entirely certain I am correct. I will 
attempt to define its meaning. It obviously presupposes a company 
of proprietors about to take possession of a newly-acquired wilder- 
ness tract of land (the eight-miles-square grant), for the purpose of 
settling thereon ; also, that they contemplated commencing with the 
settlement of a town-seat, or central village-site. This required a 
common fund to purchase the wild land, and meet the various ex- 
penses incident to incipient settlement. Afterwards, responsible 
assessable estates would be equally requisite, in order to support the 
voting community in bearing its societarv burdens. Of course, such 
a movement must start with individual subscriptions to the 'primary 
fund, or some sort of pledges of estate to be invested in the pro- 
posed Plantation. Just how the projectors arranged the details of 
proprietary subscription, or pledge, I have not learned. But we 
know that after purchase, and before settlement, the proprietors 
owned the whole eight miles square, as a company, in common. 

Next, how was it to be divided among the proprietors wishing to 
settle at and near the town-seat? The prescribed rule sets forth that 
the proprietary settlers should have a certain quantity of land set off 
to their respective individual possession, and that this amount of land 
should be, in proportion to their several estates, invested in the Plan- 
tation, or in some way pledged to its maintenance; whether as cash 
paid in. or to be paid in. or some equivalent, does not matter. What 
was this proportional quantity of land? Some have construed the 
above article to mean three hundred acres to £100 investment; 
others, one hundred and fifty acres to £100. On the whole, I judge 
that the latter must have been meant, taking into consideration the 
phraseology of the prescription, and the subsequent practical applica- 
tion given to it. I do not wish to be over positive of this, but must 
for myself interpret the language accordingly. The man, then, who 
invested £100 in the Plantation, would be entitled to a town-seat 
house-lot of thirty acres, ten acres of open natural meadow, and 
five acres of swampy lowland capable of being made meadow. These 
meadow-lands would have to be found where nature afforded them, 
and. generally, at a greater or less distance from the house-lot. As 
to the first considerable batch of house-lots, the}' were assigned by 
lot. so as to avoid all contention for the more eligible. "Well, now 
our £100 proprietor has but forty-five acres of his one hundred and 



RULE OF ALLOTMENTS. 33 

fifty ; what next? Here we come to the chief puzzle. The words of 
the rule, as it stands, are, Ep 3 "and more, one hundred and fifty 
acres for the Great Lot." I assume that the draughtsman must have 
meant, £^ and enough more to make up one hundred and fifty acres, 
to be called the Great Lot. Thus he would get his full claim. 
Otherwise, the words "and more" would be utterly indefinite, and 
the ••one hundred and fifty acres for the Great Lot" would be 
additional to the indefinite quantity. But, as nearly as I can under- 
stand subsequent proceedings, one hundred and fifty acres fulfilled 
the whole claim. 

Now, having the ratio of land to estate. — i.e.. one hundred and fifty 
acres to every £100 estate. — we see that other-sized estates would 
have their proper proportion of land on the same scale. Accord- 
ingly, we find by the record that there were, at a certain early period, 
forty-two house-lots laid out ; that thirteen of these were forty-acre 
lots ; four, thirty-five-acre lots ; four, thirty-acre lots ; seventeen, 
twenty-acre lots ; and four, ten-acre lots ; and that other lands were 
laid out to the house-lot owners, or to their heirs and assigns, in due 
quantity. The proprietor whose invested estate gave him a forty- 
acre house-lot would be entitled to twelve of open meadow, and 
seven of swampy land, or thereabouts, and. in all, to two hundred 
acres. The proprietor having a twenty-acre house-lot would be 
entitled to seven of open meadow, three of swamp, or thereabouts, 
and, in all, to one hundred acres. So all others in proportion. Of 
course, persons able and so disposed could buy proprietary rights, or 
shares, larger or smaller, and share in subsequent divisions accord- 
inglv. 

How nearly the proprietors, as such, adhered to the old rule of the 
committee, after the incorporation of the Plantation into a town, in 
16G7, I have not critically informed myself. They were then no 
longer bound by it, and varied from it to suit circumstances. They 
early adopted the usage of assigning to house-lot owners what the}- 
called "doublings;" i.e., lots, mostly adjoining the house-lots, of 
equal size. Thus the proprietor of a forty-acre house-lot would have 
another forty-acre lot annexed to him ; the thirty-acre house-lot 
holder, another thirty ; and so down to the ten-acre man. But if it 
so happened that any proprietor, under any division of lands, failed 
to take up the amount due to him, his rights remained valid, and 
went down to his heirs or assigns, to be claimed at their discretion. 
It would appear from the records, that, although the proprietors were 
sometimes blended in action with the townsmen in allotting and 
voting common lands, yet the former still continued to be a distinct 



34 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

body, with distinct franchises and distinct books, so long as there 
remained any common lands to dispose of. First and last, they 
made eleven divisions of land. It is not easy to specify and explain 
the peculiarities of these eleven divisions in their precise order. It 
is understood that they called their division of house-lots their first. 
Thenceforth they voted successive divisions, relating to " Meadows," 
"Doublings," "Great Lots." etc. These they numbered second, 
third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, etc., to the eleventh. Thus every 
parcel of land laid out is specified on their records as belonging to 
such or such a man's numerical division. It does not seem to be of 
much historical consequence to define the peculiarities of these several 
divisions. I therefore waive it. My readers cannot fail to under- 
stand that all our now Milford territory, in its wilderness state, was 
held primarily by the old Mendon proprietors as their common land. 
The}- will also clearly understand, from the foregoing exposition, 
under what rules and in what general way our lands got into the 
possession of their first individual owners. 

THE FIRST LAYINGS-OUT ON OUR TERRITORY. 

Perhaps this is the proper place to state, that previous to the incor- 
poration of Bellingham, in 1710. the north-westerly portion belonged 
to Mendon. This section of land adjoined what is now Milford on 
the south-east. It was designated "The Farm," and after subdivis- 
ion "The Farms." Its early inhabitants were governed by Mendon 
municipal authorities, — just as were ours at that period. It got its 
designation, "The Farm," I presume, from the fact that the whole, 
or certainly a large part of it, belonged, by grant of General Court, 
to Hon. Edward Rawson, Secretary of the Province of Massachusetts, 
lie was the father of Rev. Grindall Rawson, second settled pastor of 
Mendon. Secretary Rawson served the Province many years on what 
was deemed small compensation. To make up the lack the General 
Court made him several grants of land, first and last, some or all of 
which were called Farms. Among these grants was one of two thou- 
sand acres, to be located adjacent to Mendon, and south-westerly of 
Sherborn. Rawson extinguished the Indian title to this land by a 
deed from one or more of the chiefs during the year 1685. Sherborn, 
under its first grant, claimed jurisdiction over this Rawson Farm and 
certain contiguous lands. This ma} - have given rise to the contro- 
versy with Mendon about the "Great Meadow," and perhaps some 
other parcels of meadow, to which I referred in Chapter II. But the 
General Court terminated all controversy by declaring Sherborn terri- 
tory to be legitimately restricted within narrower limits in the disputed 



FIRST LAYINGS-OUT. 35 

quarter. Whether* Rawson's grant, when located and defined, ran 
over our present boundaiy in the south-east somewhat, as has been 
supposed, I am not accurately informed. Be this as it may, "The 
Farm" was assigned to, and remained under the jurisdiction of, 
Mendon, until set off to Bellingham, in 1719. And from the recorded 
layings-out of land east of Charles, alias " Second Bridge," River, in 
that neighborhood, I doubt if the Rawson grant crossed the old 
Mendon line westward at all. 

The very oldest parcel of land on our territory assigned to indi- 
vidual possession was one acre for a corn-mill seat. This was at the 
present Lewis B. Gaskill place, aforetime known as the Alvin Allen 
place. There, on Mill River, just north of the highway, where the 
ancient dam still remains, the old Committee of Quinshipaug Planta- 
tion gave Benjamin Albv (Albee) a one-acre mill-lot or seat. They 
did so in a written contract, made between him and themselves at 
Roxbury in the }'ear 1664 ; he binding himself, heirs, and assigns, to 
erect and maintain a corn-mill thereon for the accommodation of the 
Plantation settlers. For at that time there was no corn-mill nearer 
than Medfield, and the inhabitants suffered very great inconvenience 
in that respect. Benjamin Albee, originahy of Braintree, appears to 
have been a man of more than ordinary genius and enterprise. He 
was a trusted land-surveyor, had been conspicuous at Medfield, as- 
sisted the Sherborn people to start their Plantation, and was now 
devoted to the success of Quinshipaug. Under this contract with the 
committee, it is probable that he built his dam, and set up the corn- 
mill, as soon as he conveniently could. But it must not be under- 
stood that he took up his house-lot on the same side of the road. He 
did that on the south side, near the present residence of Willis Gould. 
The agreement between the committee and Albee was not entered 
on the Mendon records till Sept. 10, 1672. At that date his acre 
mill-lot was formally laid out ; and a bounty grant of fifty acres more 
was laid out to him east of the river, south of the highwa} - , as his 
encouragement to maintain the corn-mill. He never resided within 
our limits, and must not be accounted our earliest settler. But his 
mill-seat and mill were the first marks of civilization on our territory. 
His dwelling-house and mill were destroyed with the original Mendon 
Village, in King Philip's War. He was one of the fugitives from 
that calamity, and never returned to reside here. (See Part II. of 
this work : my Genealogical Register of the Albees.) 

The next earliest laying-out of land within our borders was made 
to John Sprague, in 1670. It was a twenty-acre house-lot which he 
bought of John Bartlett, one of the original proprietors, and was 



36 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

situated north-westerly of Albee's mill-lot, in the aiost south-westerly 
corner of our territory. It included what, a few years ago, was called 
the Wing Keller place, situated on the highway (at one time, turn- 
pike) from Mendon town over Neck Hill to South Milford, etc. 
There was already a way there, from the town to Albee's corn-mill, 
when this twenty-acre lot was laid out ; and it was bounded " easterly 
by a line of marked trees, a little distant from the mill-pond, north- 
erly by marked trees on Common, westerly on Common in part and 
partly upon a way leading from the Town to the mill, and southerly 
upon Common." There John Sprague built the first dwelling-house 
in what is now Milford, perhaps on the very spot where the existing 
one stands, but certainly thereabouts. There he lived and died, also 
his son "William after him. and probably still later descendants. 
Very likely his first rude domicile was burnt by Philip's Indians. 
This, however, is not certain, as possibly he may not have built till 
after the return of the fugitives. Anyhow, there was built and inhab- 
ited our first dwelling-house. 

Several of the Mendon proprietors, whose homes were in the town 
for life, anticipated the prospective settlement of our lands, and made 
haste to possess themselves of what they deemed eligible tracts, either 
for profitable sale to expected immigrants, or to provide for their own 
multiplying posterity. Among these were George Aldrich, his son 
Jacob, John Jepson. Simon Peck, John Harbor, James Lovett, Josiah 
Chapin, and others. John Sprague and his son William led the way, 
by pushing their possessions across Mill River. The feasible soil 
just east of that river was coveted. It was called tw Mill Plain," and 
all up and down stream covered a considerable area. Nor was the 
land eastward of it. towards il Second Bridge" River (Charles), less 
tempting ; for it had much smooth surface, with considerable meadow, 
then thought extremely desirable. There, too, was another plain bor- 
dering on ''Second Bridge" River, or approaching it. This they 
called the upper, or " Second Plain," as it lay higher up and north- 
easterly of " Mill Plain." The two Spragues had lands laid off to 
them, in several parcels, just east of the Mill Plain, perhaps not far 
from the Parkman place. This was in 1G72 and the ensuing years. 
About the same time George Aldrich procured a grant from the town, 
of twenty-five acres on "Mill Plain," just north of Medfield road. 
In 1686 John Harbor had a quantity laid out to him a little east of 
Mill River ; precisely where, I have not ascertained. Likewise Simon 
Peck and John Jepson secured several parcels on Mill Plain before 
1690. James Lovett made himself master, in 1690, of one hundred 
and forty acres just east of "Second Bridge" River, south of the 



EARLIEST SETTLERS. 37 

North Cedar Swamp — the plain-land now largely covered with build- 
ings — as far sonth as the Parkhurst mill-seat. And not much later 
he acquired another large tract, opposite to the fore-mentioned, on 
the west side of the river, commanding "The Falls," as the mill- 
privilege in its natural state was then called. This was then sur- 
rounded by common, and reservation was made for the way after- 
wards known as the " Sherborn road." Samuel Hay ward, a few 
years later, took up ample quantities for his numerous descendants, 
including the whole neighborhood of what afterwards acquired the 
name of l ' Howardtown." It will be understood that nearly all these 
layings-out were made to non-residents, mostly dwelling in or near 
the old town-seat of Mendon. None of them were actual settlers 
within our limits, excepting John and William Sprague. It is not 
unlikely, though uncertain, that Matthias Purler, successor to Benja- 
min Albee, in running the corn-mill, may have erected some sort of 
a dwelling near his mill. Besides these, it is improbable that there 
were any actual settlers on our territory much previous to the year 
170U. It is barely possible there ma}- have been one or two others. 

EARLY SETTLERS DOWN TO 1710. 

We have now reached a period at which settlements began to 
multiply vigorously within our lines. I will commence with Capt. 
Seth Chapin. He was the fifth son of Josiah Chapin, Esq., one of 
the original Plantationists, who removed to Mendon from Braintree 
between 1G80 and 1G82, became a distinguished proprietor and 
citizen there, was an eminent land-surveyor, held many official trusts, 
and dwelt on what has been known as the Doggett place, where he 
died in 1726, at the venerable age of ninety-two years. Josiah 
Chapin, Esq., had ample ability and opportunity to become a large 
landholder. He took up much wild land in various parts of Mendon, 
and considerable parcels in what is now Milford, especially east of 
Neck Hill, on Mill River, in what may be called South Hopedale, 
and its vicinity. His son, Capt. Seth Chapin, born in Braintree, 
Aug. 4, 1668, followed his father to Mendon. and settled on these 
South Hopedale lands. He married, for his first wife, Mary Read, 
May 23, 1689. She lived only a few months. For his second wife 
he married Bethiah Thurston, March 25, 1691, and reared up a large 
family of children, — some fourteen. (See Part II., Genealogical 
Register, — the Chapins.) The oldest recorded laying-out of land 
to him bears date May 2G. 1700. But it will be seen, by the following 
phraseology of the record, that he was already located there : — 



38 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 



1 Forty-five acres of [his father's] 4th division laid out to Seth Chapin, 
and in possession of said Chapin, encompassing the said Chapin's Home- 
stead and Meadow upon the Mill River, bounded Westerly upon the west 
side of the River upon Common with a various line down stream from James 
Lovett's land to Thomas White's land: South with Thomas White's land, 
crossing the River, thence turning Westerly with said White's land to the 
River, thence running with the River to a Black oak tree marked near the 
old path; then turning Easterly, and bounding Easterly upon a Rocky Hill 
with a various line to the North corner; thence Westerly home to Ten acres 
of land laid out to, and in possession of, John Jones, home to Ensign Lovett's 
Swamp." 

It is easy to see that these lands were afterwards included in the 
Peter Cook farm, previously owned by Col. Samuel Nelson, and, in 
185G, by the Hopedale Community. I thought it uecessary to pro- 
cure copies of nearly all the old layings-out on our territory ; but I 
do not propose to inflict their verbal details on my readers, except in 
a few seemingly important cases. I deemed the foregoing one of this 
kind. Where did Capt. Seth build his house? I am not absolutely 
certain. It must have stood on one of two known, but now obliterated, 
sites. One of these belongs to a smooth, gentle swell of land, a 
little north-east of the old Post Lane bridge, below which is the noted 
" Swimming Hole," sometimes so called. On the south side of that 
swell, perhaps six to ten rods north-eastwardly of the bridge, there 
once stood a humble dwelling-house. The late Newell Nelson, Esq., 
informed me that he remembered it as the asserted dwelling of his 
great-grandfather, Elder Nathaniel Nelson, whose wife was Deborah, 
a daughter of Capt. Seth Chapin. The other site sustained the home 
of Seth Chapin. jun., a brother of Deborah (Chapin) Nelson. It 
crowned a handsome elevation somewhere about forty rods south of 
our Hopedale Corner, on the left-hand side of Hopedale Street. It 
is possible, but not probable, that Capt. Seth occupied that dwelling- 
place before his son. The other agrees altogether better with the 
description given in the first layings-out, &T " Encompassing the 
said Chapin's Homestead and Meadow upon the Mill River," etc. 
So I can scarcel} - doubt that his house stood on the swell north-east 
of the bridge, on the north side of the old Post Lane road. There he 
probably dwelt for several years, adding land to land in all directions. 
At length, in 1715, he sold his homestead to Josiah Wood, returned 
to Mendon town, and probably resided on the paternal homestead, 
where he died, in April, 174G, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. 
He left here his oldest son, Seth, jun., who became a rich man in 
land and other wealth of his time ; also his son John, who, with less 
property, won honorable distinction, both in secular and ecclesiastical 



EARLIEST SETTLERS. 39 

affairs ; also his daughter Deborah and her husband, Nathaniel Nelson, 
who filled a conspicuous sphere through a long life ; and perhaps 
others of his numerous' children. But Seth, jun., died before his 
father, in the midst of worldly prosperity, in 1737, being scarcely 
fortv-five rears of age. 

ft/ V O 

Elder John Joues was the contemporary and near neighbor of 
Capt. Seth Chapin. It may have been noticed in Capt. Seth's 
oldest recorded laying-out, that Johu Jones was then — Ma}' 26, 
1700 — in possession of "Ten acres of land laid out to him," 
bounding Chapin, in part, on the north. This makes him, probably, 
contemporary with Chapin, as a landholder and settler in the % ' Dale," 
once so called. "Who was Elder John Jones? I have ascertained 
that he was a native of Hull (first called Nantasket), near Boston, the 
fifth son of Abraham Jones, who was probably the son of Thomas 
Jones, an early emigrant from England. (See my Genealogical 
Register, — name Jones.) He seems to have been attracted to 
Mendon at the age of twenty-two or twenty-three years, and to 
have acquired taxable estate there, so as to be assessed for the 
support of Rev. Grindall Rawson, in the rate-bills for the year 
ending Oct. 25, 1691. From that time his name was omitted in the 
ministerial rate-bills till the vear 1703. Where he was during those 
ten or twelve years, or why exempt from taxation, is somewhat 
uncertain. In an important vote of the town, passed March 1, 
1703, granting him certain privileges, he is styled "John Jones of 
Hull." This, in connection with his having been taxed in 1691, and 
being possessed of ten acres in the " Dale." May, 1700, leads me to 
infer that his family may have had their principal home in Hull 
during man}- of those years ; that he transiently resided in Mendon, 
going frequently back and forth ; and that the townsmen, desiring to 
encourage his permanent settlement among them, exempted such im- 
mature estate as he had within their limits from taxation. Howbeit, 
he ripened into a substantial inhabitant. He was evidently an enter- 
prising and executive man, as well as an eminently pious and devoted 
church-member. Tradition says, that, in clearing up his first acres, he 
came down from Mendon hill, where he had his domicile, or lodgings, 
through the woods, generally single-handed, with only a dog for 
companionship, and plied his axe vigorously all day in felling the 
lusty primitive trees that studded the soil. He brought with him for 
his dinner plenty of Indian bannock, and a bottle of milk. At noon 
he spread out before him his wholesome but frugal repast, either on a 
suitable rock or one of his newly-cut broad stumps, yet never tasted 
it till first he had knelt and solemnly invoked the divine blessing. 



40 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Breakfast and supper he took at home, — prudently quitting work in 
time to return by daylight, so as to avoid the wolves and other beasts 
of prey that then made the night hideous. 

When his clearing was sufficiently advanced, he built him a strong 
log barrack, and began to stay over night on the premises. The late 
venerable Jared Rawson told me that when he worked for Elder 
John's great-grandsons, during the years 1805-6-7, he and his 
fellow-workmen dug up the ancient hearth-stones and embers of 
that barrack. The spot was close by the river, only three or four 
rods westerly of the small house lately standing on the west side of 
Water Street, Hopedale. at its junction with Union. It is rather 
likely that this log barrack was already up in the spring of 1700, if 
not earlier. The elder prospered. He soon built the first framed 
dwelling-house in these parts, east of Neck Hill. Meantime he had 
possessed himself of the valuable house-lot at the town-seat, origi- 
nally assigned to a Mrs. Tapping of Boston, and began to have 
various-sized tracts of land laid out to him on Mill River. Having 
located his family in "the Dale," and provided himself with a 
small stock of cattle. — fed at first chiefly with hay cut on 
"Beaver Meadow," a little way up the river. — his wealth rapidly 
increased, especially in lands. The proprietary records show that, 
year after year, through his long life, he was having parcels, here 
and there, laid out to him. Most of these were near his home- 
stead, but some of them miles distant in different directions, — near 
the "Great Meadow," the "North Cedar Swamp," towards the 
Lowell Fales place, now so called, in the " North Purchase," and even 
in " Bungay." He brought with him from Hull three daughters and 
two sons, and had one daughter and two sons born in the "Dale." 
His sons — John, juu., Nathaniel, Abraham, and Joseph — became 
prominent citizens. He lived to see incipient Milford a thriving 
Precinct, and died in comparative affluence, March 28, 1753, in his 
eighty-third year. His wife Sarah preceded him about three }'ears. 

Next in order, perhaps Ebenezer and Joseph Sumner ma}' be 
named. The}- were sons of George Sumner. (See my Genealogical 
Register.) It is thought George Sumner resided a while at the town- 
seat of Mendon, but this is not certain. We know, however, that he 
was a house-lot owner there, and taxed to support Pastor Rawson, 
1685, and the ensuing several years. But he may have been taxed as 
a non-resident land-owner. Anyhow, his principal, if not his only, 
home was in Milton, where he was dea. of the ch., and died Dec. 
11, 1715, aged eight}--one yrs. He had seven sons. Ebenezer 
was the fourth of these, b. Dec. 9, 1673 ; and Joseph was the fifth, 



EARLIEST SETTLERS. 41 

b. Aug. 26, 1677. Their father made over to these two sons, in 
some way, all his proprietary rights in Mendon. There they took up 
their abode about, or soon after, the year 1700. Th^y seem to have 
owned property for some years in close copartnership. Ebenezer 
married Abigail, dr. of James Lovett. one of the rich Mendon pro- 
prietors, Jan. 18. 1706. Joseph married Sarah Lovett, sister to 
Ebenezcr's wf. (the date not recorded), probably about the same 
time, as their oldest children were within a yr. or two of the 
same age. But before their marriage — May 15, 1702 — the}- had 
the " Great Lot " belonging to their twenty-acre house-lot, derived 
from their father at the town-seat, laid out to them in the immediate 
vicinity of what has been called in our times the Dexter Walker 
place, — then all Common land. This "Great Lot" contained 
(according to Rule), one hundred and twenty acres. And as this 
laying-out was probably the oldest in that direction towards what 
became the Precinct-seat fort}' years later, perhaps I shall be excused 
for giving the original description : -'Laid out on the Southeast end 
of Magomiscock Hill; the South line being 164 rods, bounded by 
Common ; the Westerly line 120 rods, bounded on Common ; the 
northerly line 120 rods, bounded on Common ; the easterly line 
120 rods on Common, then turning Southerly 94 rods, then turning 
Easterly 44 rods, then turning Southerly 26 rods, being the South- 
east corner ; bounded on every side by Common : laid out with 
allowance for a 4 rod way across said land." This four-rod way 
afterwards became the Sherborn road. — now Main Street. We 
can see pretty clearly that the south line of this "Great Lot" — 
one hundred and sixty-four rods in length — must have extended 
from a point easterly of James Batcheldor's place (formerly the 
Phineas Eames place, and still earlier the Joseph Sumner place), 
westward by the present Obed Daniels place, nearly with the road, 
then by where the schoolhouse stood some years ago. a little south of 
the Dexter Walker place, considerably into the hill westerly of the 
Cook slaughter-house. Thence the line ran northerly one hundred 
and twenty rods, i.e., over one-third of a mile, towards what became 
Precinct Centre ; thence the same distance easterly towards South 
Main Street : and thence, by a zigzag course, to the south-easterly 
corner before mentioned. Thus the first direct approach was made 
towards the settlement of our central village. 

Whether the two Sumner brothers immediately set them up a log- 
cabin on their premises, and began to clear up a farm, I am unable 
to state on authority, but think it probable. They did not get mar- 
ried till three or four years later ; but it is presumable they busily pre- 



42 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

pared their new home. It is likely that their first domicile was set 
up at the Dexter Walker place, and that their two young families 
lived for some time under the same roof. A few years later their 
increase dictated separation. In the mean time, they had parcel 
after parcel of land laid out, some adjoining their " Great Lot," and 
others farther down the cart-path towards Holliston. In process of 
time Ehenezer worked down onto the Lovett lands, in the vicinity 
of ''The Falls," so called. Both brothers became ultimately very 
considerable landholders, and their descendants have occupied influ- 
ential positions among our inhabitants down to the present time. 

"William Cheney, the ancestor of all our Milford Cheneys, was not 
lon<j behind the Sumners as a settler. He was ori<nnallv from Med- 
field. We find that he was in Mendon-town as early as 1695, with 
his wife Margaret, being taxed there that year. He became seized 
of Timothy Winter's house-lot rights in 1705, in virtue whereof he 
had the following la3"ing-out, between Capt. Seth Chapin's land and 
that of the Sumners. very nearly bounding the latter southwardly : 
"April 13, 170G. Now laid out to William Cheney, Fort} - acres of 
Timothy Winter's -1th division, and butted and bounded as followeth : 
Thirty-four acres laid out upon a Hill a little Eastward of Seth 
Chapin's land, Easterly upon the Swamp lot of Benjamin Wheaton, 
and on all other sides upon Common land ; laid out with allowance 
for a Highway through it leadiug to Sherborn ; laid out two acres for 
one," etc., etc. We have here the highland beginning below the 
Sylvanus Adams and Xewton Daniels places, and extending north- 
easterly to the Obed Daniels place. The Laying-out Committees 
generally threw in a certain quantity for "bad land," where there 
was such, and sometimes for reserved highways. In this case, they 
just doubled William Cheney's, giving him sixty-eight acres for what 
they nominally set down as thirty-four. At the same time the}" made 
out his full quota, i.e., the forty acres, by laying out six acres nomi- 
nally, yet twelve actually, situated on the westerly slope of Magomis- 
cock Hill, nearly half a mile north of the first parcel, and adjoining 
John Jones's, Seth Chapwi's, and Benjamin Wheaton's lands. Both 
parcels had much rough, rocky surface, and were rightfully doubled 
in quantity. William Cheney soon settled on his ledgy domain. 
Just where he first pitched his cabin, is somewhat uncertain ; but 
there is little doubt that his permanent domicile stood on elevated 
land, now owned by Charles F. Chapin, on the easterly side of the 
highway. The old cellar is hardly traceable now, but the original 
well is discoverable. William Cheney, jun., his son, born in 1704, 
is believed to have lived on the same spot, or in the near vicinity, 



EARLIEST SETTLERS. 43 

at least for many years. William, sen., lived to be an aged man, 
probably not less than ninety yrs. 

Benjamin Wheaton, whose name has several times already occurred, 
was an earh* settler from Mendon, contemporary with the Sumners, 
and perhaps preceding them. I have not. at this writing, quite suc- 
ceeded in tracing out his nativit}* and pedigree ; but I find that he 
had lands laid out to him, extending from somewhere north of the 
present Delano Patrick place, and thence southward^-, bordering 
westwardly on the Elder Jones estate as much as perhaps one hun- 
dred and fifty rods, down into open land now owned by heirs of W. 
"W. Dutcher, formerly by Sylvanus Adams. There is good ground for 
believing that his ancient dwelling-house stood over an almost obliter- 
ated cellar, on the hill-side south of the highway leading from Hope- 
dale to the Scammell place, perhaps thirty or forty rods above Felix 
Kearnev's, late David Saunders's, residence. There is an old well 
not far off, supposed to have been "Wheaton 's. If this was not the 
place of his domicile, it must have stood in the vicinity, at no great 
distance. I am, as yet, unable to say much of Benjamin "Wheaton. 
except that, like his neighbors, he appears to have been a man of 
enterprise, owned several layings-out of land here and there, and 
left a son Benjamin, as well as other children, to be his inheritors. 

Important Hayward settlements were made during this decade in 
and around what came to be called Howardtown : i.e., in the neigh- 
borhood of our present Hollis and Alonzo Howard, whose ancestors 
were all Hay wards. Between 1702 and 1707, two Jonathan Hay- 
wards planted themselves in that territorial vicinity. One of these 
was a brother, and the other a son, of Samuel Hayward of Mendon- 
town, who was a wealthy man, and able to endow his relations with 
plenty of wild lands, or other needed favors. I conjecture that he 
and his brother Jonathan, and perhaps William (who, about this 
time, settled on the Rawson Farm), came from Swanzey. That 
matter I shall further inquire into before completing my Gen. Reg. 
Samuel came to Mendon in 1669 or 1670. He acquired two house- 
lots there, first and last, with all their rights of division in common 
lands. Probably he acquired by purchase other important parcels. 
He took up much land within our limits, some of it as early as 1702. 
His brother Jonathan was much 3-ounger than himself, and came to 
Mendon a youth. It is recorded, under date of Jan. 28, 1692, that 
"Saml. Thayer gave Bonds for Jonathan Hayward of Swanzy, resi- 
dent with him." That was the custom then in such cases, to insure 
the town against liabilities for maintenance. He began to be taxed 
about 1696 for the support of Pastor Rawson. 



44 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Samuel's son Jonathan could not have been much younger than 
his uncle. To this son Jonathan and to his brother Samuel, jun., 
their father conveyed considerable parcels of his land here, adjoining 
Charles River, between 1702 and 1706 ; and one or both settled on 
those lands. Samuel, jun., however, died unmarried in 1708, at the 
age of twenty-five years. Jonathan raised up a very large family, 
several of whom became conspicuous citizens. Jonathan, the uncle, 
had also a numerous progeny. He located himself east of Bear Hill, 
near the "Great Meadow." Both Jonathans became large land- 
holders, either by inheritance or purchase : and from them descended 
most of the Hay wards that ever inhabited Milibrd, not to speak of 
many more abroad. 

Thomas "White, sen., son of Joseph White, one of the old Men- 
don proprietors, must. I thinlc, have settled within our limits during 
that decade. Of this, however. I cannot be very confident. B3- 
inheritance or otherwise he acquired much land on Mill River, includ- 
ing the water-privilege known successively in our day as Green's, 
Grady's, and Gaskill's mills, but now called Spindleville. It is cer- 
tain that his children, especially his son Thomas, jun., occupied 
portions of his land between 1710 and 1720 ; and I incline to believe 
that he was a settler here previous to 1710. I have the same impres- 
sion about John Green, who at an early period owned a part or all 
of the Samuel Warfield place, the level portion of which was first 
called, with its adjacencies, ,k Linfield's Plain." It is possible, too, 
that Obadiah "Wheelock had settled on the Mill Plain, at or near what 
not long ago was known as the Stoddard place. He located there 
soon after, if not before, 1710. Dr. John Corbett (father, I suppose, 
of the second Dr. John Corbett) had several parcels of land laid out 
to him on the Medfield road (South Milford now) from 1701 and 
downward ; but whether he built any dwellings thereon, besides at 
the Dr. Seammell place so called, in Bellingham, is more than I feel 
warranted to affirm. I think it probable that one or two of the 
descendants of Benjamin Albee may have located within our southern 
borders before 1710; but of this I am uncertain. I must saj* the 
same of Jonathan Thayer, a son of Ferdinando, one of the Mendon 
patriarchs. If not in the first decade of the eighteenth century on 
our territory, he was certainly soon forthcoming ; for he inherited 
goodly possessions from his father on Charles River. John Rock- 
wood, son of Joseph, and gd.-son of John, another Mendon pro- 
prietor, may be put in the same category with Thayer, but perhaps 
with hardby as much probability. I ma} - have overlooked two or 
three other individuals who had set up their emigrant cabins here pre- 



REFLECTIONS. 45 

vious to 1710. If I hereafter discover any such, I will give them 
their place of honor. But I think I ma}- safely assume, that, down 
to that date, our settlers could not have exceeded fifteen families, nor 
fifty souls all told. I should prefer to guess that there were ten 
families, and not more than forty persons. — men. women, and chil- 
dren. Here let me insert a parenthesis. (Having referred my read- 
ers two or three times to the Second Part of this work, mv Genealogi- 
cal Register, let me say, once for all, that they will find therein not 
only the names and essential genealogical data of nearly all the fami- 
lies ever established residents on our territory, but many biographical 
reminiscences and interesting incidents deemed less appropriate in 
this Historical Part.) 

REFLECTIONS. 

It ma}- be well not to forget the crude state of thing*, and peculiar 
circumstances amid which our pioueer settlers originated this now 
populous municipality. They breasted a yet howling wilderness. 
Their clearings were few and small. Their dwellings were little other 
than log huts ; and their barns, rude hovels, whose fodder, when they 
had any in store, was in stacks. Their roads were rough cart-paths, 
and uncouth drift-ways. They had no grocery-store, much less post- 
office or schoolhouse. Blacksmiths, carpenters, shoe-makers, and 
other handicraft mechanics, were few, far between, and distant. 
Mendon-town was their material dependence for such necessaries as 
they could not produce on their own raw clearings. But Mendon 
depended for important supplies on Medfield and Marlborough, fifteen 
and eighteen miles distant ; and these, again, depended on Boston for 
imported goods. Food, raiment, and all the comforts of domestic 
life, were mostly home-wrought, coarse, simple, and often scanty, but, 
happily, healthful. They were religious. Puritanical people, — the 
adults, with rare exceptions, church-members, and their children all 
baptized. They were punctilious and devout attendants on public 
worship. None staid at home on the sabbath but with a good excuse. 
Away to the town-seat they posted on the Lord's day, either barefoot 
or shod, on horseback, single and double, or on their own sturdy legs, 
to sit under the ministrations of Parson Rawson, on uncushioued 
seats, and in the coldest weather, in a plain, unwarmed, old-fashioned 
meeting-house, through services often two hours long, forenoon and 
afternoon. 

"Were they a down-hearted, cheerless, discontented sort of folks? 
Not at all : any thing but that. They were healthy, robust, and 
hopeful. They were bound to subdue the wilderness, to master the 



46 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

wild beasts, to achieve a victory over all difficulties. Gigantic trees 
fell before them, and well-burnt fields grew green with grain and grass 
from year to year, as they advanced. They looked westward, and 
saw Mendon pushing to the Great River; northward, and Hopkinton 
was filling up ; eastward, and the ambitious adventurers of Sherborn 
were encroaching on their favorite meadows : whilst the frontier-men 
of Medfield and Dedham saluted them from their outposts, and their 
own brethren to the southward of them slacked not their kindred 
march. Meantime fresh immigrants were prospecting their closely- 
adjacent wild lands, and daily assuring them of new neighbors soon 
to arrive. Thus they were expectant, resolute, and cheerful. If 
we imagine that their hardships, privations, and toils made them 
miserable, Ave probably mistake their mental condition. "We ma}- 
safelv guess that thev uttered fewer groans under their real wants 
than we do under our artificial and ur?-real ones. Doubtless they 
extracted health, content, and merriment from their scanty resources, 
quite as successfully as we do from the plethora of our luxuries. We 
will not lament for them, nor overdraw the picture of their peculiar 
enjoyments. They had their frailties, faults, and woes ; but pity 
would be wasted on their lot. It was one rather to be envied and 
admired. We can but honor them as heroic pioneers, and bless their 
memories for the heritage they transmitted to us. Successive gener- 
ations have reaped and will reap the harvests they sowed with mingled 
tears and buovant gladness. The heavv forests were steadilv dimin- 
ished by their stalwart industry. They thinned off direful beasts and 
venomous reptiles. The rugged earth grew fruitful under their labors, 
and civilized habitations, though humble, superseded the transient 
wigwams of savageism. Domestic flocks and herds grazed peaceably 
on hilltops and plains but recently wrested from the occupancy of 
ferocious bears, wolves, and panthers. Meadows, orchards, and 
gardens yielded fragrance and fruitage where a little while before an 
unbroken wilderness bred only dreariness and terror. Thus com- 
menced the settlement of our now populous, enterprising, and pros- 
perous municipal domain. We will not forget "the rock whence we 
were hewn, and the hole of the pit whence we were digged," nor 
"despise the day of small things." Our fathers came to stay, and 
they possessed a goodly land for themselves and posterit}-. Let us 
appreciate their achievements, improve our inheritance, and deserve 
well the benedictions they distil upon us from the mansions of 
immortality. 



ORIGIN OF THE PRECINCT. 47 



CHAPTER IV. 

A GENERATION OF PROGRESS DOWN TO THE ESTABLISHMENT 

OF THE PRECINCT. 

Increase of Population, and Origin of the Precinct. — Causes of Alienation and 
Separation from Old Mendon. — Began in 1727, with the Project of building a 
New Meeting-House for the Town, soon after the Incorporation of Uxbridge. — 
The Long Series of Town-Meetings, Agitations, and Contentions about that 
Meeting-House.— The Mill-River "Aggrieved Party; " their Protests and Efforts 
to get set off as a Town or Precinct. — Secession of the "Aggrieved" Mem- 
bers from the First Church and Pastor Dorr. — Growth and Success of the 
Separation Movement. — Copy of their Petition to General Court. 

Incorporation and Organization of the tiecond or Easterly Precinct. — The Act of 
Incorporation, its Terms and Provisos. — Comments on its Peculiarities. — 
Legal Formal Organization. — Proceedings for the Erection of a Meeting-House. 
— Disagreements respecting its Location. —Referred to an Outside Committee 
to state the Spot. — Delays, and Judgment of the Committee. — Troubles in 
getting the Edifice (40 x 35) begun. — The Frame at length covered, etc.— Diffi- 
culties about Funds, Disaffected Parishioners, etc. — Fasting and Prayer of the 
Church seeking a Pastor. — How Preaching was sustained. — Mr. John Bass 
called, but declines. — Mr. Amariah Frost called, and accepts. —Meeting-House 
as to the Outside. — Reconciliation with the First Church and Parson Dorr. — 
Ordination of Mr. Frost, and its Incidents. 

INCREASE OF POPULATION, AND ORIGIN OF THE PRECINCT. 

FROM 1710 onward, there was a stead}- increase of population on 
our territory, though slow in comparison with the rush of our 
Western settlements in recent times. The grandchildren of the old 
Mendon proprietors possessed the heritage of their fathers, cleared 
up new farms, raised up large families, aud multiplied their worldly 
goods. And they were re-enforced from all quarters by fresh immi- 
grants, seeking better homes on hopeful soil. Thus the common lands 
were gradually absorbed into private ownership, more commodious 
buildings erected, the ugly cart-paths turned into passable roads, 
many convenient public ways laid out in various directions, water- 
privileges occupied with saw and grist mills, and manifold progress 
made in the substantial interests of the community. It might be 
entertaining to go into details somewhat, and specif} - persons, families, 
localities, enterprises, and improvements of various kinds ; but per- 
haps these may as well be brought out incidentally, or in Part 
II. of this volume, the Genealogical Register, in which they will be 
more appropriate. I therefore waive them for the present, and enter 



48 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

at once on the story of those causes which led to the establishment 
of a precinct here separate from the mother-parish in Mendon. 

Why was there a separation? There are always reasons enough, 
good, bad, or indifferent, for such movements. Doubtless our Milford 
seceders might have worshipped in the old sanctuary in Mendon town 
several years longer without very great inconvenience, so far as 
numbers were concerned. But probably they had grown ambitious 
for what they deemed wholesome changes. Soon after Uxbridge was 
incorporated, in 1727. the project of a new meeting-house for the 
standing part of the town (then including what is now Mendon. Mil- 
ford, and Blackstone) was agitated. A serious unpleasantness soon 
arose among the population east of Neck Hill, and toward Charles 
River. Thev began to dream of a new town and a new religious 
centre. Mendon hill seemed too far away for public worship, and 
even for municipal centralization. The location and erection of a 
new meeting-house became a bone of contention. It must be for the 
accommodation of the whole town, — a town whose extent and popu- 
lation rendered it a tough problem to solve. The territory extended 
from Hopkinton on the north to Rhode Island on the south, with a 
population spreading out every year from the parent central-seat, in 
all directions. It was a foregone conclusion with the metropolitan 
majority, that the new sanctuary must stand somewhere on their lull, 
and not very far distant from the old one. But the northerners and 
southerners insisted, that if the}' must help pay for a new edifice, 
which they deemed a hardship at best, it should be located as near 
them, respectively, as they could manage to get it. — even if only a 
few rods were gained. Parties and factions arose, who for years 
mutually buffeted and counter-checked each other. The Mendon 
records show, that between Aug. 28, 1727, and Aug. 30. 1731, no 
less than fifteen town-meetings were held on this general subject, 
either by original warrant or special adjournment. At all these meet- 
ings the main question, or some of its incidentals, developed hot dis- 
cussions, contests, and protests. The nature and succession of votes 
passed will appear from the following abstract. 

Aug. 28, 1727, "after considerable discourse concerning building 
a new Meeting House, the vote passed in the negative." Nov. 29, 
next following, " after considerable debate, etc., voted to dismiss the 
Article until a new summons." Feb. 19, 1728, "Voted to build a 
new Meeting House," and to set it " within seventy rods of the place 
where the Meeting House now stands." Vote scrupled, and proved 
by dividing the house and counting the polls. Protest by Thomas 
Sanford, then resident on the Amariah Taft place, against the vote 



MEETING-HOUSE DEBATES. 49 

locating the site. Another protest by James Keith, then resident on 
the Quisset Luke Aldrich estate, against •• the whole management of 
the above-said meeting." Aug. 30. same year, by adjournment from 
March 25, " Voted again to build, and to set the nevr House within 
twenty rods of the place where the House now stands." Dec. 10, 
172!). voted again to build, but to refer its location u to a Committee 
of indifferent men : " adjourned to the loth of December, when " Dea. 
John Tyler. Ebenezer"Taft. Samuel Torrey, and Daniel Hill entered 
their protest against choosing " the said committee. But the meeting 
proceeded to choose "Mr. Ebenezer Stone of Newton, Jona. Ware, 
Esq.. of YVrentham, Wm. Hunt. Esq., of Southborough, Capt. Edward 
Clark, of Medway, and Capt. Nathan Brigham, of Marlborough," as 
their referees ; also, four men to meet with the referees, and la} - the 
case before them. Then voted, "very fully," to "stand to and 
abide the judgment of the Committee." Feb. 16, 1730, voted "to 
build a meeting-house fiftv feet Ions, fortv-five feet wide, and twentv- 
four feet stud, and to be built a studded house." Committee of 
superintendence chosen, and funds raised for proper consummation 
of the undertaking. " At said meeting, voted, on a petition of sundry 
of the Inhabitants on the east side of the Mill River, that, provided 
the lands and inhabitants [there], or any part thereof, be set otf as a 
particular Town within the space of ten years next ensuing the present 
date, that the Town reimburse to the petitioners so much money as 
shall ... be assessed ou them , . . towards building the present 
Meeting House for the Town." This indicates plainly what was 
brewing. At said meeting, John Tyler and others requested a vote 
taken on a proposition "to repair the old Meeting House till the 
Town should build two Meeting Houses, or the Town be divided." 
Decided in the negative. Thereupon twenty-eight townsmen, Mill- 
river men and their sympathizers nearer the town-seat, entered their 
protest against building the new house on the site designated b}* the 
referees, " and against raising any money to build the same." Thus 
the confusion increased. 

April 6, 1730, voted that " five feet be taken from the forty-five in 
width of the Meeting House, and also two feet from the twenty-four 
in height." Moved to "alter the situation of the new Meeting 
House layed out by the Committee:" negatived. At a subsequent 
meeting. Moved to erect " the new House within twentv rods of the 
old one : " negatived. Moved " to build two Meeting Houses : " neg- 
atived. Moved to " repair the old house:" negatived. Moved to 
" make a regular division of the Town : " negatived. Oct. 22, 1730, 
moved to " set up the new meeting-house by the heap of stones made 



50 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

by the Committee:" negatived. Moved to "set it within six or 
eight rods of the same place : " negatived. Moved to " set it up at 
the west end of the Burying Ground, where the timber lies : " passed 
in the affirmative. There the house was finally built. Thirteen voters 
protested on the spot against building the new house " any nearer 
the Burying Place than within twenty rods " of the old one, "and 
against allowing any thing, more or less, for raising the same, except 
it be within " the said twenty rods. Nevertheless, " Voted that money 
be raised by a rate to defray the charges of raising the new Meeting 
House." As to the provision part, voted "that the Town provide a 
Barrel of Rhum." Chose " Capt. Thos. Thayer. Daniel Lovett, and 
David How to take care to provide victuals and drink, and other 
materials." Moved that the town " build two Meeting Houses, and 
give our Minister liberty to preach in which he will:" negatived. 
Moved that the town "set off part of the north end to Hopkin- 
ton : " negatived. March 1, 1731, under consideration of a petition 
from Mill-river inhabitants to be " set off as a particular town," 
moved to grant the petition: negatived. May 18, ensuing, moved 
that the town "send to the General Court for a Committee to state 
a place for our new Meeting House:" negatived. Moved that the 
Town raise money to finish the new Meeting House where it now 
stands." Tried by hand-vote, and doubted. House divided, polls 
counted, and the motion carried. Aug. 30, 1731, by adjournment 
from June 21, moved "to choose a Committee to finish the new 
Meeting House." Tried by hand-vote, and the count scrupled, but 
decided in the affirmative by dividing the house. Chose a committee 
of three with full power to finish the meeting-house: "viz., Eleazer 
Daniels, Daniel Lovett, and Benj. Darling." Voted " to raise £100 
by vote towards finishing," etc. Moved to choose a committee " to 
see if they could find out who hath, by cutting, damnijied the new 
Meeting House : " negatived. It appears that soon after the house 
was raised, some person or persons, in the interest of the protesting 
minority, went by night and seriously damaged a portion of the frame 
by parti}' chopping off one or more of the corner-posts. But probably 
the majority thought it impolitic to make further inquisition into the 
matter. So the New Meeting-house party triumphed over their op- 
ponents in respect to their immediate object. But those opponents 
had been rendered extremely sore : indeed, they were henceforth 
irreconcilable. They considered themselves unjustly overborne, 
styled themselves " the aggrieved party," and firmly resolved not to 
rest till they should have obtained a separate corporate existence. 
A considerable number of these "aggrieved" persons were mem- 



CONTROVERSY CONTINUED. 51 

bers of the First Church, and soon became much alienated from their 
non-sympathizing brethren, and especially from their pastor. Why 
they were so seriously disaffected towards him is somewhat mysteri- 
ous. It can now only be guessed, as they, at a subsequent period, 
took particular pains to suppress all the papers that specified their 
complaints, having resolved to bury all their difficulties with him and 
the mother church. It is probable that they importuned him to favor 
their movement against the dominant party, and that he declined to 
do so. They might have gone so far as to insist on his reproving and 
disciplining some of the more violent members that opposed them ; 
but Rev. Joseph Dorr was not only a discreet man to avoid improper 
interference between two such parties in his pastoral household, he 
was averse to partisanship and contention in his very constitutional 
nature. He is said to have been a modest, quiet, peaceable man. all 
his life long, though not wanting either in talent, intelligence, energy, 
or firmness, to discharge his duties according to settled convictions. 
Such a man in such a controversy would be apt to see faults on both 
sides, and to consider very deliberately whether he was likely to mend 
matters by sitting in public judgment on the complaints of extremists. 
~Sor is it likely that either his temperament or judgment would dis- 
pose him to be a stern ecclesiastical disciplinarian. It is therefore 
quite natural that the aggrieved, if not their opposers, in this case 
should unjustly censure him. 

How affairs went on between the parties, I will now set forth. At 
a town-meeting held Dec. 10, 1735: "Voted to choose a Committee 
to make answer to the Petition of sundry Inhabitants on the east side 
of Mill River, with reference to their being set off as a Town. Voted 
to choose five men for a Committee to prepare an Answer to said 
Petition in the Town's behalf; and that said Committee depute two 
men to go to Boston and join with Capt. Daniel Lovett, the Town's 
Representative, to make answer to the said Petition in Court." This 
shows that the aggrieved had gone for redress to the Legislature. 
The committee of five chosen by the Town were "Thomas Sanford, 
/. Jacob Aldrich, Eleazer Taft, Jona. Hay ward, Jr., and Mr. James 
/ \ Keitli?' "March 8, 1736, by adjournment from March 1, the peti- 
tion of fifteen inhabitants on the easterlj- side of Mill River, to be set 
off as a separate town, came up for consideration. It was negatived. 
May 17 following, a petition came in for a separate precinct, and 
was voted down. May 21, 1739, the persistent Mill-river people 
sent in another petition to be set off as a separate town. Again 
negatived. May 19, 1740, the same operation of petition and nega- 
tion was repeated. May 18, 1741, the aggrieved, through the Select- 



52 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

men, requested that " the Town support their Minister in a mutual 
way, or give them leave to go off as a particular Precinct." I sup- 
pose the\- meant by the phrase, - k a mutual way," voluntary contri- 
bution. The Town responded in the negative. Thus the petitioners 
seemed to be headed off, both before the Legislature and the Town ; 
but they were an indomitable people, and appealed again to the 
General Court for relief. There the Town met their renewed petition 
with a fresh remonstrance, and for a time held them at bay ; but it 
began to be suspected that they would ultimately win their cause. 

Early in this year, 1741. the disaffected members of the church 
called an ex-parte ecclesiastical council, or what seemed virtually such, 
presented their grievances against the pastor, and procured some kind 
of sanction for their contemplated secession. This moved him to self- 
defence. To succeed in this he brought the matter before the Town 
for action. Due warning was driven, and the meeting held March 2, 
1741, when ' k the two following votes were proposed to the town by 
the Rev. Mr. Dorr : — 

"Gextlemen, — Inasmuch as an opposing party have obtained a Judg- 
ment against the Minister of this Town, without a trial, relating to his 
administration; viz. of a Council chosen by themselves, in so private a man- 
ner that the Pastor of the Church had no copies of the letters missive until 
the letters were sent to the Churches: If you judge that the Minister of the 
Town ought to be defended against such proceedings, and you will defend 
him, signify it by lifting up your hands. The above written vote passed in 
the affirmative. 

"Attest: William Ra wsox, Moderator.'" 

Then followed the second proposed vote, which, in substance, was 
that the Town should choose a committee of three men to confer with 
a like committee of loyal church-members, who. if thought advisable, 
might in unison call an ecclesiastical council to rectify the unjust 
ex-parte judgment. This also passed in the affirmative, and is at- 
tested on the record in like manner by the Moderator ; but there was 
a tempest of opposition on the occasion, as appears from the ensuing 
record. The Moderator called for a vote to adjourn the meeting a 
fortnight. He declared the vote carried, and left the house. The 
opposers scrupled it, but no test was applied. "Notwithstanding 
the Moderator was gone out, those Gentlemen, whose names are 
entered here, did insist upon it to enter their Protest against the 
Adjournment of said meeting, and also against the foregoing votes 
concerning the Rev. Mr. Dorr ; saying [that] the said meeting was not 
regulated according to law by the Moderator, as their reason. Names 
given in, &c, Daniel Taft, Esq., Capt. Daniel Lovett, Ensign Nathan 



THE SECEDING CHURCH. 53 

Tyler, Samuel Thayer, Dea. Nathaniel Nelson, Wra. Torrey, Jonathan 
Hay ward, Jr., Josiah Adams, John Chapin, John Rockwood, Saml. 
Rawson, Benj. Green, Jno. French, Thos. "White. Saml. Hayward, 
Geo. Aldrich, Robt. Aldrich, Ichabod Robinson, David Taft, Josiah 
Chapin.*' — twenty voters of the aggrieved party. This must have 
been a very unpleasant demonstration and state of things to the ven- 
erable pastor. However, when the adjourned meeting came round, 
March 16. 1741, he presented himself, and "proposed to the Town 
to choose three Gentlemen as a Committee to join the Church Com- 
mittee in order to choose a Council to Judge of the Result of the late 
Council, relating to differences in the Church." Accordingly the 
Town chose for said committee Lieut. Ebenezer Taft, Lieut. Thomas 
Thayer, and Capt. Robert Taft. But the rapid march of events 
would seem to have foreclosed the movement for a rectifvinjj council, 
and two years later the Town quietly laid the matter asleep. 

Just after the forementioned action of the Town in defence of Mr. 
Dorr, the aggrieved (and perhaps aggrieving) church-members took 
time by the forelock, and set about the formation of a new church. 
This will be better understood by the following copy of their records. 
" April ye 1st, 1741, being a Meeting of ye brethren of the Church 
of Mendon who are styled aggrieved, it was agreed to appoint 
Wednesday, ye loth instant, to be a day of fasting and prayer, and 
renewing their covenant with God and one another, and settling their 
affairs according to ye order of the Gospel in these Churches. It was 
agreed to meet on said da}" at ye house of Eldr. Jones at nine of ye 
clock on said day. It was also agreed to send to ye Church of Hop- 
kinton, the Church of Holliston, ye Church of Uxbridge, and }'e 
Church of Upton, to assist in ye business of ye day ; and that the 
Rev. Mr. Barret, or ye Rev. Mr. Stone, be desired to preach on said 
dav. On said Meeting Dea. Nathaniel Nelson, Jonathan Havward 
and William Sheffield were chosen to send letters to the abovesaid 
Churches, to desire their presence and assistance : and Elder Jones, 
Elder Adams and Ensign Tyler were chosen to make provision for ye 
Council on ye day abovesaid. 

" April ye loth, 1741. The brethren of ye church of Mendon, who 
have been styled aggrieved, met according to appointment ; yn, with 
the assistance of the Elders and Messengers of ye Church of Hopkin- 
ton and the Church of Holliston, solemnly framed themselves into a 
Church state, by signing a Chh. Covenant." [Then follows a long, 
formal covenant, in accordance with the strict Congregational usages 
of those days.] "The Names of those who Signed the aforesaid 
Covenant are as follow. — John Jones, Josiah Adams, William Che- 



54 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

ney, Nathan Tyler, Benjamin Green. Jonathan Hay ward, John Cha- 
pin, William Sheffield, Nathaniel Nelson. William Cheney, Jr., John 
Binney, Jonathan Whitney, Abraham Jones. Moses Tenney, John 
French, Thomas Beard, Samuel Warren. Habijah French, William 
Hay ward, Ephraim Daniels. Ebenezer Albee, Joseph Jones, Samuel 
Hay ward, Benjamin Rockwood, Jonathan Thayer, Benjamin Hay ward. 
Jr.'' [26.] 

'•And on the same day, April 15, 1741. the Rev. Mr. Barret of 
Hopkinton preached a sermon to ye new Chh. convened, and to those 
that were assembled with them ; after which he read the abovesaid 
Covenant publicly before them, with the names of the signers; to 
which they publicly consented : and then were declared to be a Church 
of Christ, invested with all the privileges of those belonging in Church 
state, &c." " And then the Church proceeded in making choice of 
their officers, and elected John Jones and Josiah Adams, Elders, and 
Nathaniel Nelson, Deacon ; and likewise chose William Sheffield, 
Scribe, to keep a journal of their proceedings till further order." 

Thus promptly was the new church formed, organized, and estab- 
lished, before pastor Dorr and his friends could convene their contem- 
plated rectifying council. This was also a very decided step towards 
an independent precinct. It made the pending separation almost a 
foregone conclusion. I return, therefore, to that closing process. 
The following is a copy of the Petition sent in to General Court by 
the Mill-river people, with the names of the subscribers : — 

To his Excellency William Shirley, Esq., Capt. General and Governor in 
Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of the Massachusetts Bay,. Sfc. ; and 
to the Honble. the Council and the House of Representatives of said Province 
in General Court assembled this 25th d. November, 17^1. 

The petition of sundry Inhabitants of the Town of Mendon in said Province 
hereunto subscribing Humbly sheweth: That the said Town of Mendon, in 
answer to a petition of sundry Inhabitants on the Easterly side of Mill 
River in said Town, did, at their meeting on Sept. the 22, 1741, Vote their 
consent That the lands in said Township lying on the Easterly side of Mill 
River to the Country Road by Sheffield's Mill, then bounding on said Road 
to Bellingham and Bounding on Bellingham, Holliston and Hopkinton, with 
all the Lands and Inhabitants who dwell on those lands within said lines, be 
a district and separate Township : — That the lands set off by the Town as 
aforesaid, with the polls and estates, rateable to the support of the Minis- 
try, and being within said Boundaries, are not (your petitioners conceive) 
more than about one-third part of said Town, considered in respect to polls 
and estates: — That there are five families on the Westerly side of Mill River 
who choose to congregate with your petitioners and to be laid to them, 
whose lands also, at least some of them, will be much incommoded by re- 



PETITION FOR A NEW PRECINCT. 55 

maining to the old Town; which families, if added to your petitioners, will, 
as your petitioners hope, render their charge of maintaining the gospel 
possible. 

Your petitioners are nevertheless humbly of opinion that it would be more 
conducive to the peace and welfare of the whole, that your petitioners and 
others within the Bounds aforesaid, with the addition of those few families, 
be created a precinct, rather than a separate Township, and that the Minis- 
try of both the Churches and Congregations in said Town may be supported 
by a Joint Stock, and every one attend the public ministry that is most con- 
venient and agreeable. 

Your petitioners humbly pray your Excellency and the Honble. Court, 
that the Inhabitants of Mendon, dwelling on the Easterly side of Mill River 
and adjoining as aforesaid to Bellingham, Holliston and Hopkinton, with 
their lands in said Township, Together with other lands on the Westerly 
side of said River up to a Road called the Eight Rod Road, and including 
Nathan Tyler's house and lands up to Upton line, may be created a separate 
Town, or a separate precinct, or that the public Ministry of both the Churches 
and Congregations in the Town of Mendon be supported by a Tax or Assess- 
ment upon the whole Town, as your Excellency and Honors shall judge most 
meet and convenient. And your petitioners shall ever pray, i.e. 

Samuel Scammell. John Jones. 

Joseph Jones. William Cheney. 

Ephraim Daniels. Nathaniel Jones. 

Moses Tenney. John Binney. 

Joshua Underwood. Amos Binney. 

IIabijah French. Nathaniel Nelson. 

James Godman. Thomas Chaddock. 

Moses Gage. Abraham Jones. 

William Legg. John Chapin. 

Ichabod Thayer. William Cheney, jun. 

Dearing Jones. Nehemiah Nelson. 

James Sumner. Benjamin IIayward, jun. 

Josiah Chapin. Samuel Hayward. 

Eliphalet Wood. Joseph Sumner. 

Benjamin Hayward. Ebenezer Boynton. 

And we whose names are hereunder written (being the owners of the lands 
of the five families above named) humbly pray that we with our lands may 
be annexed to the new Town or precinct, unless the Ministry be jointly 
supported. 

Nathan Tyler. JonN Thwing. Thomas White. 

Here was a knotty case for legislative wisdom to decide, and there 
was some delay in obtaining concurrent action. "House of Reps., 
Nov. 27, 1741. Petitioners allowed to bring in a Bill for a Township 
agreeable to Vote of the Town of Mendon, Sept. 22, 1741." 



56 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

" In Council, Nov. 28, 1741. Concurred in with an Amendment." 
But the matter, after struggling through several votes of non-concur- 
rence, was finally settled iu December, as will be seen in the Act 
copied below, incorporating a precinct — not a town. 

Although the Town at their meeting, July 22. 1741, had raised a 
committee of three to conduct their remonstrance before the General 
Court, yet, on the 22d September following, a vote prevailed to set off 
the petitioners as a separate town. But the meeting was adjourned to 
Oct. G, by which time the opposition stiffened so, that when a motion 
was made ;, to give Mill River a part of the Ministry Land, School 
Land, or money belonging to the Town on the same account," it was 
negatived. Dec. 14. 1741, the Town considered a summons from the 
House of Representatives to show cause why the prayer of the peti- 
tioners should not be granted. "Whereupon they recalled their vote 
of consent, and chose a committee of five to oppose the separation to 
the best of their ability. This was their last struggle, and they had 
to yield. All they could do was. to prevent the incorporation of the 
desired new town. So finally a precinct was conceded and sanctioned 
by both Houses of the Legislature. An authenticated cop}' of their 
Incorporating Act will fitly open the second section of this chapter. 

INCORPORATION AXD ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PRECINCT. 



Wednesday, ) Present in Council 

Decern. 23, 1741. ) His Excellency William Shirley, Esq. Govern 1 ". 

William Pepperill, Jacob Wendell, Sam 1 Danforth, 

Francis Foxcroft, Anth . Stoddard, William Foye, 

John Jeffries, Esq". Jer. Moulton, Esq™. John Read, Esq". 

Josiah Willard, John Gushing, Johu Greenleal", 

Richard Bill. 

A Petition of John Jones and a considerable number of others, Inhabitants of the 
Town of Mend on ; Praying that the Petitioners, with their families and Estates, 
within the Bounds expressed in the Petition, be erected into a separate Town or 
Precinct. 

In the House of Representatives; Read again, together with the answer 
of the Town of Mendon thereupon ; and Voted the prayer of the Petition be 
so far granted, as that the Inhabitants of Mendon, with their Estates lying 
on the Easterly side of Mill River, and bounded by said River, Bellingham, 
Hopkinton, and Holliston, including the Families with the Estates on the 
West side of said River to the Eight Rod road, as expressed and described 
in the Petition, together with Nathan Tyler and his lands, Samuel Rawson, 
Daniel Lovel [Lovett], William Hayward, Thomas White, Daniel White, 
William Hovey, Josiah Adams, Benjamin Green, Samuel Green and Ebene- 
zer Albee, with their Estates, in the old or standing part of said Town, or so 



NEW PRECINCT INCORPORATED. 57 

many of them as shall join with the Petitioners in building a Meeting House 
and settling a Minister, be and hereby are erected into a distinct and sepa- 
rate Precinct; and that the Inhabitants thereof be invested with the same 
powers and Privileges as other Precincts do enjoy: Saving nevertheless, that 
Jonathan Hayward, John Green, Obadiah Wheelock, James Albee, Joseph 
Corbet, Thomas Beard, Benjamin Albee, James Albee, Jr., John Kilburn, 
John Green, Jr., Ebenezer Wheelock, William Sprague, Joseph Rockwood, 
Jonathan Haywood, John Haywood, William Sprague, Jr., and John White, 
living within the above mentioned Bounds, or so many of them as shall 
desire it, together with their Estates, may continue to the standing part of 
said Town, so long as they attend the public worship there, in a stated way, 
and no longer : Provided that the said Inhabitants, so set off, shall, within 
the space of two years from this time, erect a convenient Meeting House, 
and settle a learned orthodox Minister for the public Worship of God. 
In Council Read and Concur'd. 

Consented to. W. Shirley. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Secret aky's Department, Boston, 
Aug. 30, 1S76. 
A true copy of record: Witness the seal of the Commonwealth. 

Henry B. Pierce, Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

[L. S] 

This document bears on its face the evidences of a severe strujjsrle 
between the contending parties, and of a final compromise. The peti- 
tioners and their opponents were not divided b}' territorial lines. 
Some of the aggrieved resided in ** the standing part of the Town," 
and some of the remonstrants dwelt on our territory. We notice that 
among the latter was Jonathan Havward, whose name appears in the 
list of the new Church-members, as committed to the secession move- 
ment. He was either swerved backward into the opposite part} - , or 
was another man of the same name, probably the latter. There was 
a perpetual pulling and hauling between the parties, and he may have 
changed sides ; but there were several Jonathan Hnywards hereabouts 
in those days, who may have belonged to the opposing parties. The 
Incorporating Act also exempts from the new precinct Jonathan anil 
John Haywood. This is probabby a mistake in somebody's spelling ; 
as I find no evidence that there were in those daj-s families of Hay- 
woods in Mendon distinct from the llaywards, though, a little later, 
manv of the latter changed their name to Howard. 

Most of the petitioners undoubtedly wanted a new town, rather 
than a precinct, but accepted the latter as the most they could get. 
Subsequent events showed, as we shall see, that they nursed persist- 
ently their hope of a town, till the}- obtained it, nearly forty years 



58 HISTORY OF MILFORB. 

later. For the then present they had to be content -with a restricted 
precinct, and even with this on the stringent condition of building a 
meeting-house and settling a minister within two years. They imme- 
diately set themselves about this task, and barely accomplished it 
in time to save their charter ; for neither their numbers nor funds 
were very ample. 

The incorporated precinct was promptly organized b}' legal process. 
A warrant was issued by Daniel Taft, Esq., Justice Peace, dated Dec. 
31, 1741 (only eight days after the passage of the Act), requiring 
Ensign Nathan Tyler, -'in his Majesty's name." to notify and warn 
all the qualified voters concerned to meet at the house of Nehemiah 
Nelson on Monday, the ensuing 18th of January, at ten o'clock a.m., 
then and there to organize the precinct in due form. The Act gave 
no designating title to the new body politic : so it was sometimes 
called "the Mill-River Precinct." sometimes "the new Precinct." 
sometimes " the second Precinct." and at length most generall}' "•the 
Easterly Precinct of Mendon." The appointed first meeting was held 
at Nehemiah Nelson's, who then lived at the Sylvanus Adams place, 
previously Zuriel Howard's, Jan. 18, 1741-2. Daniel Taft, Esq., 
presided; and the following officers were chosen: viz., "William 
Cheney, jun., Clerk ; Capt. Daniel Lovett. Ensign Nathan Tyler, 
Dea. Nathaniel Nelson. Jona. Hay ward, jun.. and John Jones, jun., 
Committee for calling meetings." This committee were a sort of 
precinct Selectmen. I will, however, hereafter designate them as the 
Executive Committee. Thus the new precinct was inaugurated, hence- 
forth to hold its anuual meetings in the month of March, as prescribed 
by law to precincts and towns generally. 

The next things in order necessar}- to the establishment of the new 
precinct were the erection of a meeting-house and the settlement of 
a minister. These requisites must not be delayed. Accordingly, at 
a precinct meeting held at Nehemiah Nelson's, Jan. 2G, 1741-42, 
assessors and a collector were chosen, and the following votes passed : 
1. "To state a place for a Meeting-House for the public worship of 
God." 2. To decide on which of the two places nominated, the edi- 
fice should stand. " One place was where the road that comes from 
Abijah French's and the road that comes from Benjamin Hayward's 
meet with Sherborn road ; viz., the north side of said Sherborn road." 
" The other place was where the road that comes from Isaac Park- 
hurst's meets with Sherborn road; viz., near the north corner of 
Nathaniel Morse's wall." The first-named place must have been in 
the vicinity of the present Congregational Church, perhaps ten rods 
southerly towards Water Street. This location got thirty-two votes. 



SITE AND ERECTION OF MEETING-HOUSE. 59 

The other could not have been far from Mrs. Ziba Thayer's place. 
That received twenty-nine votes. 3. A committee of outsiders was 
chosen " to state " a site ; viz., " Dea. Ebenezer Read of Uxbridge, 
Dea. Thomas Marshall of Holliston. and Eld. Joseph Haven of Hop- 
kinton." 4. "To raise eighty pounds to defray the charges for 
preaching for the future." 5. "To hire preaching for two months 
next ensuing." 6. "That Dea. Nathl. Nelson. Ens. Nathan Tyler, 
and Thos. Wiswall, with the Elders of the Church, be a Committee to 
provide a minister." 7. "To provide for building a Meeting-House 
. . . to be 40 feet in length and 35 feet in width." 8. That Thos. 
Tenney, Win. Cheney, jun., Ens. Nathan Tyler, John Jones, jun., 
and John Roekwood. be a Committee to provide materials, and have 
oversight of said work." 

Ma}' 6, following, the Church, after "solemn prayer to the Great 
Head of the Church for his presence and direction," appointed 
"Wednesday, the 19th of May curreut, as a day of solemn fasting 
and prayer, to seek of God his direction and blessing in calling and 
settling a Pastor over us." Thev then voted to invite Revs. Lorins: 
of Sudbury, Messenger of Wrentham, Peabody of Natick, Hall of 
Sutton, and Prentice of Grafton, to meet with and assist them in their 
appointed fast services. Next, the}' voted to adjourn their business- 
meeting to the "20th May. or day after the fast. It is pleasant to find 
also that they relented towards their old pastor and brethren, and fur- 
ther voted to invite Mr. Doit to their fast, "and that he (with so 
many of his brethren as shall please) be desired to attend said ad- 
journed meeting, to see if an agreement may by accomplished between 
the two Churches in Mendon." They had carried their point for a 
separation, and, as often happens in such cases, felt more amicable. 
The fast was duly observed, probably at Elder Jones's in the Dale ; 
and two acceptable sermons preached, one in the a.m. by Rev. Mr. 
Haven, and the other, p.m., by Rev. Mr. Loring. The adjourned 
meeting was held on the 20th May with good results, and further 
adjourned to the 24th. Then, after much prayer and consideration, 
the Church gave a unanimous call to Mr. John Bass, their then candi- 
date preacher, to settle with them as pastor. The precinct immedia- 
tely concurred, terms of settlement were stipulated, and negotiations 
formally opened. But Mr. Bass finally declined the call, and a new 
candidate had to be sought. 

Meantime the precinct wheels were somewhat retarded by friction 
in relation to the meeting-house movement. An important meeting 
was called for the 10th February, 1741-42, to see what the precinct 
would do about certain points of difficulty. At that meeting, Jona- 



60 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

than Hayward, jun., being moderator, the first question was, "whether 
the Precinct would abide or stand by the judgment of the committee 
chosen to state a place for a Meeting-House?" This passed in the 
affirmative. Next, when should that committee come to state the 
place? Voted they should come on the 1 7th of that same month. 
Next, a committee of sis. representing the two parties, was chosen 
to attend on the referees, and present their respective reasons. The 
precinct then instructed their building-committee to proceed with 
their work "so far as to raise, cover, and enclose the House." It 
was also voted to raise two hundred pounds towards defraying the 
charge of building the house ; to pay the committee expected to 
" state the place ; " and to •• allow men six shillings per da} - for work 
about said House, they boarding themselves ; and the carpenters 
eight shillings per day. they finding their own board likewise; viz., 
till the first of May next." 

For some unrecorded reason, the placa-stating committee either did 
not adjudicate the matter at the time appointed, or failed to give satis- 
faction. The annual meeting took place March 18, ensuing; and, 
after choice of officers, a motion was made and carried to add two 
gentlemen to the before-chosen committee, and abide the judgment of 
the majority. So John Jones. Esq., of Hopkinton, and Mr. Ebeuezer 
Littlefield of Holliston, were added. The 12th of April was appoint- 
ed for the committee to meet at Mr. Ichabod Robinson's, and the 
proper preparations were made to wait on them. Their decision, 
omitting the preamble, stands recorded thus : — 

We " are of opinion, That the Knowl, or Rising Ground at the Country 
Road leading- from Holliston to Mendon, where the Cross Roads meet, [one 
of] which comes from Habijah French's, and on the Southwesterly corner of 
Joseph Sumner's Lot in said Mendon Easterly Precinct, is the best place for 
a Meeting-House to stand on, and will accommodate the Inhabitants of said 
Precinct, with the families in the standing part of Mendon; viz., Josiah 
Adams, Benjamin Green, and Samuel Rawson," &c. 

John Jokes, 

Ebenezek Read, 

Joseph Haven, 

Thomas Marshal, 

Ebn b . Littlefield, 

Committee. 
Mendon, April ye 13, 1742. 

The Joseph Sumner whose lot of land is above mentioned seems to 
have been the son of the first Joseph, the original settler who died in 
173 J. The place stated for the meeting-house being settled with 



MEETING-HOUSE IN PROCESS. 61 

slight chance of much variation, and funds voted for a fair beginning 
of the edifice, there appeared to be no reason for delay. But there 
were fresh hinderances. Several inhabitants of the precinct desired to 
be released from impending pecuniary responsibilities, D3- being allowed 
to go off to old Mendon and to Bellingham as parishioners. Some of 
these even petitioned the Gen. Court for such privileges. Of course 
the new precinct had no members to spare, and strenuously opposed 
all such attempts. Nc could they readily get their meeting-house 
site and common settled to their liking. The building-committee, 
too, were dilatory. Hence, at their meeting, July 2G, 1742, we find 
them voting as follows: That the meeting-house "shall be built on 
a spot of ground northerly of Mr. Robinson's barn, where the Inhabit- 
ants this day set up a stake ; provided those that subscribed to build 
a Frame shall prepare and have it ready to be raised by the 26th 
day of November next ; and provided also, that Mr. Robinson will 
give the Precinct half an acre of land for that purpose." I sup- 
pose that this changed the spot slightly. The owner of the 
desired half-acre of land appears to have been Win. Robinson, the 
father of Ichabod, into whose hands it soon fell. Whether William 
Robinson, a non-resident, would give or sell the land, remained a ques- 
tion. Time did not halt, and* a precinct-meeting was called for Dec. 
15, 1742, to see whether the building-committee intended to provide 
covering, etc., for the meeting-house, or whether a new committee 
must be chosen ; and, especially, whether the money needed must be 
raised by subscription or rate. For the main trouble with the build- 
ers was the lack of ready mone}'. However, when the meeting con- 
vened, the}' remedied this evil ; and the work proceeded, though still 
tardily. At length, after various hinderances, the meeting-house, as 
to its externals, was nearly completed about the 20th September, 
1743; but, internally, very little had been done except to lay a 
temporary floor, and improvise a few crude seats for precinct business- 
meetings. The first of these was held there by adjournment from 
Ichabod Robinson's, on the aforesaid 20th September, 1743. It is 
possible that some sabbath meetings for public worship were also held 
there before the cold season set in ; but there is no record of it in 
either precinct or church chronicles. It would seem from the records 
extant that regular sabbath meetings were held at private dwellings, 
from the organization of the church, April 15, 1741, onward. At first, 
it is probable, they were held once a month, then once a fortnight 
perhaps, and throughout 1743 generally every week, or nearly so. 
After Mr. Bass declined his call to the pastorate, supplies were ob- 
tained from neighboring ministers and available unsettled preachers, 



62 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

until Mr. Arnariah Frost became a candidate for settlement. During 
this period the precinct had its hands full of responsibilities. It was 
hard to get money into the treasury ; the disaffected resorted to Gene- 
ral Court for liberty to join other parishes, and must be resisted ; the 
territorial limits and corporate powers of the precinct were so inexact, 
that redress had to be sought of the Legislature ; preaching and pub- 
lic worship must be provided for ; the meeting-house must be finished, 
and a minister must be settled before the 24th of December, 1743. 
To discharge all these responsibilities, it often happened that funds 
raised by vote for one purpose had to be used temporarily for another ; 
and, when rates could not be cc'lected, resort must be had to volun- 
tary contributions, or to credits. — all which clogged the wheels of 
executive progress. But business and events went forward as best 
they could. 

In ecclesiastical affairs the voun<r church led off vigorously. Thev 
were bound to obtain a pastor in due season. They were pleased with 
3-oung Mr. Frost's ministrations. Again they held a solemn fast, and 
besought God in prayer to direct them in their pursuit. This was on 
the 29th September, 1743. At the meeting which appointed this day 
of fasting and prayer, they " Voted that John Jones, Josiah Adams, 
Capt, Tyler, Dea. Nelson, Jona. Whitney, John Binney, John Chapin, 
Abraham Jones and Joseph Jones be a Committee to attend on the 
Examination of Mr. Arnariah Frost concerning his principles relating 
to the Doctrines of the Gospel, [which was to be made] by some of 
the Ministers," etc. The next day after the fast, viz., Sept. 30, 1743, 
a meeting was held, and " The Church then Voted, all as one, to have 
Mr. Arnariah Frost for their Pastor." Meantime a complete recon- 
ciliation had been effected with Rev. Mr. Dorr and the mother church 
in Mendon, so that the First and Second Churches of Christ in Men- 
don were now in harmony. Pending that reconciliation, the daughter 
church passed the following very pacific and judicious vote: viz., 
"That after a Reconciliation is effected betwixt us and the First 
Church in Mendon, we will not countenance any person or persons 
keeping any private writing containing ill reflections upon the Rev. 
Mr. Dorr's moral character or doctrine, but will endeavor to quash 
every such writing which may be found." This vote was passed Dec. 
8, 1742. A very wise resolve, and probably a very just one, a3 it is 
extremely doubtful whether there was any warrantable ground for such 
" ill reflections." 

On the 31st October, 1743, " Mr. Arnariah Frost gave in the An- 
swer of his acceptance of the Call of the Church in presence of the 
Church and other inhabitants of the Precinct." The Precinct forth- 



MR. FROST'S ORDINATION. 63 

with formally concurred in the call, and in making all necessary pre- 
liminary arrangements for his ordination. This was appointed to 
take place Dec. 21, 1743, just two days within the two years' time 
allowed in the Act of Incorporation. Letters missive were sent out 
to the following-named churches : Framingham, Hopkinton, First 
Mendon, Upton, two in Wrentham, Uxbridge, Holliston, and Med- 
field. The council were to meet at the house of Elder John Jones in 
the Dale. On the 14th of December, a few days preceding Mr. 
Frost's ordination, the church, with the assistance of the Second 
Church in Wrentham and the one in Uxbridge. solemnly ordained 
their two ruling elders elect; viz., Josiah Adams and John Jones. 
In those days ruling elders were officers of potent authority in most 
of the Congregational churches. 

Early a.m. on the appointed 21st December, 1743, the ordaining 
council opened at the house of Eld. Jones. Present, by pastors and 
delegates, Medfield church, the two churches in Wrentham, Hopkin- 
ton church, Uxbridge, Holliston, Framingham, and First Mendon. 
Rev. Mr. Baxter was chosen moderator. "When the Chh. covenant 
had been read and certain preliminaries considered, there arose a seri- 
ous division of views in the council in respect to the standing of the 
new chh. and the powers it claimed for its ruling elders. A minority 
of the council appear to have felt a decided aversion to the assumed 
power of ruling elders to veto and overrule the co-ordinate authority 
of the pastor and majority of the church-members. The} - therefore 
moved the council to send into the church several written questions, 
in order to ascertain what powers the}' invested their ruling elders 
with. 1. " Whether the act of the Brethren of the Church with the 
Ruling Elds, be a valid act without the consent of the Pastor? " 2. 
"Whether the Ruling Elds, and the minor part of the Brethren be 
capable of Negativing the Pastor and major part of the Chh? " 3. 
" Whether the vote of the major part of the Chh. with the Pastor be 
a valid act without the consent of the Ruling Elds.?" The church 
returned answers which satisfied the majority, and also Mr. Frost ; 
but the minority of the council declined to go on with the ordination. 
This minority stood seven to fifteen, and included Rev. Mr. Baxter, 
the moderator. The majority then elected Rev. Mr. Messinger mode- 
rator, and proceeded with the ordination ceremonies. The minority 
disclaimed all desire to disfellowship the new church or its chosen 
pastor, and declared that from sense of duty only they made their 
protest against the assumptions of ruling eldership. Whether their 
protest had much influence, or was itself merely a weather-vane indi- 
cating the course of the wind, I do not know — probably the latter; 



64 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

for ruling eldership gradually died out of Congregational churches, 
and is now barely historical. 

At what hours the ordaining council concluded their discussion, 
their ordination ceremonies, or festive entertainment, is not told in 
the records. Nor is it told ivhere the services were solemnized ; but 
I think we may safely infer that there was considerable delay in the 
performances, and that the}" all took place in the commodious mansion 
of the Joneses, latterly known as the Old House in Hopedale. "What 
the record does tell is, that Mr. Frost formally joined the church as 
a member ; that the church made choice of Rev. Mr. Haven to give 
the charge, and the council of Rev. Mr. "Webb to give the right 
hand of fellowship ; and that Rev. Messrs. Messinger, Webb, and 
Haven " assisted in and carried on the solemnities of the day." The 
account ends with the following words : '* The Rev. Mr. Messinger 
preached an excellent sermon from 2 Tim. 2 : 15 : ' Study to show 
thyself approved unto God,' &c. Rev. Mr. Haven gave the Charge, 
and the Rev. Mr. Webb the Rt. Hand of Fellowship — all being carried 
on with great decency and solemnity." Doubtless the most ample and 
luscious refreshments of those times were furnished for the occasion, 
aud the multitude rejoiced together in the triumphant establishment 
of the Easterly Precinct and Second Church of Christ in Mendon. 



THE NEW PRECINCT AND CHURCH. 65 



CHAPTER V. 

PRECINCT AND CHURCH DOWN TO 1780. 

Principal Acts, Actors, and Events of the Precinct. — Many Minor Details necessa- 
rily passed over. — Concerning the Settlement, Salary, and Support of Mr. 
Frost, at first by Rate, and finally by Contribution. — Concerning the Site, 
Erection, and Slow Completion of the Meeting-House. — Some Curious Par- 
ticulars. —Concerning the First Burying-Place, our Oldest Graveyard. — The 
Proceedings. — Names of Precinct Moderators, Clerks, Executive Committee, 
Treasurers, etc. 

Church Affairs. — Brief Narrative of Transactions, Experiences, and Events. — 
Number of Admissions to Membership, Baptisms of Children, etc. — Its Strict 
Accordance as to Covenant, Creed, Ordinances, and Discipline, with their Con- 
gregational Standards. —Later some Relaxation. — Its Complement of Officers. 
— Its Sore Troubles for a Few Years with Certain Seceders, or Come-outers. — 
Its Relations with the Baptists. — How it compromised with Certain Preju- 
dices against using in the Pulpit a Large Bible douated to it. — Its Succession 
of Ruling Elders and Deacons. 

PRINCIPAL ACTS, ACTORS, AND EVENTS OF THE PRECINCT. 

HAVING set forth the origin, organization, and establishment of 
the precinct with its church, as culminating in the settlement of 
a " learned orthodox Minister," Dec. 21, 1743, 1 will devote this chap- 
ter to a sketch of the principal acts, actors, and events of the precinct 
and church down to the year 1780, when Milford was incorporated as 
a town, giving the first section to those of the precinct. It will not 
be expected that I should be able to cover so much ground, and be 
very minute. I must pass over in silence the mass of minor details, 
man}" of which I should be glad to notice, and confine myself to par- 
ticulars which seem sufficiently important or interesting to require 
attention in this volume. Happily the existing precinct and church 
records are quite full, well preserved, and accessible ; so that curious 
inquirers, who wish to know more than I have space to tell, can easily 
search it out for themselves. 

The chief responsibility of the precinct related to preaching, the 
meeting-house, and the buying- place. To these there were man}' 
incidentals of importance. Occasional specialties, of course, de- 
manded consideration. They had provided for regular ministrations 
of the gospel, by the settlement of Rev. Mr. Frost. How was he to 
have a comfortable home, and be supported from year to year? The 



66 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

original contract between the parties was, that he should have a " set- 
tlement " of one hundred pounds payable within two years, and an 
annual " salary " of forty pounds payable in halves on the first days 
of May and November ; but he was to be paid in the paper currency 
of those times, which was of rather uncertain value. It is therefore 
impossible to estimate accurately the real worth of his one hundred 
pounds settlement, and forty pounds salary. The Province of Massa- 
chusetts had put in circulation, previous to 1740, not less than three 
considerable emissions of bills of credit. The first was called " old 
tenor," the second "middle tenor," and the third "new tenor." 
Their gradual depreciation was great, and caused much distress 
among the people ; but Mr. Frost took his chance with his flock. 
How was the money pledged for his support to be raised? There 
was a "Ministry Fund" in Mendon, arising from glebe-lands origi- 
nally set apart for that purpose. The easterly precinct was allowed 
a portion of the annual income of that fund. Their dividend of this 
" Ministry Money," some six to seven pounds a year, was regularly 
turned in to eke out Rev. Mr. Frost's salary. All the rest of their 
revenue, for man}* years, had to be raised by direct taxation, i.e., 
"by rate," as the phrase then was. Voluntary contribution com- 
menced in 177G, amid the agitations, troubles, and necessities of the 
American Revolution. "Whether Mr. Frost got his one hundred 
pounds settlement money within the two years, as by contract prom- 
ised, is doubtful ; but probably interest was paid him on all arrear- 
ages till he obtained his full dues. This ma}- be inferred from his 
recorded receipt, dated March 1, 1752, which is thus expressed: 
" Received of the Precinct Treasurer the full of my settlement and 
salary to this present date." His salary continued at fort}' pounds 
till May 16, 1748, when the precinct, pursuant to an Act of Gen. 
Court for the relief of clergymen suffering from a stinted support and 
hard times, voted him an extra of thirty-five pounds. In 1750 they 
raised his regular salary to fifty pounds, "lawful money." In 1752 
they added to his fifty pounds their share of the Mendon interest 
accruing on the " Ministry Money." In 1753 they voted him £53, 
6s. 8d., and their dividend of said interest. In 1755 they raised 
him sixty pounds, besides that interest ; and after some years they 
made him up £66, 13s. id. This was the height of his support down 
to 1776. Then, Sept. 16, the record says the vote was "called, 
whether it be the minds of the precinct to support Rev. Mr. Frost by 
free contribution the present year, for every one that sees cause thus 
to contribute to carry such contribution to the Rev. Mr. Frost, and 
for him to keep the account, and make return to the precinct at the 



FINISHING THE MEETING-HOUSE. 67 

expiration of the 3-ear; which vote proved to be in the affirmative." 
The same method continued till the precinct was merged in the newly 
incorporated town, 1780. flow well it worked, how much the pastor 
received, or in what articles of value the contributions consisted, is 
not told. Probably, in those stirring and trying times, his annual 
income was rather scanty ; but, having arrived at the period when the 
town superseded the precinct, we will pause and take up the pro- 
ceedings of the latter in respect to their 

MEETING-HOUSE. 

At the time of Mr. Frost's ordination, as stated in the preceding 
chapter, the meeting-house was but a decently covered frame. Its 
outside carpentiy and glazing had been finished in the plain substan- 
tial style of those times ; but the interior had as j-et onl}- a temporary 
flooring and seating. All the inside work remained to be done ; nor 
had the edifice been underpinned, excepting at the supporting points, 
nor touched by the painter's brush. I will sketch its subsequent his- 
tory down to the incorporation of the precinct into a town, — 
commencing where I left off in the last chapter. 

In the warrant of the Executive Committee for a precinct-meeting 
on the 30th Ma}-, 1744, among other articles to be acted on, there 
was one " To see whether the Precinct will choose a Committee to 
provide, and go on and finish the Precinct Meeting House to the 
turning of the key." Nothing having been done, the same was 
repeated in the next warrant, which was for a meeting Sept. 17, 
17-44. Then " Voted that the Committee already chosen on the affair 
of the Meeting House proceed to lay the floor." Jan. 22, 1744-45, 
" Voted to allow and reserve five feet in width round on the inside of 
this Precinct's Meeting House for pews, except convenient room for 
the pulpit and stairs and doors. Voted to leave three feet and a half 
for an alley from the front door to the pulpit." Declining further 
dependence on the old committee, " Voted that Mr. Jonathan Howard 
[Hayward] , Mr. Joshua Green and Mr. John Chapin be a Committee 
to proceed in the affair of the Meeting House, so far as to build a pul- 
pit, and Deacons' seat, and the body seats ; [also] to build the stairs 
and lay the gallery floor." March 5 next following, " Voted to raise 
£80, old tenor, towards finishing the Meeting House." Aug. 30, 
1745, " Voted that Ichabod Robinson should be added to the Com- 
mittee that was chosen to finish the Precinct's Meeting House." 
"Voted to build one pew for the Minister's family, . . . where the 
Rev. Mr. Frost shall choose to have it. Voted to give the Elders 
and Deacons [space] on the floor to build one pew on the contrary 



68 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

side of the pulpit from Mr. Frost's pew. Voted to sell the floor or 
pew room in this Meeting House; viz., all that has not been already 
disposed of by gift. Voted that Thomas Tenney, Jona. Howard, 
Dea. Daniel Corbett, Lieut. Wrn. Sheffield and Daniel Sumner should 
act in behalf of the Precinct in that affair. Voted that the remains 
of the finishing of the Meeting House and the underpinning be left to 
the Precinct Committee, chosen for the finishing of the Meeting 
House." It will be readily seen that mainly floor-room was sold or 
given for pews, and that the pews were to be built \>y individual 
owners for themselves. This was the general, if not universal, cus- 
tom of those times. 

" March 31, '46 ; Voted to go on and finish the Meeting House, so 
far as the pew-money shall accommodate in that affair. Voted to 
raise £100, old tenor, to finish said Meetins: House. Voted to ceil 
the walls, or inside, of this Meeting House with boards so high from 
the lower floor as to extend to the bottom, or lower part, of the win- 
dows. Voted to ceil with boards four feet high round in the galleries, 
from the hinder part of the gallery floors, and from the stairs so high 
as is ceiled in the gallery. Voted to lath and plaster the walls in this 
Meeting House, all that has not been already. Voted to ceil with 
boards, and also to lath and plaster overhead all under the beams, 
and likewise to lay a floor over all the joists that are in the beams. 
Voted to build the breast-work round the galleries, and make the 
seats in the galleries, and cap all the windows, and whatsoever is 
necessary to finish the inside of the Meeting House, except building 
the pews." " Voted that the Committee already chosen . . . should 
go on and finish their Meeting House. Voted that the pews on each 
side of the pulpit should extend so far forward as the Deacons' seat." 
So man}' votes at one meeting seem to have meant business, yet no 
great haste was made. " Jan. 12, '46-7 ; Voted to sell the pews in 
the galleries ; " which was left to the finishing committee. At the 
adjourned meeting, Jan. 26, this vote was reconsidered, and the gal- 
lery-pews ordered to continue in possession of the precinct. March 
3 ensuing, " Voted to sell the pews in the galleries, provided they 
be sold to the satisfaction of the Precinct. Voted that Capt. Nathan 
Tyler, Ebenezer Boynton and Dea. Nathaniel Nelson should be a 
Committee to sell said pews, and to bring the monej' . . . into the 
Precinct Treasurv. Voted to raise £50, old tenor, towards finishing: 
the Meeting House." Aug. 26, 1747, "Voted to Jonathan Howard 
8s., old tenor, for recording a Deed of the land on which the Meeting 
House now stands." This vote may receive explanation farther 
along. Nov. 16 following: "Voted to choose Capt. Nathan Tyler, 



DEED OF MEETING-HOUSE SITE. 69 

Lieut. Wm. Sheffield, Dea. Daniel Corbett. Mr. Thos. Tenney and 
Mr. Eben r . Boynton to seat the Meeting House." On the 30th of 
the same month, " Voted to exchange land with Mr. Ichabod Robin- 
son ; . . . and that the Bounds of the land that the Meeting House 
stands on begin at the corner of Mr. Ichabod Robinson's fence, on 
the north side of said Meeting House, then running with a direct line 
to the southernmost corner, or end of Mr. Robinson's wall, on the 
north side of his barn. Capt. Nathan Tyler, Lieut. Wm. Sheffield, 
Mr. Jona. Howard, Mr. Thos. Tenney and Dea. Nathl. Nelson, were 
chosen a Committee to [give] an acquittance to Mr. Thos. Wiswall, 
and take a Deed of Mr. Ichabod Robinson of the land on which the 
Easterly Precinct's Meeting House stands." From all this it would 
appear that the precinct first had land deeded to them from Thomas 
"Wiswall, which was afterwards exchanged under an arrangement 
made with Mr. Robinson. The first Deed must therefore be the one 
which Jonathan Howard, alias Hayward. received eight shillings for 
getting recorded. The following is a verbatim copy of Robinson's 
deed, so far as concerns its description of the premises, as attested 
by the Register of Worcester Deeds : — 

" A certain tract or piece of land sei'mate and lying and being in Mendon 
Easterly Precinct where the Meeting House for the public worship of God 
now stands, luted & bounded as followeth: Beginning at a heap of stones 
at the road that leads from Ichabod Robinson's to Sher6ourn, being the South- 
easterly corner; then bounded Northerly upon the road that leads from Sher- 
bourn road to Ebenezer Boynton — nineteen rod and three quarters of a rod 
to a heap of stones, being the Northeasterly corner ; then bounded Westerly 
upon Ichabod Robinson lands eight rod and a half to a heap of stones, being 
two rod & four feet from the Southwesterly corner of the meeting house 
where it now stands; then bounded Southwesterly upon Ichabod Robinson 
land fourteen rod to a heap of stones by the said road that leads to Sher- 
bourn; being the Southwesterly corner; then bounded upon Sherbourn road 
six rod & an half to the first mentioned bounds, & said peace of land being 
six rod and — half wide where the meeting house now stands and it being 
fourteen rod from s d meeting house to the road that leads to Sherbourn. 
The whole of s d peace of land, containing half an acre & twenty four rod be 
it more or less." 

"Worcester Ss. The above is a true copy of the description in the 
record of a warranty deed from Ichabod Robinson to the inhabitants 
of the Easterly Precinct in Mendon, dated by acknowledgment Dec. 
17, 1748, and recorded in the Registry of Deeds, Book 27, p. 507. 

Attest : Harvey B. Wilder, Reg". 

Probably the specified boundaries of these premises were sufficiently 
intelligible to all parties concerned in 1 748 ; but the subsequent altera- 



70 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

tions of the designated roads have rendered them somewhat obscure 
to inquirers of the present generation. It would be interesting to 
know exactly where Sherborn road originally lay in relation to the 
parish common, and where the road lay that led out of Sherborn road 
to Ebenezer Boynton's. But these questions need not be discussed 
here. It suffices to know that the easterly precinct obtained, after 
some delav, a satisfactory title to their meeting-house site and 
common. 

At a precinct-meeting. Aug. 26, 1748, "'Voted to repair the Meet- 
ing House glass. Voted to color the Meeting House doors, window 
frames, weather boards, corner boards, eve troughs and the tAvo bot- 
tom boards." At a meeting on the 16th December, the same year, 
held by adjournment from the 12th, it seems to be implied that the 
meeting-house was at last nearly or quite finished ; that the com- 
mittee had been reckoned with ; and that the precinct felt too poor to 
allow them any thing for their official services. For it was tried, 
" whether the Precinct would allow the Meeting House Committee any 
thing for their trouble serving on that affair ; which vote passed in 
the negative." Then it was tried, " whether the Precinct would allow 
Samuel Howard [any thing] for collecting the £200 rate ; and said 
vote passed in the negative." So those official servants had to con- 
tent themselves with their laurels of honor alone. 

Nothing more important -than slight repairs and alterations took 
place in the meeting-house for the next twenty years. The only one 
of the alterations worth mentioning is a mere curiosity ; as such I 
will notice it. March 9, 1758, "Voted to give Mr. Jesse Sumner 
and Mr. Nathaniel Cheney, provided that they take in three partners, 
liberty to build a pew over the men's stairs, provided that they build 
so high as in no wise to hurt the passing up and down said stairs." 
It is probable that said pew was built, though nothing more is said 
about it. I have tried in vain to get any trace of that Mr. Jesse 
Sumner's genealogy. The pew must have been rather unique in some 
respects. The precinct had, of course, to bear all the incidental ex- 
penses, as well as more solid cost of their meeting-house, from get- 
ting its site stated down to the merest repair. They annually chose a 
person to open, shut, sweep, and take care of it, a sort of sexton, 
who was regularly voted a moderate compensation. 

Thus matters went on till 1769, when it began to be felt by some 
in the precinct that their meeting-house needed important repairs, 
additions, or renewal. So, under the warrant for a meeting. Sept. 
11, of that year, the question of repairing came up. It was nega- 
tived, but not allowed to sleep. The next warrant contained an arti- 



OLDEST BURYING-PLACE. 71 

cle "To sec whether the Precinct will do any thing as to repairing 
said Precinct's Meeting-House, or make any addition to said House." 
March 6, 1770, negatived squarely. The next warrant suggested 
" repairing or new building." Again negatived. The same fate fol- 
lowed renewed propositions in January, 1771. In March next follow- 
ing there was a struggle to get an addition voted. It prevailed for a 
moment, but was recalled. The friends of improvement and their 
opponents repeatedly contested the question in its various forms, 
sometimes quite sharply, till at length it was submerged in the great 
common struggle to get the precinct set off from Mendon, and incor- 
porated as a town. So the old meeting-house experienced no mate- 
rial chansre till after 1780. We will now turn back and see what the 
precinct did concerning a 

BURYING-PLACE. 

The following abstract of proceedings will indicate the course of 
events. Precinct-meeting, March 3, 1740-47: "Voted that Dea. 
Nathaniel Jones [apply] to Mr. Amos Binney, and get security of 
half an acre of land for a Burying Place, where several of this Pre- 
cinct have already buried their dead." This implies a previous nego- 
tiation or understanding between the parties, in pursuance of which 
several burials had taken place on the premises. Whether Amos 
Binney was a resident in the precinct, is doubtful ; but, if so, it would 
seem that about this time he removed to Hull, where be formerly 
belonged. It seems also, from subsequent transactions, that he and 
Thomas Bailey were joint owners of the land whereof the said half- 
acre was a part. Bailey, too, a native of Hull, returned to that place. 
Aug. 26, 1748, "Capt. Nathan Tyler, Dea. Daniel Corbett, Mr. 
Habijah French. Mr. Daniel Sumner, and Mr. Jona. Bond were chosen 
a Committee to purchase a Burying-Place." But meanwhile Men- 
don proprietors donated ten acres of their common land to the east- 
erly precinct for a burying- place. (See proprietor's small record-book, 
p. 24, date Jan. 30, 1748.) March 1, 1748-49, the precinct voted 
to sell said ten acres to John Chapin for ten pounds, old tenor, and 
devote the money to the purchase of a burying-place. This sale was 
made, and the Mendon proprietors, May 27, 1749, "Laid out for 
John Chapin twelve acres of land, viz., — ten acres of land that was 
granted by the proprietors of Mendon to the Easterly precinct in said 
Mendon for a burying place, and two acres of his own, 11th Division : 
laid together east from Jona. Whitney's house," etc., near Holliston 
line. (See small book above referred to. p. 30.) Sept. 11, 1749, 
the precinct " Voted to buy a piece of laud of Mr. Isaac Parkhurst, 



72 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

near the Easterly-Precinct Meeting-House. Mr. Ichabod Robinson, 
Samuel Wheelock, Jona. Whitney, John Chapin and James Sumner 
were chosen a Committee to act in that affair." The most diligent 
search has failed to find any further record or reference to this com- 
mittee's negotiation with Isaac Parkhurst. For some unaccountable 
reason the matter fell through, so far as Parkhurst was concerned. 
Nor can any deed or title to the burying-place be found on record, 
securing the same to the precinct, except the following : Under date 
of Oct. 1, 1747, " Thomas Bailey, Cordwainer, and Amos Binney, 
Mariner, both of Hull in the County of Suffolk." executed a power 
of attorney "rivimr Rev. Amariah Frost of Mendon authority " to sell, 
alien, convey and confirm unto any body that will buy, a certain piece 
of land lying and being in the Township of Mendon, containing near 
a hundred acres, more or less." (See Registry of Deeds, Worces- 
ter, book 23, p. 481). ) In virtue of this power of attorney, Rev. 
Mr. Frost sold the said land to Ephraim Twitchell, jun., and conve}-ed 
the same to him by a deed dated Aug. 2, 1748, recorded in the Regis- 
try of Deeds, Worcester, book 26, page 476. This tract of land 
constituted all, or certainly a large part, of the Twitchell farm, here- 
tofore familiarly known among us as thus designated. It included the 
whole of our oldest burying-place or cemetery, the one under notice. 
But the deed from Frost to Twitchell made the following reservation : 
" Excepting out of said lands three-quarters of an acre for a Bury- 
ing-place as shall be agreed upon most comodious therefor upon Nath' 1 
Morse line.'''' It is presumed that the precinct authorities agreed 
with Twitchell on the situation and boundaries of this burial-ground 
reservation ; but no record of it has been found, nor an}- further title 
save undisturbed possession. The case is rather singular and curi- 
ous. Aug. 27, 17">3, "Voted to buy a funeral cloth," and that Mr. 
Ichabod Robinson purchase it. Nothing is said about a bier or a 
hearse, though probably they had at least some sort of bier. But the 
"funeral cloth" was then and long afterwards deemed fashionably 
important. It was a large black spread of woollen cloth, often bor- 
dered and tasselled, and called the pall. At funerals, and especially 
the more public ones, it was spread over the coffin, and added much 
to the solemnit}' as well as dignity of the occasion. At this same 
meeting it was moved to fence the burying-place, but not carried. 
The same decision was repeated Nov. 8, 17o6. But Aug. 29, 1757, 
the movers had better success. " Voted to fence the Burvins: Place 
with stone wall four feet and a half high, by the loth of November 
next. Voted that Josiah Chapin, Dca. John Chapin and Samuel 
Torre v should be a Committee to take care that the abovesaid work 



PRECINCT INCIDENTALS AND ITS OFFICERS. 73 

be done, &c. Voted that there should be one pair of Bars at the east 
end of said Burying-Place." This first and only cemetery of the 
precinct never received very extraordinary attention in the way of 
ornamentation or even necessary care. Such was not then the fashion. 
Tolerable fencing was deemed sufficient, with perhaps occasional en- 
deavors to keep down the brush. This last was aimed at in the fol- 
lowing vote, Aug. 28, 1759: "Voted to let Eleazer Wight have the 
use of the Burying Place the remainder of this year ; provided he 
clears up the under brush well and burns it, &c." It was afterwards 
offered for rent, but seldom sought for as desirable. So it received 
few flattering attentions, and in 1780 passed under the superintend- 
ence of the town. 

In the outset of this chapter I alluded to other specialties of pre- 
cinct responsibilit} - . The most important of these related to a series 
of measures for bringing about the incorporation of the precinct as a 
town. I will therefore defer them to another chapter, particularly 
devoted to the induction and inauguration of our town. It may seem 
to some minds that I have bestowed undue attention on the history of 
the precinct, inasmuch as I cannot reasonably give half the amount 
to younger religious societies. It should, however, be considered that 
the precinct originally comprehended nearly the whole of our present 
territory ; that it was long an influential body politic, including nearly 
all the ancestral population within our limits ; and that it was. in fact, 
ineipiently the town of Milford. In this view, the story of its efforts, 
experiences, and progress deservedly commands more detailed elabo- 
ration than any of our comparatively recent religious societies. But 
these shall not be slighted. The ancient Congregational church, so 
closely identified with the precinct, requires a few pages of condensed 
narration, in order to round out this chapter. Before I add these 
I judge it interesting to give a catalogue of the principal precinct offi- 
cers from 17-41 to 1780, that the present and coming generations may 
know who were its successive principal actors. 

MODERATORS. 

Joua. Hay ward, Jr., alias Jona. Howard, at 8 meetings; Xathl. 
Nelson, at 16; Wm. Sheffield, at 10; Nathan Tyler, at 7; Josiah 
Adams, at 3 ; Daniel Corbett, at 11 ; Samuel Scammell. at 5 ; Eben- 
ezer Boynton, at 1 ; Daniel Sumner, at 1 : John Chapin, at 5 ; Joua. 
Whitney, at 1 ; Icbabod Robinson, at 1 ; Saml. Wheelock, at 3 ; 
Jasper Daniell, at 2 ; Saml. Hay ward, alias Howard, at 2 ; Wm. 
Jennison, at 12 ; Ichabod Thayer, at 1 ; Saml. Torrey, at 2 ; Josiah 
Chapin, at 1 ; Gideon Albee, at 2; John Ellis, at 1 ; Saml. Warren 



74 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

at 4 ; Gershora Nelson at 2 ; Joseph Gibbs, at 1 ; Josiah Wheelock, 
at 1 ; Jona. Jones, at 2 ; Amariah Frost, Jr., at 1. This covers the 
period from 1741 to 1780. 

CLERKS. 

William Cheney, Jr.. to 1747 ; Samuel L. Scammell, 1748, and his 
son Samuel L. from 17G1 to 1769 ; James Sumner from 1748 to 1759 ; 
then William Jennison for two years to 1761; then Caleb Cheney 
from 1769 to 1780. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Down to 1750 the following names appear: Daniel Lovett, Nathan 
Tyler, Nathl. Nelson. Jona. Hayward. Jr., John Jones, Jr., Thos. 
Wiswall, John Rockwood. Jona. Whitney, Thos. Tenney. Daniel 
Corbett. John Chapin, Daniel Sumner, Ichabod Robinson, Joseph 
Sumner. Thos. White, Jona. Bond, Habijah French, Samuel Howard, 
alias Hayward. Sainl. Wheelock, Win, Cheney, Jr., Ichabod Thayer, 
Obadiah Wheelock, Jonas Parkhurst, Jasper Daniell, Joseph Jones, 
and Jacob Thayer. From 1750 to 17G0, besides some of the fore- 
going, we find the following: Thos. Bond, Jr., Daniel Wedge, Thos. 
Beard, Abraham Jones, James Sumner, Nehemiah Nelson, Josiah 
Chapin, Benj. Howard, Jr., Thos. Chapin, Nathaniel Rawson, Isaac 
Tenney, Gideon Albee, Ebenr. Wheelock, Ezra Thompson, Josiah 
Wheelock, David Howard. Wm. Legg. Samuel Warren, Seth Thayer, 
Jno. Chapin, Jr., Reuben Rockwood, Ephraim Twitched, Isaac Park- 
hurst. Jno. Hill, Isaac Kent, Eli Partridge. Between 1760 and 1770 
the following new names are recorded: David Penniman, Daniel 
Hayward, Josiah Nelson, David Cutler, James Hayward, Saml. 
Torrcy, Azariah Newton, Eleazer Wight, Stephen Thompson, Jno. 
Howard, Moses Chapin, Ebenr. Sumner, Caleb Cheney, Saml. Thayer, 
Joseph Penniman, Saml. Scammell, Benj. Vickery, Jno. Sprague, 
Gershom Legg, James Albee, Obadiah Wood, Joseph Jones, Jr., 
Seth Nelson, Jona. Jones, Elihu Warfield, Wm. Jennison, Josiah 
Kilburn, Jno. Ellis, Jesse Penniman, Benj. Beal, Ebenr. Read. 
From 1770 to 1780 we find the following new names: Elias Whit- 
ney, Warfield Hayward, Saml. Chapin, Stephen Albee, Abraham 
Jones, Jr., Joseph Gibbs, Ichabod Newton, Moses Gage, Jr., Jno. 
Jones, Nathl. Parkhurst, James Battle, Oliver Daniell, Michael 
Madden, Mordecai Day, Saml. French, Ephraim Chapin, Jesse 
Hayward, Adams Chapin, Jno. Robinson, Elijah Thayer, Ebenr. 
Parkhurst, Aaron Merrificld, David Hill, Ephraim Parkhurst, Ichabod 
Thayer, Jr., Jonas Parkhurst, Jr., Amariah Frost, Jr. 

I omit specification of assessors, collectors, etc., as unnecessary. 



PRECINCT OFFICERS— CHURCH AFFAIRS. 75 

Many of the forenamed served in these offices with others not men- 
tioned. Two or three of the persons named resided in what was 
called "the standing part of Mendon," — Nathan Tyler, Josiah 
Adams, etc. Those gentlemen with their families and estates did not 
continue their connection with the easterly precinct more than eight 
or ten years, being released on their own request to re-connect them- 
selves with the old parish. It seems proper to add a list of the 

TREASURERS. 

These were the following named: Jona. Hayward, Jr., to 1744; 
Nathaniel Nelson from 1744 to 1753; Ichabod Robinson from 1753 
to 175G; Daniel Sumner from 175G to 1760; Nathl. Nelson again 
from 17G0 to 1772; then Win. Jennison down to 1775; next Jonas 
Parkhurst for the year 1776 ; and finally Jona. Jones onward to 1780. 

CHURCH AFFAIRS. 

The remainder of this chapter must be given to a brief narrative of 
transactions, experiences, and events pertaining to the church. This 
was the religious heart of the precinct. It was entitled "the Second 
Church of Christ in Mendon." We brought down its history to the 
close of Rev. Mr. Frost's ordination services. It then had. including 
the pastor, twenty-seven male members. Down to 17S0 the whole 
number of male and female admissions was two hundred and forty- 
eight. A considerable portion of these came in by letters of dismis- 
sion and commendation from other churches, and not a few from the 
mother church in Mendon ; but the larger portion were the home- 
products of Mr. Frost's ministry. What the diminutions were, 
from death, dismission to other churches, etc.. during this period, I 
cannot accurately state ; but they were probably small. The whole 
number of baptisms under its auspices, for the nearly thirty-nine years 
of this period, if I have not miscounted, was seven hundred and four- 
teen, of which all but about twenty were infants and comparatively 
young persons sponsorially covenanted for. The covenant, confes- 
sion of faith, ordinances, and discipline of the church were in close 
accordance with the old Cambridge Platform, and what were then 
considered the highest standards of Congregational order in New 
England. They were stringent observers of the sabbath, of the 
Lord's Supper once in two months, of special seasons for fasting and 
prayer, and of infant baptism within their membership. Their records 
of admonition, suspension, and excommunication, show that they held 
a stiff rein for the suppression of intemperance, unchastity, profanity, 
evil speaking, and all the vices to which the carnal mind is prone, 



76 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

even in professedly regenerate people ; nor were they disposed to 
license insubordination and self-willed independence against the 
authority of their church. Its rules, regulations, and requirements 
must be respected. To enforce these they sometimes found a difficult 
task. I have heretofore stated that their first two ruling elders were 
elected and solemnly ordained previously to the ordination of Rev. 
Mr. Frost. Those were the venerable John Jones of the Dale, and 
Josiah Adams, whose residence was in "the standing part of the 
Town," where George W. Crombe lately dwelt, or near there. Both 
these had been made ruling elders some years before in the mother- 
church. Their first chosen deacon, Nathaniel Nelson, had also held 
that office in the ancient Mendon church ; but for their second dea- 
con they elected a younger and fresher man, viz., Abraham Jones, a 
son of Elder John. These officers were also formally ordained, but 
not till they had been proved according to apostolic injunction ; for 
in those days no laxity of church order must be winked at, as is 
shown by the following entry: "Feb. 24, 1748: Then, the Church 
being present, and after a serious examination of our elected Deacons 
into their Doctrinal and Experimental knowledge of the Christian 
Religion, and into their qualifications requisite for their sustaining the 
office of a Deacon, and being found blameless ; after the delivery of a 
sermon from 1 Tim. 3: 10, 'Let these also be first proved, then let 
them use the office of a Deacon — being found blameless;' — the 
Church renewed their election and invitation of Nathaniel Nelson 
and Abraham Jones to the office of Deaconship in this 2 Chh. of Xt. 
in Mendon, and an agreeable answer being returned by them, mani- 
festing their renewed acceptance of the call and invitation to the 
office of a Deacon in serving Tables : then proceeded and ordained 
them respectively to the office of a Deacon, by giving them a Charge 
suitable to the occasion, together with the laying on of the hands of 
the Presbytery." We can but admire the nicety, precision, and for- 
mality of this whole proceeding, though perhaps not the rhetoric in 
which it stands recorded. This last, I suppose, was Mr. Frost's, as 
he was made the standing scribe of the church, and appears to have 
officiated in that capacity throughout his long pastorate. It is re- 
markable, however, that this punctilious formality in respect to the 
ordination of ruling elders and deacons was never repeated. Unless 
it has escaped my eye in examining the church records, such was 
the fact. It was proposed, and probably intended, in several in- 
stances, but postponed from time to time for various reasons, till 
finally omitted altogether ; and at length the election of ruling elders 
was silently relinquished. The deaconship was perpetuated ; but the 



THE COME-OUTER SCHISM. 77 

ceremony of ordination in Congregational churches seems to have got 
reduced to great simplicity*. 

Having thus seen how completely the Second Church in Mendon was 
organized, officered, and started on its career, the story of that career 
down to 1780 next interests us. It had its trials, perplexities, and 
adversities, as do even the best of human communities and individu- 
als. One of the most notable of these was a sort of secession, or 
come-outer insurrection, of certain dissatisfied members. This dis- 
turbance commenced as early as 1748, and lasted some ten years. 
The origin of the agitation is wrapped in obscurity. It may have 
been one of the strav outgrowths of the great revivals under Rev. 
George Whitefield, and other preachers who caught his inspirations. 
These had awakened a wide-spread religious interest, and excited a 
great deal of thinking as well as zeal in susceptible minds, both cleri- 
cal and lay. Many of the laity became dissatisfied with the old cus- 
tomary style of preaching and church routine. It seemed to them too 
cold and lifeless. Meantime, the Baptists were breaking ground here 
and there, and assailing what thev deemed the errors of the " Stand- 
ing Order." Unlearned ministers, lay preachers, and self-authorized 
exhorters had begun to hold religious meetings wherever the}* could 
find an opening, without permission or countenance from the settled 
Congregational pastors and church dignitaries. Herein was mischief 
and vexation to the old ecclesiastical rulers. A touch of this conta- 
gion disturbed " the 2d Church of Christ in Mendon." Meetings of 
a secessive character were held in the easterly precinct, chiefly in the 
North Purchase and contiguous neighborhoods, for several years, 
which greatly annoyed Mr. Frost and his conservative brethren. 
For a while the movement seemed to threaten serious consequences ; 
but the pastor and his coadjutors carried themselves with so much 
moderation, firmness, and prudence, that they finally triumphed. 
The leading spirit and troubler of Israel was one Samuel Hovey. I 
had to take considerable pains to learn definitely who he was, and for 
a long time failed. "Whether he was the '-William Hovey" named 
in the Incorporating Act of the Precinct, or some family relative, or 
a stranger of the same surname, I got no information. My only 
starting clew was one solitary sentence in the church records, viz., 
" Voted to send a letter to our seceding brethren and to those that 
should attempt to set up one Hovey, a lay Teacher, over them, on 
May the 31, 1749, containing objections against their proceeding in 
that affair." At length, in searching our Worcester Registry of 
Deeds, I found certain conveyances of land in the No. Purchase to 
and from Samuel Hovey. He had a small homestead in the Corbett 



T8 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

neighborhood, at the time of the secession difficulties, which he sold 
to Robert Corbett in 176'J, having then removed to Newtown, N.H. 
This could have been no other than the k *one Hovey " of the ch. 
records. He seems to have been a man of considerable influence. 

Among the members of the church who came under discipline for 
their secessionism were the following named : Samuel Warren, Daniel 
Corbett, Jr., Eunice Lathome, Merc}' Thompson, Azariah Newton 
and wife, Jona. Hayward and wife. Benj. Hayward, Jr., Nathl. Jones, 
Jr., Barnabas Rawson, David Cutler. Isaac Tenney, Mary Rawson, 
James Sumner, Lydia "Whitney, Rachel Jones, etc. These persons 
were summoned to give their reasons for what was styled their " with- 
draw," " separation," k ' absconding or absenting from our Commun- 
ion," and the like. They were visited by special committees, written 
to, remonstrated with, and admonished ; ' with all long suffering and 
doctrine," but not harshlv treated. Most of them were at length 
won back into the fold. Some of them, however, were blunt and 
stubborn come-outers until mollified. This will appear by the follow- 
ing extracts from the church records : — 



3 



"Jan. 24th, 1748-9. Met according to adjournment, and heard the Rea- 
sons of Samuel Warren, Daniel Corbett, Jr. and Eunice Lathoine for their 
withdraw from us. Which are as follows, viz. — 

1. Because we do not find that food for our souls by the word that was 
preached here which we have found in the word of God and elsewhere. 

2. Reason is That we think that the doctrines which Christ taught when 
on earth are not taught here; we mean that the truth is held in unrighteous- 
ness, by not being delivered out of love and good will for these two years 
past; and because some of the truths of God's word are denied; viz. 1. You 
deny the knowledge of the brethren any further than by their lives and con- 
versation, contrary to John 15: 2. 2, Because you preach works and press 
it harder than you do faith, according to our conception; that is, you direct 
sinners to seek the Lord before faith. 

3. Reason of our Withdraw is, because we don't look upon this Church 
to be a visible chh. of Xt. — we mean, to be built up according to his Word 
and Spirit, as in 1 Cor. 12: 12, 13, 14; Matt. 1G: 14-19 vs.; 1 John 1: 2, &c. 

4. Reason; We think that the Religion of Jesus Christ is not maintained 
and upheld in its purity here; we mean that that Religion can't be the 
Religion of Jesus Christ that binds men's estates and Consciences to main- 
tain it; and that is your case with relation to the salary — depending more 
upon the Civil Law to support it than the power of God; obliging every one 
to pay a certain proportion with them for the support of the Ministry, and 
binding our consciences to attend in your way of worship. 

5. Reason is ; that the Lord hath made us see that this Church is Baby- 
lon and a synagogue of Satan; we mean that ye hold faith in certain doc- 
trines, such as an uncertainty about the Estates of the Converted, and 



STRATEGY TOWARDS THE BAPTISTS. 79 

denying a possibility by a particular faith to be certain that any Elect ves- 
sel as to the particular person -who shall be bro't home to Christ. 

6. Lastly; because the Lord hath made us to see that this Church are 
thieves and robbers, because they come not in by the door; we mean, by 
Christ, by love to God and one towards another, and according to the Scrip- 
tures; we mean by faith." 

Several other more or less similar statements of reasons were at dif- 
ferent times sent in by the seceders. I need copy no more of them. 
Doubtless they seemed clear, profound, and conclusive to their sub- 
scribers : but they were all voted unsatisfactory by the church, and 
treated accordingly ; and I must say, for myself, that I cannot extract 
much edification from them. I give the foregoing sample as a curi- 
osity. As to the Baptists, especially in Bellingham, they occasioned 
Mr. Frost and his people some embarrassment. The}- were not only 
unwelcome intruders on the Congregational domain as competitors, 
but offensive as deniers that sprinkling was Christian baptism, how- 
ever solemnly administered. They drew away several proselytes, first 
and last, which is never pleasant to the losing party. Still there were 
some kindly feelings on both sides ; but the difficult}- lay in being 
friendly without breach of ecclesiastical consistency. In 1750 the 
Baptist Church in Bellingham elected Rev. Elnathan Wight as their 
pastor. He was not only an intelligent and exemplary Christian man, 
but remarkably liberal for his times, and disposed to be on terms of 
free communion with the established churches. So, probably b}- his 
advice, a letter missive was sent to Mr. Frost and his church to assist 
in the ordination of Mr. "Wight. It was a puzzler to the invitees. 
' jme were for accepting, and all desired to be courteous ; but there 
were points of order, usage, and consistency which could not be got 
over. Finally the ruling elders settled the proposition in the nega- 
tive. Thirty-two } - ears later we find the following ingenious evasion 
in a dismissory commendation of a sister who wished to transfer her 
relationship to the Baptist church in Bellingham : — 

" To be sent to the Baptist Church in Bellingham, under the Pastoral care 
of Rev. Mr. Alden; viz. Whereas our sister Jemima, wife of Jona. Thomp- 
son of Bellingham, hath manifested a desire that her Relation with us might 
orderly be transferred from us to you: This may signify that on Aug. 5, 
1759, she publicly owned her Baptismal covenant, and joined in full com- 
munion with us in all the special ordinances of the Gospel — and (as far as 
our knowledge is) has conducted agreeable to her profession: and accord- 
ingly we dismiss and recommend her to your Communion and fellowship, as 
a person Baptized and in good standing in the visible Church of Christ iu 
this place: and if you receive her as such, she is hereby dismissed; other- 
wise, she is not. 

Amariah Frost, Pastor." 



80 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

The wit of this lies in the obvious fact that the Baptists must 
acknowledge a merely sprinkled person as truly baptized, and thus 
belie their own solemn convictions to the contrary: otherwise Mrs. 
Thompson was not dismissed to them at all ; but the Congregational- 
ists were not to be swerved from their integrity and consistency, 
whatever action the Baptists might take. 

ANOTHER PERPLEXITY RELIEVED. 

In the year 1767, Dr. William Jennison, an influential member of 
the church, with the best of intentions, presented a large Bible for the 
pulpit, from which the pastor might read and expound at his discre- 
tion ; but such were the lingering prejudices in some minds against 
the old Church-of-England usages, that a serious commotion arose 
among the people against the use of that Bible in their pulpit. How 
the matter was compromised will appear from the following docu- 
ments : — 

"Memorandum. — In Aug. 26, 1" ,1 ', the Church received the donation 
of a large Bible, given to them and the Congregation, to be read and 
expounded publicly, by and at the discretion of the Pastor: and voted 
the thanks of the Chh. be given to Dr. William Jennison, the donor, by 
Messrs. Dea. French and Albee; but after the use of said Bible some time, 
there arose some dispute among some members of our Society, as tho' it was 
too much of a conformity to the Practice of the Chh. of England — and for 
peace sake (rather than break the peace of the Society) it was omitted for 
the present; viz. the reading of said Bible in public. Whereupon the Dr., 
May 13, 1776, sent us this message: viz., — 

" ' These may Certify all persons whom it may concern, that, whereas 
some of the Chh. and Congregation were uneasy at having the Bible read 
publicly which the subscriber gave to the Chh. and Congregation in the 2d 
Precinct in Mendon, of which the Rev. Mr. Frost is Pastor, to be used in 
public, by reason of which uneasiness the said Pastor has desisted from 
reading and expounding the same; Therefore the donor doth, by these 
Presents, give unto the said Mr. Frost and his heirs the use and improve- 
ment of said Bible until the said Chh. and Congregation incline to use it 
according to the design of the donor, and on the terms on which said Chh. 
accepted the donation: and whenever, i. e. the Church, do incline to have 
it used publicly, the said Chh. and Congn. are to be the sole proprietors of 
said Bible.' " 

The foregoing was formally assented to and sanctioned by Mr. 
Frost and the church ; and thus the agitated waters were soothed 
into quietude. 

Just after the town was incorporated, at a public church fast held 
May 25, 1780, the original covenant was read and renewed, and a 



ELDERS AND DEACONS. 81 

vote passed, that what had been called the Second Church of Christ 
in Mendon should thenceforth be '* called the Church of Christ in 
Milford." Down to that date the elders and deacons of the church 
had been elected and served as follows : — 

Elder John Jones, elected April 15, 17-41 ; served till superannuated, 
and died March 28, 1753. Elder Josiah Adams, elected April 15, 
1741 ; served till his death in March, 1749. Elder Nathaniel Nelson, 
elected Sept. 7, 1749 ; and served till his death in 1783. Elder 
Daniel Corbett, in place of Elder John Jones superannuated, elected 
Sept. 7, 1749 ; and served till prob. his death, 1753. Elder Abraham 
Jones, son of Elder John, elected Nov. 29, 1753 ; and served till 
death, Feb. 25, 1792. 

Dea. Nathaniel Nelson, elected April 15, 1741 ; and served till his 
promotion to eldership. Sept. 7, 1749. Dea. Abraham Jones, elected 
Nov. 14, 1743 ; and served till his promotion to eldership, Nov. 29, 
1753. Dea. John Chapin, elected Nov. 9, 1749; and served till 
excused on account of age and infirmities, 1763. Dea. Habijah 
French, elected Nov. 9, 1749 ; and served till superannuation, in 1774. 
Dea. Gideon Albee, elected Aug. 11, 1763 ; and served till excused 
on account of age and infirmities, 1785. Dea. John Chapin, son of 
the former Dea. John, elected Dec. 1, 1774 ; and served till promoted 
to eldership, 1785. 

Here this chapter must terminate. The specialties of precinct 
action in relation to incorporation as a town, will properly appear in 
the next chapter. The subsequent history of the Congregational par- 
ish and church will have its orderly place, along with that of the more 
recent religious societies, in an appropriate chapter of this volume. 



82 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



CHAPTER VI. 

INDUCTION, INCORPORATION, AND ORGANIZATION OF MILFORD. 

Inception and Consummation of the Town's Incorporation. — How the Old Ambition 
for a Separate Town never died out, but slept and awoke at Intervals, till it 
gained its Object. — The Repeated Struggles from 1753 down to 1779, as shown 
by the Records. — Tlie Contending Parties come to an Amicable Agreemen; 
May 3, 177!); which is given in Full. — Ratified May 19, ensuing — The Act of 
Incorporation dated April 11,1780. — The Town legally organized May 1, 1780. 
— First Officers elected. 

General Status of Affairs and Responsibilities assumed. — The Population at the Time 
of Incorporation. — Probable Number of Families, Legal Voters, Dwellings, 
Public Buildings. — Means of Subsistence, and Employments of the Inhabit- 
ants. — Small Mechanical Industries, and no Manufactures now so termed. — 
Settlements made with Mother Mendon. — Relations to Other Towns, the Com- 
monwealth, and Nation. — Shay's Rebellion. — Religious Matters, Meeting- 
House, etc. — Pauperphobia, Financial Difficulties, etc. — Minor Items down to 
the Year 1800. 

INCEPTION AND CONSUMMATION OF THE TOWNS INCORPORA- 
TION. 

The ambition and design to have a town separate from mother 
Mendon was never abandoned b}' the leading citizens east of Neck 
Hill. But they contented themselves with their precinct immunities 
for about twelve years. Then the smothered flame was rekindled. 
Certain individuals brought the matter before the town, and we have 
the following record : " Mendon, May 14. 17f)3 : being a Town Meet- 
ing held by adjournment from March 4, 1753 ; at said Meeting it was 
proposed to the Town, whether the}* would set off the East Precinct 
to be a distinct Town, and passed in the Negative." This put a 
quietus on the project for over twelve years more. Then the embers 
were opened again, and fresh fuel supplied. " Mendon, Dec. 24, 
17G6 ; being a public Town Meeting. Then it was put to Vote To 
see if the Town would vote off the Easterly Precinct, according to the 
bounds thereof, to be a separate Town b}- themselves, and there was 
but one hand held up. Then it was put to Vote To see if the Town 
would set off the Easterly Precinct, according to the bounds thereof, 
agreeable to the Petition of the Inhabitants, into a separate District 
by themselves ; and the vote passed in the Negative by ten votes 
[majority]." The struggle now was for a district corporation, — a 
something less than a town. But this was strenuously resisted. 



CONFLICT ABOUT SEPARATION. 83 

An appeal was next made to the Legislature by petition to incorpo- 
rate the precinct as a district. This movement was vigorously second- 
ed bj- the precinct as such. "February 1G, 17G7. At a meeting of 
the Easterly Precinct in Mendon legally assembled. Left. Josiah 
Chapin was chosen moderator to regulate said meeting. Then chose 
Eld. Nathaniel Nelson, Thomas Wiswall [and] James Sumner a 
Committee to head and support a Petition of the Inhabitants of said 
Precinct, already carried in and had a hearing at the Great and Gene- 
ral Court, in order to be a separate District from the Town of Men- 
don, agreeable to the boundaries of said Precinct. Then Voted to 
give the said Committee the following Instructions; viz., that they 
use their best endeavor, that the prayer of said petitioners be granted 
before the time commences for the annual meeting in March next ; 
and, as the Meeting House in said Precinct is built to accommodate 
the Inhabitants of said Precinct, agreeable to the boundaries of said 
Precinct, that said Committee would not, bv anv agreement, consent 
to ain- other than the former boundaries of said Precinct. — excepting 
Nathan Tyler, Esq., Adjt. John Tyler and their land lying on the 
west side of the Eight-Rod Road so called." Mendon firmlv remon- 
strated. At their town-meeting held on the very same day, Feb. 16, 
17G7, the}' "■ unanimously Voted to send reasons unto the Great and 
General Court, to show cause why the prayer of the petition of the 
Inhabitants of the Easterly Precinct should not be granted. Then 
Voted to choose six men for a Committee to draw up the Town's rea- 
sons ; . . . viz., Messrs. Edmund Morse, Edward Rawson, John 
French. Joseph Benson, George Aldrich, William Sheffield, and Peter 
Penniman. Then the Town by a Vote chose Edward Rawson, Samuel 
Green, and William Sheffield for a Committee, or Agents, ... to earn' 
in the Town's reasons unto the Gt. and Gen. Ct., and make answer to 
a petition of a number of the Inhabitants of the Easterly Precinct, 
etc." The Legislature deferred the matter. But the Precinct peti- 
tioned the same year again, asking to be set off as a town or district, 
" together with their proportionable part of the Ministry land and 
money, School money, armory and ammunition." Again Mendon 
repulsed them, on this wise : " Sept. 27, 1767 ; being a public Town 
Meeting, in pursuance of the following article in the Warrant: To see 
if the Town will, b}- their Vote, set off the Easterly Precinct in said 
Town into a separate Township or District, with their equal part of 
the Town's stores, agreeable to the request of a number of the Inhabit- 
ants of said Precinct. It was put to vote, . . . and it passed in the 
Negative. Then the Vote was scrupled, and the Moderator ordered 
the House to be divided, and there were 57 in the Affirmative and 64 



84 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

in the Negative." So by a majority of seven the movement was 
defeated. The combatants now returned to their tents, and the agita- 
tion slumbered for another twelve years ; during which period the 
grander agitation of colonial separation from Great Britain absorbed 
all lesser concerns. It is likely, too, that the profound excitements 
and onward march of events developed by the Revolutionary struggle 
ripened public sentiment in all parts of Mendon for a municipal 
change. Be this as it might, the project of transforming the easterly 
precinct into a town was revived in 1779, amid the thunders of the 
war, and this time with success. 

It seems that a respectful request was laid before the Town in sea- 
son for deliberate consideration at the regular March meeting of 1779, 
and was responded to by the majority favorably. The record stands 
thus : " Mendon, March 1st, 1779. At the Anniversary Town Meet- 
ing for the choice of Town officers and the transaction of other Town 
business, in pursuance of the following article; viz., To see if the 
Town will grant the Request of the Inhabitants of the Easterly Pre- 
cinct in said Town who have petitioned, the Town would consent that 
said Precinct, with all its Inhabitants and all the lands contained in 
the same, may be set off as a separate Town. At said Meeting it 
was put to Vote to see &c. The Vote was tried by dividing the 
House; G 7 were in the Affirmative, and 60 in the Negative." An- 
other majority of seven, but the other way. Thus the Town, weary 
of such persistent importunity, at length yielded its consent. The 
chief obstacle having been overcome, the Precinct had onlv to follow 
out and complete its triumph. April "26 ensuing, "Voted to choose 
a Committee to draw a Petition to send to the Gen. Court, in order 
that the said Second Precinct be set off as a Town." '* Chose Capt. 
Gershom Nelson, Jonathan Jones [and] Ichabod Thayer, Jr. for said 
Committee." "Voted that the above said Committee should carry 
said Petition to the Gen. Court." Meantime an overture was made 
by the citizens of the other two precincts for a conference of commit- 
tees to agree on the terms of separation, so that no misunderstanding 
might mar the operation in process. The easterly precinct cordially 
responded, and at a regular meeting " chose Jonathan Jones, Seth 
Nelson, [and] Ichabod Thayer, Jr., a Committee to consult with the 
First and Third Precincts' Committee in said Town, to see how and in 
what manner the Second Precinct . . . shall be set off as a separate 
Town." This conference resulted in the following 

AGREEMENT, MAY 3, 1779. 
•• Article 1st. That the Meadow, or land usually flowed by the Mill 
Pond, formerly occupied by Lieut. William Sheffield, on the North side of 



'AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE THREE PRECINCTS. 85 

the Country Road, belonging to said Town, shall still remain and continue 
the property of said Town of Mendon, although said Second Precinct should, 
become a separate Town ; and in case said Town of Mendon should have 
occa^on to Eject Jeremiah Kelley, the present occupier of said Pond, or any 
other person or persons, who may hereafter occupy said lands, from the pos- 
session of said Premises, or they shall not keep a good Grist-Mill in repair at 
or near the Premises, agreeable to the original agreement between sak 1 Town 
and Matthias Puffer, and David How, — then the said Second Precinct, 
although they should become a separate Town, shall have the three eighth 
parts of what said Town of Mendon shall recover, they the said Second 
Precinct paying the three eighth parts of the cost and charge that may arise 
in recovering the same. 

Article 2d. Agreed, that the said Second Precinct draw their equal 
proportion of the School Money, according to the Valuation of the ,said 
Town: also, one third part of the Ministry money belonging to the said 
Town: also, their equal proportion of the said Town's stock of Arms and 
Ammunition. 

3d. Agreed, that the said Second Precinct take their equal proportion 
of the Poor maintained by the Town, according to the Tax said Precinct 
pays: and also, if, after said Precinct is set off as a separate Town, there 
shall be any Poor sent to this Town from proper authority to be maintained 
by this Town, and it shall appear that the persons so brought were the usual 
or original Inhabitants of the said Second Precinct, then the said Second 
Precinct shall receive and maintain them as their Poor. 

4thly. That the said Second Precinct pay their equal proportion of all 
the charges that have [arisen] or shall arise within the Town of Mendon 
prior to their being incorporated as a separate Town, of whatever name or 
nature. 

5thly. That if there appears to be a surplusage of money, over and 
above paying all the Town's debts and charges, when they the said Second 
Precinct shall become a separate Town, then the said Second Precinct to 
draw their equal proportion, according to their Valuation." 

Covenanted by John Tyler, Peter Penniman, and Aaron Everett, 
in behalf of the first and third precincts, and by Jonathan Jones, 
Seth Nelson, and Ichabod Thayer, jun., in behalf of the second pre- 
cinct. Sanctioned by vote of Mendon without dissent. Ma}' 19, 1779. 
Nothing now hindered, and earh' the next year followed the 

ACT OF INCORPORATION. 

State of Massachusetts Bay. 

in the year of our lord one thousand seven hundred and 

EIGHTY. 

An Act for Incorporating the Easterly Precinct in the Town of Mendon in the 
County of Worcester into a Separate Town by the Name of Milford. 

Whereas it appears that the Inhabitants of the Easterly Precinct in the 
Town of Meudon in the County of Worcester labour under many Difficultie 



86 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

in their present Situation, for Remedying of which they Earnestly request 
they may be Incorporated into a Separate Town. 

Be it therefore Enacted by the Council, and House of Representatives in 
General Court Assembled and by the Authority of the same that the Easterly 
part of the Town of Mendon, in the County of Worcester bounded as follows, 
Vizt. : beginning at a heap of Stones on Bellingham Line, on the North of the 
Country Road, then running West, and bounded South on said Road until 
it comes to a Road called the eight rod Road, now reduced to a four rod Road, 
then North, and bounded westerly on said Road, as it is now Stated by the 
Town of Mendou, until it comes to Upton Line, thence on Upton Line to 
Hopkinton Line, thence on Hopkinton Line to Holliston Line, thence on 
Holliston Line to Bellingham Line, thence on Bellingham Line, to the 
Bounds first mentioned — Be and hereby is Incorporated into a Town by 
the Name of Milford, and that the Inhabitants thereof be and they are 
hereby Invested with all the Powers Privileges & Immunities which the 
Inhabitants of the Towns in this State, do or may by Law enjoy. [For 
alterations of boundary lines see further along.] 

And Provided Nevertheless, and be it further Enacted that the Inhabitants 
of the said Town of Milford shall be held to take and maintain their Pro- 
portionable part of the Poor of said Town of Mendon that are now main- 
tained as such, or that shall be hereafter Returned from any other Town as 
belonging to said Mendon before the said Town of Milford was Incorporated. 

And Be it further Enacted that the Inhabitants of said Town of Milford 
shall be held to pay their Proportionable part of all Town County and State 
Taxes that are already raised, or granted, to be assessed on the Inhabitants 
of said Town of Mendon or that shall be granted to be assessed on said 
Town of Mendon during the present Sitting of the Great and General 
Court, and be held to repair & Build one half of the Bridges and mend and 
repair one half the Roads on which they are bounded lying in the Town of 
Mendon forever. 

A nd Be it further Enacted that all the Proprietors belonging to the Pro- 
priety of the Town of Mendon, that shall be Incorporated into the Town of 
Milford shall hold all their Common Rights in the Common and Undivided 
Lands in the Propriety of the former Township of said Mendon as though 
they had not been set off into a Separate Town — And their Proportionable 
part of the Ministry and School Money belonging to said Town of Mendon 
that have accrued to them by the Sale of the School and Ministry Land. 

And Be it further Enacted That Joseph Dorr Esq r : be and he is hereby 
directed and empowered to issue his Warrant directed to some Principal 
Inhabitant of said Town of Milford requiring him to warn the Inhabitants 
of said Town of Milford qualified by Law to Vote in Town Affairs to Assem- 
ble and meet at some Suitable time and Place, in said Towu to choose all 
such Officers as Towns by Law are Required and impowered to choose in 
the month of March Annually, and to Transact all other matters & Business 
necessary to be done in said Town. 

Ix the House of Representatives April 11, 17S0. — This Bill hav- 
ing been read three several times, pass'd to be enacted. 

John Hancock, Speaker. 



TOWN INCORPORATED — ALTERED BOUNDARIES. 87 

In Council April 11, 1780. — This Bill having had two several readings 
— passed to be enacted. 

John Avery, D. Sec'yr. 

We consent to the enacting of this Bill. 

Jere. Powell. B. White. 

Artemas Ward. T. Danielson. 

Walter Spooner. H. Gardner. 

S. Adams. Tim. Edwards. 

T. Cushing. Saml. Niles. 

Jadez Fisher. A. Fuller. 

Moses Gill. Jn°. Pitts. 
Noah Goodman. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Secretary's Department, Boston, 
July 17, 187G. 

A true copy: Witness the Seal of the Commonwealth. 

Henry B. Peirce, Secretary of the Commonwealth. 

ALTERATIONS OF BOUNDARY LINES. 

Perhaps this is the proper place for stating what alterations have 
been made in our boundary lines since the town was incorporated. 
The terms in which its boundaries are described in the foregoing Act, 
though general, were well understood by the municipal parties con- 
cerned. Yet occasions arose for more specific demarcations here 
and there, and ultimately for somewhat important alterations. The 
laws required frequent perambulations of lines by the selectmen of 
adjoining towns, and renewal of bounds, or at least renewed acknowl- 
edgment of permanent monuments. Our records contain many speci- 
fications of such perambulations. In some instances, where the case 
seemed to require it, exact courses and distances are given, as traced 
by competent surveyors ; but, in the majority of instances, the lines 
and monuments are described in general terms. I shall not go into 
mensural niceties in an}' case further than seems to me necessary to 
make alterations well understood. 

The first instance in which a boundary line was thought to require 
re-adjustment occurred between Milford and Mendon. That section 
of the line from Upton that crossed North Hill, so called, was quite 
obscure and questionable. Therefore the two towns chose committees 
to examine and settle the matter. Their report was as follows : — 

"Mendon, Nov. ye 29th, 1794. Then we the subscribers, Committee 
of Mendon & Milford, Met & settled the line between the Town of Men- 
don & Milford (over the North hill, so called); beginning at a heap of stones, 



88 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

being the southeast corner of Paul Nelson's land; thence North 37 rds. East, 
40 Rods to a Walnut Tree with a heap of stones round it; thence South, 
26$ Ds - East, 196 Rods to a White Oak Tree, being the Northeast Corner 
of Seth Davenport's land, on the south side of the Road leading from the 
widow Tyler's to Milford. Philip Ammidon, Seth Chapin, Luke Aldrich, 
Committee of Mendon. Ephm. Chapin, Ichabod Thayer, Jr., Committee 
of Milford." March 3, 1795, Milford '' Voted to accept of the line as 
settled between Mendon & Milford, as agreed by the Committee for that 
purpose." Town Records, vol. i., pp. 175, 173. 

About the same time, when all the towns in the Commonwealth 
were required to make plans of their areas returnable to the State 
archives, the measuring committees of Milford and Upton found it 
very desirable to straighten a part of their line by exchanging small 
parcels of land. They did so, reported their agreement to their 
respective towns, and got the same sanctioned by vote. Milford 
sanctioned it at the very same meeting above specified in relation to 
the Mendon line. 4v Voted to accept of the Exchange of land be- 
tween Upton & Milford. Agreeable as it stands Recorded in the 6th 
article in the Preceding warrant." That article reads thus : "To see 
if the Town will accept of the Exchange of land with the Town of 
Upton to straighten the line between the Town of Upton & Milford, 
as the Committee of Upton & Milford, that was chosen to Measure 
each Town, have agreed ; which is as follows (viz.) : beginning at a 
great Rock in the south end of upper North Meadow, on the west 
side of the River; thence, Running South 5Gi ds. West, 215 Rods, 
to a heap of stones in Wm. Alexander's Pasture ; thence, running 
South 8 ds. west, 202 Rods to a heap of stones at the end of John 
Merrifield's wall, on the west side of the Road leading from Lt. Paul 
Nelson's to the widow Tyler's." Town Records, vol. i., pp. 173, 
171. 

In the year 1820, by Act of Gen. Court, the boundary line between 
Holliston and Medway was so changed that the latter became one of 
our immediate neighbors on the east. But this did not affect our 
original boundary in that quarter, Medway merely taking the place of 
Holliston on a part of the old line. 

In 1835, March 27, an Act of Gen. Court made a somewhat im- 
portant alteration of our boundaries on Hopkinton and Holliston, 03- 
which we gained some territoiy and several families. Fruitless 
attempts had been made for several years to straighten the Hopkinton 
line, and to accommodate the families of Wild-Cat neighborhood, so 
called, with better school advantages ; those families dwelling incon- 
veniently in the isolated corners of the three towns. The Act of 



ALTERED BOUNDARIES— TOWN ORGANIZATION. 89 

Gen. Court was designed to obviate these difficulties. It determined 
as follows: "That the dividing lines between the towns of Milford, 
Holliston and Hopkinton shall he altered, and shall hereafter be es- 
tablished as follows, to wit : beginning at a heap of stones on the 
line between the towns of Milford and Hopkinton. at the road near 
the dwelling house of Samuel McFarland ; thence easterly about one 
and three fourth miles to a stone monument by the side of Deer Brook, 
so called ; thence north, sixty and a half degrees east, twenty five 
rods on the line between Hopkinton and Holliston ; thence due south 
until it comes to the line between Holliston and Milford ; and that 
part of said Milford. which lies north of the first mentioned line, shall 
hereafter belong to Hopkinton, in the county of Middlesex ; and that 
part of Hopkinton, which lies south of said first mentioned line, shall 
hereafter belong to Milford. in the countv of Worcester ; and that 
part of said Holliston, which lies west of the last mentioned line, shall 
hereafter belong to said Milford." 

The last alteration was made by Act of Gen. Court, Apl. 1, 1859. 
It was entitled " An Act to alter the Boundary Line between the 
Towns of Holliston and Milford." It enacted thus: "The dividing 
line between the towns of Milford and Holliston shall be altered, and 
shall hereafter be established as follows, to wit : beginning at a point 
on the lines between the towns of Holliston and Hopkinton, sixty 
four rods easterly from the northwest corner of Holliston. and run- 
ning southerh - until it comes to a point on the line between the towns 
of Holliston and Milford, 102 rods and 15 links easterly from the 
southwest corner bound of Holliston ; and that part of Holliston, 
which lies west of the above described line, shall hereafter be annexed 
to and belong to the town of Milford." 

ORGANIZATION. 

Pursuant to his nomination in the foregoing Act, Joseph Dorr, Esq., 
of Mendon, issued his warrant under date of April 25, 1780, for Mil- 
ford's first town-meeting. It was to be held at the meeting-house 
on the first day of May : " I. To choose a Moderator : II. To choose 
Town officers according to Law." The warrant was directed to, and 
served by, Jona. Jones ; bjeing duly posted at the meeting-house. 
This first town-meeting and its proceedings are set forth in the fol- 
lowing record : — 

"Milford, May 1, 1780. The above said Town met, being legally as- 
sembled. Voted and chose Joseph Dorr, Esq., Moderator; Caleb Cheney, 
Clerk; Lieut. Jesse Whitney, Caleb Cheney, Warfield Hayward, Ebenr. 
Read [and] Stephen Albee, Selectmen; Lieut. Jesse Whitney, Caleb Cheney, 



90 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Warfield Hay-ward, Ebenr. Read [and] Stephen Albee, Committee of Corre- 
spondence; Caleb Cheney, Treasurer; Ens" Adams Chapin, Capt. Ichabod 
Thayer, Jr. [and] Moses Chapin, Assessors; Lieut. Joseph Cody [and] Oba- 
diah Wood, Constables; Jona. Jones [and] Lieut. Josiah Chapin, Surveyors 
of highways for the 1st District: Levi Thayer [and] Saml. Davis, for the 2d 
District; Boyce Kimball, for the 3d District; Dr. Elias Parkman, for the 4th 
District; Capt. Gershom Nelson [and] Capt. Saml. Warren, Tything-men; 
Capt. Ichabod Thayer, Jr , Oliver Daniell [and] Joseph Jones, Jr., Fence 
Viewers; Capt. Gershom Nelson, Sealer of Lumber; Jesse Hay-ward, Sealer 
of Leather; Amos Shepherdson, Nathl. Saunders, Caleb Boynton, Jr., [and] 
Ephraim Hayward, Hog-reeves; [and] Dea. Abijah French, Deer-reeve." 

Thus our town was organized with all the requisite legal formali- 
ties, and auspiciously started on its municipal career. Its citizens 
and officers were mostly of the third and fourth generations from the 
first settlers, concerning whom I have treated in the earlier chapters. 

GENERAL STATUS OF AFFAIRS AND RESPONSIBILITIES ASSUMED. 

At its incorporation our young town had a population of about 
seven hundred and sixt} - souls, perhaps a hundred and fift}' families, 
and about a hundred and fifty-two legal voters. They possibly had 
a faw more than a hundred and twentv dwelling-houses, such as they 
were, widely scattered, and situated on some fifty old-fashioned, 
crooked, and ill-graded roads or town- ways of various designation. 
At that time, the main thoroughfare between Mendon and Holliston, 
known as " the Shcrborn road," always our most populous highway", 
had only about twentj* residences. No public schoolhouse had then 
been erected within our limits. The only public edifice in town was 
the precinct meeting-house, forty feet by thirty-five, sadly needing 
repairs. The inhabitants generally subsisted on the hard-earned prod- 
ucts of the soil. There were a few mechanical craftsmen, such as 
blacksmiths, carpenters, tanners, shoemakers, tailors, clothiers, etc., 
— paid oftener in farmer's produce than money. As to manufactur- 
ers, now so called, there were none. "What the total of ratable 
property was, I have found no certain moans of estimating ; but it 
must have been comparatively small. At the same time, the country 
was but just past the midnight of the Revolutionary war, straitened 
in all its resources, and sweating at even 1 pore an effusion of blood. 
So Milford was born into the municipal family in perilous times, and 
amid man}' seemingly unpropitious circumstances. Nevertheless her 
people were ambitious, brave, and hopeful. They confidently ex- 
pected a better future, and assumed their new responsibilities with 
fearless resolution. Among these responsibilities I will indicate a few 
of the principal : — 



AMICABLE RELATIONS WITH OTHER TOWNS. 91 

An honorable settlement with the mother town, according to pre- 
vious agreement and the Act of Incorporation. Certain funds, debts, 
and credits must be equitably divided ; the belongings and mainte- 
nance of the poor must be justly arranged and provided for ; frontier 
roads must be properly ascertained, and repaired in due proportions ; 
and numerous minor adjustments made. All these matters were 
amicably settled with reasonable promptitude. The two towns chose 
committees of conference, who very satisfactorily accomplished their 
work, and reported to their constituents under date of March 26, 
1781. The following-named citizens acted on these committees : For 
Mention, John Tyler, John Albee. and Peter Penniman ; for Milford, 
Samuel Warren, Jona. Jones, Ichabod Thayor, jun., and .Samuel 
Jones. Without copying their report, it may suffice to say that it 
shows their settlement to have been eminently fair and conclusive. 
It appears to have commanded universal approval ; but, in the nature 
of things, it was impossible to foreclose all incidental questions liable 
to arise. Accordingly we find subsequent minor settlements succes- 
sively recorded. One of these related to certain debts, dues, and 
securities, which had to be divisionally accommodated. This was 
effected by a joint committee, to mutual satisfaction, Dec. 19, 1781. 
Another of a similar nature took place in like manner, Feb. 22/1782. 
Still another followed, concerning certain poor families and persons 
sent back from other towns for maintenance, a part of whom were 
natives of our territory. This occurred Jan. 18, 1785. 

With the neighboring towns generally \'oung Milford was on terms 
of amity and good-fellowship, excepting certain lawsuits about pau- 
pers. The most important of these was with Stow, which will be 
noticed in another place. In respect to the great distresses of that 
period, arising from the depreciation of paper-money, high taxes, and 
the almost utter impossibility of meeting financial exigencies, our 
people sympathized warmly with the suffering citizens of Worcester 
Co., and the Commonwealth at large. They were represented in 
several conventions held on that subject in Worcester and other 
places ; but when the more violent resorted to arms in the deplorable 
Shay's Rebellion of 178G, the} - remained loyal, and joined in suppress- 
ing the malecontents ; yet the}' were averse to vindictive measures 
against the subdued. This will appear to their credit from the fol- 
lowing record under date of Jan. 2 ( J, 1787 : — 

" Voted to send a Petition to the General Court; viz. To the Honorable 
the Senate and the Honorable the House of Representatives in Gen. Court 
assembled now sitting at Boston; most humbly and respectfully sheweth; 
That your Petitioners, beiug deeply impressed with a sense of Loyalty, 



92 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Peace and good Order, and being desirous to prevent a further effusion of 
human blood, humbly pray, notwithstanding we utterly abhor and detest 
every measure subversive of Order and Good Government, that a Proclama- 
tion may be immediately issued that all those who have heretofore arisen to 
oppose the sitting of the Courts of Justice in several Counties of this Com- 
monwealth, and all those who are now under arms in opposition to the 
Authority of the same, on condition they shall disperse and return to their 
several homes and behave themselves peaceably in future, may not be mo- 
lested in their Persons or Property in consequence of what they have here- 
tofore done: and your Petitioners in Duty bound will ever pray." 

In relation to the Commonwealth and Nation. Milford illustrated a 
uniform allegiance, fidelity, and obedience to the laws. It must not 
be forgotten that it became a town amid the struggles of the Revolu- 
tionary war. Its citizens had evinced a lively and patriotic interest, 
ill commou with those of the parent-town, in all that concerned the 
induction and prosecution of that great contest for American inde- 
pendence. Now they assumed separate municipal responsibilities 
for its prosecution just before the dawn of success. Their quota 
of soldiers and warlike supplies was assigned to them. They must 
contribute men, food, and clothing, as called for, in their due pro- 
portion. On this point I refer the reader to the account of ''town 
action " in Chap. VII., where will be found a condensed statement of 
the various votes passed by the Town, relating to soldiers and warlike 
supplies furnished in response to governmental requisitions during the 
latter years of the war. That series of votes will suffice to show the 
patriotism, zeal, and fidelity which the Town constantly exhibited 
during the Revolutionary war and subsequent militaiy vicissitudes. 
Meantime its selectmen were made ex-officio a Committee of Corre- 
spondence, train-bands were patronized, and stores of ammunition 
liberally provided. In civil affairs there was an equally devoted 
interest. It was a time of organic reconstruction in the Common- 
wealth and Nation. The State Constitution, with its noble Bill of 
Rights, was adopted in 1780, and all the towns were called upon to 
consider the public good. New machinery was put in motion, and 
the municipalities of the State must be governed accordingly. Soon 
after this came the new Federal Constitution, to be considered in the 
several State Conventions. Being adopted, its new orgauism was to 
be operated. In all these grave concerns Milford honorabh- bore its 
part, unless it were dishonorable, in common with a considerable 
minority of the Republic, to vote against adopting the new Consti- 
tution. On this question their action was as follows: Dec. 17, 1787 
" Voted and chose Mr. David Stearns a Delegate to sit in Convention 



THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION—CHURCH MATTERS. 93 

at the State House in Boston on the second Wednesday of January 
next. Voted and chose Daniel "Wedge, James Sumner, Lt. Ephraim 
Chapin, Lt. Saml. Jones. Timothy Jones, Luke Keller and Oliver Daniell 
a Committee to converse with and Instruct the above named Delegate. 
Voted to adjourn to Landlord Robinson's at six O'clock this day. to 
hear the report of said Committee ; which report was to reject the 
Constitution ; And when laid before the Town, said Town rejected 
it." But when adopted against their vote, they appear to have sub- 
mitted in good faith to the will of the majority, and to have proved 
themselves always loyal citizens. During their first twenty years of 
town immunities the} - were represented in Gen. Ct. eleven times. In 
1784 and '85 by Capt. Ichabod Thayer; in '87, '88, and '89 by Mr. 
David Stearns; in '91, '92, '94, '96, '98, and '99 by Samuel Jones, 
Esq. 

In relation to religious matters, the Town succeeded to all the 
responsibilities of the old Precinct, i.e., in respect to the meeting- 
house, the ministry, and kindred concerns. There had been a long 
and fruitless struggle in the Precinct to get the meeting-house en- 
larged, or replaced by a new one. The Town inherited this struggle, 
and for several years nothing more was achieved than indispensable 
repairs, slight internal alterations, and some painting. Meantime, 
considerable changes of religious opinion were taking place among 
the people. Baptists, Methodists, Universalists, and free-thinkers 
were multiplying. Unity of denominational predilections was more 
and more broken up ; and it became quite impossible for the Town, as 
such, to levy rates for the support of public worship, either in respect 
to meeting-house or preaching. None would pay on compulsion. 
Voluntary subscription, contribution, or donation must be mainly 
depended on. Yet, as the time had not arrived for a complete dis- 
solution of Church and State, the Town must still exercise parish 
functions. The awkwardness of this may be seen by contemplating 
the following extracts: "Warrant of Dec. 4, 1788, "To see if the 
Town will exempt any person or persons from being rated to the 
Congregational Society . . . that will legally certify . . . that they 
are of a different Denomination." Voted in the affirmative on the 
18th of the same month. This only showed the direction of the wind. 
Quite a considerable number had before exempted themselves by such 
certificates, and here was a sort of invitation for mam* more to avail 
themselves of the same legal advantage. Jan. 24, 1791, -'Voted to 
let the people of the Denomination called Universalers have liberty 
to meet in the Town's Meeting House on week days, when it is not 
otherwise wanted." May 6, 1795, " Voted to have former Certifi- 



94 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

cates exempt persons from a Ministerial tax who have not changed 
their Persuasion." Such grew to he the state of public sentiment. 

As to the meeting-house, its story may be told in a few words, by 
giving -a summary abstract of the records. Aug. 12, 1782 : a vote to 
repair, and committee chosen. Jan., 1783: fruitless attempt to in- 
duce the pew-owners to co-operate equitably in repairing. Unimpor- 
tant action the next March about making more room for pews. Fur- 
ther action of the same sort the ensuing November. April, 1784, the 
committee on repairs ordered to be settled with ; something had been 
done, but how much does not appear. At length, in Jan., 1791, a 
petition came before the Town from Oliver Daniell and several other 
responsible individuals, for permission to enlarge the house b}' cutting 
it in two and inserting fourteen feet, with the privilege of remunerat- 
ing themselves by sale of the new pew-room thereby to be created. 
Granted, on condition of their giving a satisfactory bond for the proper 
execution of their undertaking. A little afterwards they were grant- 
ed the further privilege of adding a porch, rebuilding the gallery stairs 
therein, and selling the pew-room thereby gained. Some painting 
was ordered to be done at the town's expense, and the improvements 
were completed. The whole was accepted, and the bond of the un- 
dertakers given up Oct. 22, 1792. This was a few months after Rev. 
Mr. Frost had gone to his rest. Thus the town had now a tolerably 
decent meeting-house for those times, fiftv-four feet Ions; bv thirtv-five 
in width, with a porch on its southern front perhaps fourteen b} - eight 
feet. This porch had three doors and two gallery staircases. The 
old east and west doors into the body of the house, heavily capped, still 
remained, and the pulpit stood on the northerly side. Dea. Peter 
Rock wood and other venerable survivors were my informants. The}' 
also remembered, and further said, that the new house, when erected, 
covered the spot where the old one stood, and, being larger, more 
ground. When the new house was enlarged and renovated, a few 
years ago, it was removed westwardly its whole length. So we must 
imagine the ancient sanctuary as standing lengthwise just eastwardly 
of the present one. At that time, what is now Congress St. did not 
cross the Common, or ''Parade Ground" southwardly, but on the 
northerly side of the meeting-house turned short eastwardly into Main 
St. in front of the present Mansion House. And that part of the 
Common now fenced in exhibited an unpleasant-looking hollow, hold- 
ing in winter and wet seasons a little pond three or four feet deep at 
some points. 

As to the support of public worship, it had to be done mainly by 
subscription, contribution, or donation. Few would submit to com- 



DELAYS IN SETTLING A PASTOR, ETC. 95 

pulsory taxation. It was a vexed question for years, and all the more 
vexed because exempt citizens could vote on every question of the kind. 
Once a motion was put and carried, to tax all who presumed to vote 
on parish questions ; but this only aggravated the sore. The trouble 
arose from the town feeling obliged to play two dissonant parts, — 
civil and religious. There was some income from the old " Ministry 
mone}' ; " but this had been shifted about from one set of borrowers 
to another, till, after growing beautifully less, it was invested in " Con- 
solidated State Securities " of uncertain value. What finally became 
of this fund, remains to be ascertained. Rev. Mr. Frost received his 
dues in one wa}- or another, too often tardily, down to his decease, 
March 14, 1792. His funeral expenses and the cost of his grave- 
stones were honorably paid by the town. The pulpit was thenceforth 
supplied, through the action of town committees, until the settlement 
of his successor, Rev. David Long, early in the year 1801. During 
this long pastoral vacanc}-, there seems to have been a general indis- 
position, outside of the church, to be satisfied with candidates. Be- 
sides several who were merely heard a few sabbaths each, the church 
chose three in succession for settlement. These, for one reason or 
another, were either rejected by the town, or declined to accept on the 
terms offered. Rev. James Tufts was rejected by non-concurrence 
with the church, May 27, 1793. Next, Rev. John Fisk was concur- 
rently elected, July 3, 1795 ; but such unsatisfactory conditions were 
imposed that he declined. Rev. Leonard Worcester was elected by 
the church in 1799, but forthwith rejected by the town. About forty 
different preachers filled up the pastoral vacancy between Mr. Frost 
and Mr. Long. 

In the matter of church music, I do not find much action of either 
the church, precinct, or town, previous to 1800. The church, Dec. 2, 
1748, made " choice of Dea. Daniel Corbett, sen., to be an assistant in 
reading the Psalm, and with him John Chapin. Likewise made choice 
and voted that Habijah French and Joseph Marshall should be assist- 
ants in Tuning the Psalm." Probably the old custom of lining and 
tuning the psalm or hymn continued for many }-ears. Oct. 22, 1792, 
the Town " voted and gave leave for the Singers to build two or three 
Pews in the front Galleries in the Town's Meeting House, to be for the 
use of the present Singers, who now perform that part of Divine Wor- 
ship, and their successors as Singers only." May 16, 1793, " Voted to 
have the Singers fetch a Bass Viol into the Meeting House on Sunda}-s, 
and some person to play on the same in time of Singing." Whether 
there was an_v opposition to the introduction of this instrument (then 
violently resisted in some of the churches) , does not appear. Nothing 



96 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

was paid for sacred music in those days, at least in onr general re- 
gion of country ; and volunteers for that service seem to have been 
thankful for the privilege, and especially so for a very little patronage. 

In relation to pauperism, judging from the records, our towns- 
people had a great dread of it. Probably they felt poor in taxable 
resources, and wished in all practicable ways to prevent or lighten 
burdens of that nature. There were then stringent laws for determin- 
ing inhabitancy and the liabilities of towns to maintain their own poor. 
Among these laws was one authorizing towns to prevent new-comers 
from gaining legal inhabitancy therein. This might be done by warn- 
ing them out, or requiring bonds of somebody that they should not 
become a town charge. All new-comers, not allowed to gain an in- 
habitancy, could be thrown back for maintenance on the municipality 
where they belonged. Our early townsmen appear to have been much 
more anxious to avoid paupers than to increase population. I sus- 
pect most communities had more burdens of this sort then, in propor- 
tion to population and wealth, than we have now, at least in New 
England. Anyhow, the measures taken to prevent such burdens 
indicate an inveterate pauperphobia. as witness the following votes : 
May 18, 1780, ''Voted to warn all persons out of the Town of Mil- 
ford that have moved in since it was a Town, or that shall move into 
said Town hereafter." Jan. 24. 1791, " Voted to warn out of Town 
all persons who have come to reside in said Town since the 10th of 
April, 17G7." This was making a pretty clean sweep of good, bad, 
and indifferent. Indeed, the numerous recorded warnings show that 
there was no respect of persons, for many new-comers who became 
first-quality citizens got warned out. Happily for the prosperity of 
the town, this warning-out soon became a mere bugbear formality, 
and nobodv was deterred from moving in and staving through dread 
of its disgrace. Of course in some cases it saved the town from 
becoming chargeable. 

The method of maintaining the town's poor during this period was 
such as then generally prevailed in Xew England. Those who could 
not be helped through the }-ear in their own humble homes or in the 
families of near relatives, by small stipends, were let out bj* public 
vendue to bidders who would keep them cheapest, — some to fare well 
and others ill, according to the character of their keepers. Once or 
twice the town hired a house for a year at a time, appointed an 
overseer, and provided work for the inmates. But the selectmen 
found this unprofitable, and otherwise more or less impracticable. 
Various projects were started to obviate difficulties, — such as for the 
town to unite with the neighboring towns in establishing a work- 



DEPRECIATION OF OLD CURRENCIES. 97 

house, or, alone, to purchase a poor-farm, or to build an asylum ; but 
none of these amounted to much at that period. (See this subject 
resumed and fully treated in Chapter X., " Maintenance of the Town's 
Poor.") 

Respecting roads, education, cemeteries, etc , I will not now re- 
count responsibilities assumed, intending to treat of these and various 
other subjects under appropriate heads in the subsequent chapters. 
In drawing the present one to a close, I will briefly notice the finan- 
cial troubles which our early townsmen had to endure. They had to 
struggle, like their fellow-citizens throughout the nation, with most 
trving difficulties in monetarv affairs. The currency of the times was 
mostly paper, till after the adoption of the Federal Constitution, 17S7. 
Between 1 775 and 1780 Massachusetts had emitted treasury-notes 
and bills of credit to the amount of £1. GOO, 000, and the Continental 
Congress $400. 000,000, old tenor. The quota of this Continental 
money received by Massachusetts was 809.800. 000. All this to earn- 
on the Revolutionary war. A comparatively small amount of hard 
money, nearly all silver, was either in circulation, or hoarded up by 
careful individuals. The depreciation of paper money was frightful 
to contemplate. In 1781 Continental bills of the old tenor passed 
five hundred dollars for oue dollar of hard money. The old Massa- 
chusetts Bank of 1784 put some tolerably good money in circulation 
in redeemable bills, which served well as far as it went. The United 
States began to coin gold, silver, and copper money. Our State did 
the same for a short time, till prevented by the new Federal Constitu- 
tion. Then decimal money took the place of pounds, shillings, and 
pence. In 1794 Massachusetts liquidated its scrip of all kinds, pay- 
ing a moderate percentage of its nominal value ; but many holders 
waited for better terms, and lost all. Milford, however, was wiser, 
having, May 19, 1788, " Voted to sell the whole of the State Securi- 
ties now in the Town, and for the Selectmen ... to dispose of the 
same at the best lay they can." Perhaps I ought to add here that 
the equivalent of the American, or certainly the Massachusetts pound, 
in dollars, was commonly reckoned to be three and one-third, so that 
every £100 would be §333^. From the foregoing, respecting the 
currency of the times, the depreciation of paper money, etc., he 
reader will readily interpret the votes of the Town to raise mone}' 
for whatever purpose ; and, if some of the sums seem enormously 
extravagant, their small actual value accounts for it. Thus we find 
that on Sept. 4, 1780, one thousand pounds were raised " for School- 
ing Children ; " but in 1782 only twenty pounds in silver. Probably 
the current value of the latter was equal, at least, to the former. So 



98 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

in 1780, "Voted to raise £1,000 to defray Town charges." Then, 
again the same year, in July, " Voted to raise £G,080," for the same 
purpose ; and in September of the same year, for the same purpose, 
" Voted to raise £70,000." At this last I looked at first with amaze- 
ment ; hut lo, in 1781 the votes were first one hundred pounds, and at 
another meeting two hundred pounds, silver. And so the sums went 
on vear after year variously to 1799, when the amount voted was 
eighty pounds. 

[If in subsequent chapters, chiefly devoted to some of the foregoing 
topics, I repeat minor portions of what is contained in the foregoing, 
I shall hope to be excused on account of the difficulties involved in 
assorting, classifying, and arranging the details with exact propriety.] 



MILFORD'S MARTIAL PATRIOTISM. 99 



CHAPTER VII. 

ANNALS OF WARLIKE AND MILITARY SERVICE. 

Previous to and during the Revolutionary War. — Martial Patriotism always Pre- 
dominant here. — Down to the Frencli and Indian War of 1756-63. — Reference 
to the Old Muster-Roils. — Down through the Revolutionary War. —Men and 
Officers. —Events and Incidents. — Town Action. — Gen. Alex. Scammell. 

From the Revolution to the Secession Rebellion. — Disbandment of the Army. — 
Militia Organization in Town, and Expenses. — Occasions of Alarm. — Shay's 
and Whiskey Insurrections, threatened War with France, etc. — Artillery Com- 
pany organized in 1803 — Its Brilliant Career, March to Boston in 1814, at Call 
of General Order. — Names of Officers and Men. — Compensation, etc. —Organi- 
zation of the "Lafayette Guards" in 1826. — Disbandment of both these Com- 
panies between 1843 and 1846. — Milford Captains and Higher Officers.— 
Changes in Militia Laws. — Enrolments. — Organization of "Company A" in 
1S53. — Its Career ami Captains. 

During and since the Secession Rebellion. — Gen. Schouler's Summary of Milford's 
Action, Contributions, and Sacrifices in Behalf of the National Cause. —Ex- 
tracts from Headley on Gen. A. B Underwood's Heroism and Sufferings in the 
War. — Concerning Milford's Officers in the same, and Losses of Soldiers.— 
Grand Army Post, etc. — More Recent Military Companies organized, etc. 

PREVIOUS TO AND DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR. 

The inhabitants of Milford. before and since its incorporation as 
a town, have always been eminently patriotic and martial. They 
have had no treason or cowardice on their soil, and only a few non- 
resistants from Christian principle. The military spirit has always 
been conspicuous. The various records demonstrate this. How 
largely the easterly precinct of Mendon was represented b}' soldiers 
in the French and Indian war of 1744-48, I have not deemed it 
necessary to make research. It is probable that it then furnished 
soldiers ; but, if so, I have not sufficiently informed m3*self to give 
any definite statement. There were, however, in those times plenty 
of men with military titles, acquired either in actual war or in home- 
military organizations. A train-band flourished in this precinct at an 
early period, and, I presume, continued to do so down to the great 
French war of 1 755-56 to 1763, which was rendered memorable bj' the 
conquest of Canada. In that war all the precincts of Mendon were 
drawn heaviby upon for soldiers. Here I am better informed, having 
been kindly privileged by Dr. John G. Metcalf to extract from 



100 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

his manuscript "Annals of Mendon," such facts as seemed perti- 
nent to this volume. The Dr. has rendered those Annals replete with 
very interesting details, drawn with great pains from various authen- 
tic records in the State and Town archives. I have appropriated 
only such of them as I deemed indispensable to our history. He 
copied from the muster-rolls in the State archives, vol. 95, p. 203. the 
names of Mendon soldiers in the company of Capt. Nathaniel Thwing, 
who served in the expedition to Crown Point in Hob. They were as 
follows : — 

Nathan Tyler, Jr., 1st lieut., Joseph Clark, sergt. (d. in service), 
Peter Aldrich (do. do. do.), Eliphalet Wood, corp., William Hutchens 
(do.), John Watkins. drummer (servant to Jos. Johnson), Joseph 
Aaron (servant to David Daniels), William Barron (d. in service), 
Benj. Blake (servant to Daniel Taft, Jr.), Thos. Bryan. Joseph Clark, 
Jr., Daniel Davidson, Asa Daniels, John Holden, Stephen Johnson, 
Neal McXeal, John Passmore. William Rawson, John Spawford. John 
Vickery (d. in service), Aaron White (do.). Of these, I suppose 
Capt. Nathaniel Thwing, Eliphalet Wood, Daniel Davidson, John 
Passmore, and John Vickery must have belonged to our precinct, 
though I am not certain of them all. Possibly others in the list 
belonged here. In another company, commanded by Capt. John 
Jones, then of Bellingham, eldest son of our Eld. John, there were 
seventeen Mendon soldiers. Among these I recognize, as of this pre- 
cinct, John Thwing, drummer, Joseph Cody, Josiah Tennev, Asahel 
Thayer, John Marsh, John Hill, John Gage, etc. In the muster-roll 
of Capt. Phinehas Lovett I find the names of Gershom Nelson, Ger- 
shom Chapin, John Perry, Moses Gage, Daniel Wedge, Benjamin 
Atwood, William Legg, Peter Brown, etc. These served in 1757. 
In later rosters occur those of Benj. Hay ward. Dependence Hay- 
ward, Moses Tenney, Ebenezer Cheney, sergt.. Caleb Cheney, Sr., 
Isaiah Corbett, Ichabod Marshall, Ichabod Robinson, Moses Rams- 
dell, Nathaniel Corbett, etc. The Dr's. "Annals" give names, 
dates, payments for service, and other particulars, witli much exact- 
ness ; also references to all his authorities. All, or nearly all, these 
were of our precinct. Some rolls seem to have been lost, not being 
found in the State archives. How many other fighting-men from this 
vicinity served in that seven-years' war, whose record has perished, is 
matter for uncertain conjecture. The names cited above show how 
largely the easterly precinct assisted, as well as Mendon throughout, 
in annexing the French Provinces of Canada, etc., to the British 
Empire. 

When we reach the great agitation which culminated in the Amcri- 



THE MILL-RIVER REVOLUTIONARIES. 



101 



can War of Independence, we find Mendon and its three precincts in 
the front rank of the conflict. Its municipal population, led by the 
talented Joseph Dorr, Esq., kindled the beacon-fires of liberty ; re- 
echoed the protests against British usurpation : held public meetings 
in behalf of endangered rights; organized a committee of ••Corre- 
spondence, Inspection, and Safety; " and equipped no less than four 
companies of minute-men, two of which were mainly in our precinct. 
When the battle of Lexington occurred, April 19, 1775. and the con- 
sequent general alarm pealed through the land, these four companies 
immediately hurried to the field. One or both the Mill-River cos. 
actually marched in hot haste for the theatre of war on the very da}' 
of the battle, or certainly the next morning. One of these cos., 
numbered as "the Second Company of Mendon," consisted of the 
following-named officers and men : — 



Dr. William Jennison, Capt. 
Caleb Cheney, Lieut. 

Jones, Sergt. 

Josiah Browu, Corpl. 
Samuel Bowditch. 
Joseph Gibbs. 
John Hayward. 
Jesse Hayward. 
Jona. Hayward. 
Jacob Hayward. 
Joshua Hayward. 
Warfield Hayward. 
Joseph Jones, jun. 
John Jones. 
Abraham Jones, jun. 
Eli Partridge. 
Seth Thayer. 
Josiah Wheelock. 
William Ward. 
Daniel White. 
Benj. Vickery. 



Samuel Cobb, Lieut. 
Adams Chapin, Sergt. 
William Jennison, jun., Sergt. 
John Gibbs, Sergt. 
Sheffield Partridge, Corpl. 
Asa Albee, Corpl. 
William Lesure, Corpl. 
Samuel French, Drummer. 
David French, Fifer. 
Edmund Bowker. 
Samuel Davis. 
Eben r Davis. 
Aaron DavLs. 
William Cheney. 
Benj. Norcross. 
Henry Nelson. 
Amos Shepherdson. 
Abraham Stearns. 
Eli Whitney, jun. 
Saml. Warren. 



The other Mill- River co., numbered " the Fourth Company of 
Mendon," consisted of the following-named officers and men : — 



Gershom Nelson, Capt. 
Jesse Whitney, Lieut. 
Josiah Nelson, Lieut. 
Moses Chapin, Sergt. 
Simeon Wiswall, Sergt. 



Joseph Cody, Sergt. 
Nath 1 Parkhurst, Sergt. 
Ephraim Parkhurst, Corpl. 
Levi Thayer, Corpl. 
Daniel Legg, Corpl. 



102 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



Ichabod Nelson, Corpl. 
Gershom Legg. 
Robert Corbett. 
Ebenr. Read. 
Jonas Parkhurst. 
Elisha White. 
John Robinson. 
Aaron Merrifield. 
Stephen Chapin. 
Daniel Wedge. 
Ichabod Corbett. 
Daniel Hayward. 
James Albee. 
Eph m Chapin. 
Enoch Perry. 
Darius Sumner. 
Levi Hayward. 



Nathan Beal. 
Gershom Twitchell. 
Levi Legg. 
Saml. Jones. 
Daniel Chapin. 
Isaac Littlefield. 
Moses Gage. 
Isaac Chapin. 
David Chapin. 
Saml. Thayer. 
David Legg, jun. 
Alexander Wheelock. 
James Sprague. 
Jonas Twitchell. 
Darius Holbrook. 
Silas Brooks. 
Josiah Kilburn. 



These Mendon cos. joined the thousands of troops that thronged 
the vicinity of Boston. Of these, a hundred and fifteen enlisted as 
three-months' men into the regular arm}*. Among the latter a large 
percentage evidently belonged to our precinct. The following names 
appear : Sergt. Samuel French, Amos Shepherdson, David French, 
James Sprague, Benj. Vickery, Asa Albee, Edmund Bowker, Capt. 
Samuel Cobb, Cor. Peter Corbett, Wm. Cheney, William Legg, Wm. 
Lesure. Jonas Twitchell, Saml. Thayer, Joel Thayer, Lt. Joseph Cody, 
Sergt. Adams Chapin, Isaac Chapin, Josiah Chapin, Jno. Dewing, 
"Wm. Brown, Aaron Davis, Saml. Davis, Robt. Mingo (a negro man), 
Henry Nelson, Daniel Norcross, Benj. Norcross, Sheffield Partridge, 
Joseph Passmore, Aquilla Ramsdell, Daniel White, Jona. Whitney, 
Elias W r hitney, Capt. Saml. Warren, etc. Some of these names may 
not be found in the roll of minute-men, and I ma}" have claimed one 
or two belonging to the other precincts. I think, however, I have left 
out several that ouo;ht to be included, through uncertainty as to their 
proper locality. Whether any of these three-months' men of 1775 
took part in the battle of Bunker Hill, June 17, I do not learn from 
the accounts. But that they were enrolled in the army in and around 
Cambridge, under Gen. Washington, there is no doubt. 

Dr. Metcalf's annals are full, explicit, and interesting, all the way 
down from the opening of the Revolution to its close. In what con- 
cerns our history, we find on the Mendon records ample evidence that 
the people of our precinct shared most honorably with their fellow- 
townsmen at large in every patriotic aud self-sacrificing measure 



PUBLIC SPIRIT AND SACRIFICES. 103 

adopted in behalf of the common cause. They contributed liberally 
for the relief of their distressed fellow-citizens in Boston while held 
in durance by the British troops, and those of Charlestown when laid 
in ashes at the battle of Bunker Hill. There was a continual succes- 
sion of calls for soldiers in the array and for supplies of every de- 
scription towards its maintenance. Men, money, arms, ammunition, 
and all sorts of levies, drained the town's resources. Meantime, the 
County and State governments had to be thoroughly reconstructed. 
The National Declaration of Independence had to be decided on, and 
the United States Constitution under the Confederation adopted. In 
every stage of these proceedings the citizens of this precinct took an 
active and responsible part. Their leading men were prominent on 
all the committees that managed warlike matters, and were members 
of the congresses and conventions of the Commonwealth which so 
frequently sat in those trying times. They paid their taxes, and fur- 
nished their soldiers in full proportion to recruit the Continental armies. 
In descending to the corporate acts of Milford as a town, it remains 
for me merely to give the names of our precinct soldiers, so far as I 
can distinguish them, between 1776 and 1780. Of some there seems 
to be no record other than references in town votes. The muster- 
rolls of 1776 especially, are missing, and others. "The following 
are the names of Mendon men who enlisted for 3 years. 2d Co. (Mill 
River), 19." 

Joseph Passmore, Joel Thayer. Phineas Tanner, John Brown, Wm. 
Lesure, Stephen Lesure, James Battles, Henry Nelson, Isaac Chapin, 
Jona. Whitney, Josiah Chapin, John Haj-ward. Amariah Albee, Boyce 
Kimball, Eben r Thompson, Oliver Chapin. Simeon Smith, Silas Brown, 
David Cutler. Oliver Chapin is noticed as one of Gen. Washington's 
Life-Guards, and Simeon Smith as in the corps of artillery under Lieut. 
Thomas Bailey. All these are put down under date of 1777. There 
were others, of various dates and periods of service, not easily dis- 
tinguishable from their Mendon comrades. Among the nine-months' 
men for the Rhode Island service in 1778, I find John Brown, Joseph 
Chapin (d. in service), Isaac Chapin, David Cutler. John Howard 
(d. in service), Boyce Kimball, Wm. Lesure, and others whose 
localit}* seems probable, but not certain. Some few enlisted for 
the war, some for three ye^rs. some for nine months, etc. The 
following were nine-months' men of 1778, from the easterly precinct, 
who are supposed to have gone into the Northern Army ; viz., Calvin 
Smith, Darius Holbrook, Caleb Holbrook, Jona. Kimball, Wm. Cut- 
ting, Artemas Cheney, and John Dewing. The following-named 
enlisted dining the war: Silas Brown, Aaron Davis, Paul Davis, 



104 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Benjamin Hay ward, Henry Nelson. Joseph Passmore. Saul Ramsdell, 
Joel Thayer. Samuel Thayer, and Jona. Whitney (killed). Of two or 
three others I have doubts just where the} - belonged. Amariah Albee 
is set down as a three-years' man who d. in service. Oliver Chapin is 
ranked among the dragoons, and Amariah Vose as an artilleryman. 
Our Jona. Hayward was in the R. I. service during part of 1878. 
Among the nine-months' men for R. I. service from our precinct in 
1779, I find the names of Darius Holbrook. Jona. Kimball. "Win. 
Cutting. Artemas Cheney, Jno. Dewing. Asa Albee, Caleb Holbrook, 
Moses Ramsdell. Samuel Thayer, and Moses Parkhurst. This brings 
me down to the separation of Milford from Mendon. If I have made 
omissions and mistakes, I hope to be excused in consideration of the 
difficulties incident to the case. Upon the incorporation of Milford, 
the two towns, pursuant to previous agreement, made equitable divis- 
ion of their arms, ammunition, and complicated military responsibili- 
ties then existing. As to what followed to the end of the war, I shall 
content myself with reciting simply the principal votes of our town 
relating to martial matters, coudensing and epitomizing so far as 
allowable. 

TOWN ACTION. 

1780, May 18. Voted a committee of five to hire soldiers. 

June 26. Voted that the town assume payment of all fines im- 
posed on its officers for delinquencies in filling the draft. 

Sett. 11. Voted to give each soldier that marched to R.I., upon 
the late alarm, twelve days, a thousand dollars : these must have been 
dollars in depreciated currency. There was, however, a qualifying 
proviso, that the soldiers give the selectmen "an order to draw the 
whole of their wages, allowance, and travelling fees that the Gen. 
Court might award them." 

Oct. 2. Voted that the selectmen pay out of the town's mone} r 
" for the clothing called for by the State, if it cannot be got from the 
State before the creditors want their money." 

Oct. 10. "Voted that Capt. Saml. Warren, Jno. Robinson and 
Obadiah Wood be a Committee to procure the beef called for b}- the 
State, and deliver it to Jacob Davis, Esq., agent for that purpose in 
Charlton." 

Oct. 16. " Voted that Eben r Holbrook, Capt. Gershom Nelson 
and Capt. Ichabod Thayer be a Committee, in conjunction with the 
Selectmen, to procure the articles for the soldiers that the Selectmen 
have given security for." 

Oct. 16. Saml. Jones made a committee-man, in conjunction with 



ARMY SUPPLIES VOTED. 105 

Mendon com., to get a settlement with Dr. Win. Jennison for bor- 
rowed powder. 

Nov. 28. Capt. Saml. "Warren added to the last named com., for 
settlement of all accts. with Dr. J., and " to pursue in law. if occasion 
require." It does not appear what Dr. Jennison's delinquency was, 
further than that he owed for borrowed powder. The Dr. at this date 
had removed from Milford to Douglas. 

Nov. 28. " Voted that Lt. Jesse Whitney, Capt. Saml. Warren, 
Lt. Seth Nelson, Lt. Saml. Jones and Capt. Ichabod Thayer be a 
Com. to settle with John Battle for his team going to the late alarm, 
which was to R. Island." 

Dec. 25. Voted that Capt. Saml. Warren. Eben r Holbrook, and 
Lt. Joseph Cod}- be a com. to procure beef, or money in lieu of beef, 
at the town's cost, agreeable to a resolve of Gen. Ct.. passed Dec. 
4, 1780. 

Dec. 25. Voted to raise SI 5. 000 to procure beef. 

Voted that the same Com. that was chosen the 18th of last May to 
hire soldiers, should hire the soldiers requested at this time by the 
State, and have allowance for their trouble. 

1781, Jan. 8. Voted to raise 1.000 hard or silver dollars for the 
purpose of hiring ten soldiers for 3 years, or during the war. 

The said 1,000 silver dollars to be hired, if otherwise unobtainable. 

Mar. 26. Mendon delivered to Milford its proportion of arms and 
ammunition, as previously agreed. (Items not found on record.) 

April 2. Voted that Capt. Gershoin Nelson. Capt. Saml. Warren, 
and Elijah Thayer be a com. to settle with the soldiers that lately 
marched to R.I. 

May 14. Voted that Dca. Gideon Albee, Josiah Wheelock, Lt. 
Seth Thayer, Obadiah Wood, and Lt. Joseph Gibbs be a com. to 
hire soldiers the ensuing year. 

Aug. 20. Voted to risk, as a Town, the fine for the 2 Continen- 
tal men said Town is delinquent in raising. 

Dec 5. Voted that Seth Nelson and Daniel Wedge. Constables, 
be the men to hire the remaining part of the Continental men. Voted 
£1G0 to hire said men. 

1782, March 5. Voted to allow Joseph Cody for collecting and 
driving beef to Charlton, 88. 

March 18. Voted to raise £150 forthwith for the purpose of hiring 
4 Continental soldiers for 3 yrs., and that no town order "should 
answer this Rate." 

April 15. Voted to indemnify the assessors of the town from any 
fine relative to orders from Gen. Ct. passed Mar. 8, 1782, for the 



106 



HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 



purpose of raising 4 Continental soldiers for 3 yrs., or during the war. 
The war had dragged on so tediously and exhaustively, that it had 
become extremely difficult to raise recruits for the army. Fortunately 
it was now drawing to a close. 

May 29. Voted that Lt. Seth Nelson, Elijah Thayer and Moses 
Gage be a com. to hire soldiers, and that said com. have reasonable 
pay for service out of town. 

Dkc. 9. Relative to an art. in the warrant, "To see if the Town 
will relieve Godfrey Hyers, Israel Brown, Jr. and Caleb Albee from 
the Continental army, by sending men to take their places, or pay the 
sum engaged them after they have served one }"ear, — Voted and 
chose Capt. Saml. Warren to go to Camp and do his best endeavor 
to hire 3 Continental soldiers to release 3 others at Camp, and make 
report to the Town." 

1783, March 4. Voted to allow Capt. Saml. Warren £9, 6s. for 
his service to camp hiring soldiers. 



From these chronicles it appears that our citizens were patriotic 
and faithful unto the end of the Revolution, as they had been at the 
beginning and through every stage of it ; but their most memorable 
offering on the altar of national independence was the life of their 
distinguished and beloved fellow-citizen, Gen. Alexander Scammell. 

He was a son of Dr. Samuel Leslie and Mrs. Jane Scammell, born 
in our then easterly precinct in 1744 ; graduated at Harvard Univer- 
sity in 17G9; studied law with Gen. John Sullivan; became col. of 
the First N. Hampshire Regt., chosen Light Infantry ; fought and 
was wounded at the battle of Saratoga in 1777 ; attained the rank of 
adj. -gen. 1780, was numbered among the most confidential friends 
of Gen. Washington : was field-officer on Sept. 30, 1781, at the siege 
of Yorktown, when he was surprised by a party of the enemy's cav- 
ahy while reconnoitring, and, after capture, inhumanly wounded. 
Being conveyed prisoner to Williamsburg. Va., he there died of his 
wounds, Oct. 6, 1781. (See Part II., Genealogical Regr., family- 
name Scammell.) . . . 

1 It may be interesting to mention, in this connection, that in 1840 there survived, as Revolu- 
tionary pensioners in this town, the following-named soldiers and widows of soldiers: — 



AGE. 



Darius Sumner 84. 

Abigail Morse 87. 

Mnchallal) Whitney "8. 

Caleb Albee '&• 

Nathan Wuud §"• 



AGE. 

Ezekiel Jones 82. 

Anna Lawrence 80. 

Samuel Wartield 84. 

Edmund Bowker 83. 



PEACE WITH ENGLAND — MILITIA ORGANIZED. 107 

FROM THE REVOLUTION TO THE SECESSION REBELLION. 

The Revolution was consummated by the treaty of peace between 
Great Britain and the United States, whereby our national independ- 
ence was conclusively acknowledged. This treaty was virtually made 
Nov. 30, 1782, but not considered complete till another had been 
agreed on, Jan. 18, 1783, which included France and Spain, allies of 
the United States, in the general settlement. Peace was formal ly 
proclaimed in the American army by Gen. "Washington on the 19th of 
April, 1783, just eight years to a day from the opening of the bloody 
conflict at the battle of Lexinsrton. The Revolutionary armv was 
soon after disbanded, and its surviving heroes permitted to return to 
their homes. A war-worn and exhausted people gladly welcomed their 
hard-earned repose ; but as our civilization stands on the ancient war 
reliant basis, it must, of course, be governed by the maxim, " In 
time of peace prepare for war." Hence Massachusetts, like the 
other States, presently provided for a well-organized militia. In the 
re-organization which followed, Milford was included in the 2d Regt., 
1st brigade, 7th division. It is believed to have had but one full 
company of ordinary infantry enrolled, until after the year 1800. 
The laws of that period required that towns should keep decently 
stocked depositories of powder and other necessary ammunition. 
Whether Milford, like the older towns, had an isolated poivder-house, 
I have never been told ; but the records show that powder, and some- 
times in the form of cartridges, was amply provided for the soldiers. 
Year after year we find it voted to allow each soldier in the training- 
band a certain quantity of powder for the regimental review, or gen- 
eral muster day. Thus 1790, Oct. -4, " Voted to give each soldier 
in the Training band one half a pound of powder out of the Town 
stock, to furnish him with cartridges for the Regimental Review." 
1794, Aue. 20, "Voted to allow each non-commissioned officer and 
soldier in Capt. Saml. Nelson's Company one pound of powder for a 

Muster dav." 

OCCASIONS OF ALARM. 

There were several of these between the two wars with England, 
when requisitions were made by government for military forces to be 
in readiness for marching orders. The first was occasioned by the 
Shay's Insurrection, whose core was the county of Worcester, 1786-7. 
In the warrant for a town-meeting to be held Jan. 19, 1787, was 
the following article: " To see what said Town will do respecting 
the men's marching to Worcester by order of Government, according 
to the Draft made by Capt. Ichabod Thayer the 17th day of Jan. 
inst., or take any other method to procure said quota of men." But 



108 HISTORY OF MILFQRB. 

just about that time the insurrection burst and vanished away, so 
nothing more was required of military force. The second alarm was 
occasioned by the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794 in Western Penn- 
sylvania. That mustered over six thousand insurgents, and was 
deemed so formidable that President "Washington ordered the whole 
militia of the nation to hold itself in readiness to furnish any lev} - he 
might feel obliged to call for. This explains the following: 179-4, 
Aug. 20, "Voted to make up (including his wages) to each non- 
commissioned officer and soldier of said Town, who shall voluntarily 
enlist or be drafted to go into Public Service agreeably to the late 
Requisition, Ten Dollars per month, if they are called into Service, and 
to pay each man Four Dollars advance pay. and also Two Dollars to 
each man for the trouble of Mustering." The whiskey malecontents, 
however, were soon suppressed, and our Milford men had merely the 
trouble of musteriwr. Exactlv how manv there were of them, is left 
in some uncertainty ; but I learn from the Selectmen's Order Book of 
that period that the following named persons received each his two 
dollars, i.e., his town-order for that sum : John "Walker, Rufus Wing, 
Seth Thayer, jun., Caleb Albee. Obadiah Wheelock, Abijah Bruce, Asa 
Pratt. Ezekiel Jones, Gardner White, Luther Chapin, Nathl. Ingra- 
ham, Cephas Hayward, Ebenezer Sumner, jun., John Corbett, Artemas 
Thayer, Zuriel Hayward, Samuel Hayward, Seth Allen, jun., Solomon 
Jones. If there were others they were not recorded, or possibly I 
have overlooked their names. In 1797 another alarm was occasioned 
by serious apprehensions of a war with France ; hence, probably, the 
following vote : 1797, Oct. 2, " Voted to sive each soldier Nine Shil- 
lings who shall enlist or be detached, according to a late Requisition 
of Congress, to hold himself in readiness to march into Public Service 
at a minute's warning ; and also to give each soldier Ten Dollars who 
shall actually march into Service." Amicable negotiations insured 
peace, and no service was required of our soldiers. In 1807 there 
began to be fears of a war with England, and some preparations were 
made for national defence. Hence the Town, on Sept. 7 of that 
year, " Voted to allow the soldiers that have enlisted, to enable them 
to equip themselves and stand ready to march at a minute's warning 
in defence of their country's right (viz., those that belong to the town 
of Milford) Three Dollars each." Accordingly the following named 
persons received three dollars each in selectmen's orders : Ezra Nel- 
son, Jesse Disper, Lemuel Parkhurst, Henn' Nelson, Ebenr. Hunt, 
Lovell Clark, David Littlefield, Luther Claflin, Amasa Fairbanks, Eli 
Chapin, Jason Disper, Asa Cheney, Elijah Farringtou, John Tourtel- 
lott, Amariah Hayward. Possibly there were others unrecorded or 



MILFORD ARTILLERY CO., ETC. 109 

overlooked. Feverish apprehensions of coming war frequently re- 
curred till it actually came in 1812. Here is another vote: 1809, 
April 3, "• Voted to give the soldiers that turned out or were drafted 
in Dec. 1808 Two Dollars each, for their holding themselves in readi- 
ness to march at a minute's warning." Of these we find the follow- 
ing named on record : Caleb Cheney, Rufus Thayer, Ira Cleveland, 
Ezra Nelson. Ellis Sumner, Jared Rawson. Sullivan Sumner, John 
Parkhurst, Alexander Scammell. Joseph Wiswall, Levi Twitchell, Otis 
Albee, William Pool, Abner Pond. Ichabod Thayer, jun., Lot "Wis- 
wall, Arial Bragg, Joel Stanford, David Littlefield. Amos Howard. 
During these years, 1809, '10, '11, etc., we find various orders given 
out in payment for ammunition and incidental miltary services. 

. Early in the year 1803 the long-famous artillery company was 
organized under Pearley Hunt, Capt. John Cladin, jun.. 1st Lieut., and 
Levi Chapin, 2d Lieut. The elite of the town eagerly enrolled them- 
selves in its ranks. It was furnished with two handsome brass field- 
pieces and the necessary accompaniments, and was attached to a 
distinct battalion, commanded by a major and statf. It attracted to its 
banner the ambitious chivalry of the town, with generally a sprinkling 
of kindred materials from the adjacent towns. It was the pride of 
the vicinage, and was seldom outrivalled in the brigade by any inde- 
pendent company. It waxed and waned through various seasons, 
more or less prosperous, till its disbandment in 1846. When the last 
war with England was culminating in ltf 14. this company was called 
into service, nominally for three months, in connection with the State 
troops deemed necessary for the defence of Boston. What was then 
called the Federal part}' had political control of the State, and Caleb 
Strong was Governor. That party had been violently opposed to the 
war, and to President Madison's administration of the Gen. Govt. 
The Federalists of N. England seemed to have hoped, for a time, that 
the British forces might be restrained by policy from invading those 
States of the Union which had protested against the declaration of 
war by the Republican party under Madison. But they found no 
favors shown on that ground by the common enemy. The whole sea- 
coast of the country was threatened by British fleets, and at several 
points destructive!}- assailed. Boston and its vicinity was considered 
in danger; and Gov. Strong, under date of Sept. G, 1814, called out 
several thousands of the State militia. Our Artillery Co. was includ- 
ed in the call, and marched promptly in obedience to the following 
orders : — 

" Massachusetts Militia, 7th Division, Head Quarters Milbury, Sept. 8th, 
1814, 12 O'clock at night. Pursuant to General Orders, a copy whereof is 



110 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



hereunto subjoined, theMajr. General orders that forthwith you muster the 
Company of Artillery under your command, and immediately march to Bos- 
ton, having your Guns and Tumbril and all the Equipments required by law 
for actual service, knapsacks, blankets and three days' provision for your 
men. Your Company will be in uniform. Your Company will be alert and 
on your march by the sabbath morning at 8 O'clock, and as much earlier as 
possible. Evince your patriotism and gallantry. The Capital of the State 
is invaded; your territory is threatned: your Country demands your services. 
The Majr. Gen. relies that by your promptitude the honor of his command 

shall be maintained. 

By Caleb Burbank. 

To Capt. RrFUs Thayer Commanding the Artillery Company in the 2d Regt., 1st 
Brigade, 7th Division." [Copied from the Company's preserved records.] 



A ROLL OF CAPT. RUFUS THAYER'S ARTILLERY CO., CAMP 
SOUTH BOSTON, SEPT. 12, 1814. 



Rufus Thayer, Capt. 
Ezra Nelson, Lieut. 
Henry Nelson, Lieut. 
Levi Rockwood, Senjt. 
Clark Ellis, Senjt. 
Samuel Nelson, jun., Sergt. 
Leonard Chapin, Sergt. 
Isaac Davenport, Corpl. 
Lewis Hay ward, Corpl. 
Calvin Johnson, Corpl. 
Clark Sumner, Corpl. 
Levi Saunders, Musician. 
Moses Littlefield, Musician. 
Ethan Weston, Musician. 
James Bowker, Musician. 

PRIVATES. 

William Andrews. 
Silas Baker. 
James Barber. 
Jonathan Bathrick. 
Ilartwell Bills. 
Stacy Bosworth. 
Eli Chapin. 



Lovell Clark. 
Ira Cleveland. 
Elijah Farrington. 
Isaac Kebbe. 
Jones Pond. 
Preston Pond. 
Josiah Perry. 
Peter Rockwood. 
Alexander Parkhurst. 
Emory Sumner. 
Leonard Taft. 
Ellis Taft. 
Amasa Taft. 
Benjamin Woodward. 

DRIVERS. 

Lebbeus Daniels. 
Silas Gould. 
John Corbett. 
Amos Madden. 
Samuel Crooks. 
John Stearns. 
Chester Clark. 
Daniel Thurber. 



This co. of forty-four men reported themselves in Boston without 
delay, in prime order, and were presently encamped at So. Boston, 
ready for actual service. But the enemy gave them no opportunit} - to 
show their heroism on any field of battle. Peace was at hand, and 
within two months the}' were honorabh' discharged. Milford was 




,'/ /- - r 



f.1 ■-//>" 



s/'r i 



POLITICS AND MILITARY AFFAIRS. Ill 

largely Republican in those times, and stanchly devoted to President 
Madison's administration. A large majority of its citizens went in 
for prosecuting the war with England vigorously, and abhorred the 
anti-war Federalists. They repeatedly voted encouragement to volun- 
teers and soldiers, holding themselves in readiness to 20 into actual 
service at call. Thus we find the following recorded entries: 1812, 
May 4, "Voted to give the soldiers Five Dollars each that shall 
volunteer their services or be detached agreeablv to Orders." 1812, 
Nov. 2, " Voted to give those soldiers that are detached and are 
liable to be called for Seven Dollars a month over and above their 
Continental pay, or the pay the}' shall receive from Govt, when they 
are called into actual service." 1814. Aug. 15, "Voted to make up 
the soldiers that belong to the Town of Milford, that now are or shall 
be hereafter called into actual service under the present Requisition 
of Govt., equal to Seventeen Dollars per month, including Govt, pay, 
to be paid at the close of their actual service." These pledges ap- 
pear to have been faithfully fulfilled. Divers other war expenses 
were undertaken, and duly paid. I find the names of eleven men who 
claimed and reed, the five-dollar bounty ; anil probably there were 
several others who got either the five dollars or the seven dollars. 
The artillerymen that marched to Boston had their seventeen dollars 
per month promptly made up to them, according to promise. On their 
return from camp at So. Boston, in Oct. 1S14, they were received by 
their townsmen with enthusiastic demonstrations ; and on the 30th of 
that month they attended public worship in a bodv, when they were 
honored with a congratulatory sermon from Rev. David Long. That 
sermon was requested for publication, and is one of the few from Mr. 
Long's pen that survive him in print. 

Perhaps I ought, in justice to the lady friends of this compan}', to 
mention a high testimonial of respect and admiration tendered them 
on the 4th of July, 1827. That day was celebrated with unusual 
demonstrations of manifold patriotic display ; and I had the honor to 
be the orator of the occasion. The ladies, with unstinted liberality 
of subscription, had procured a new and elegant standard for formal 
presentation to the company, and matured all their arrangements 
accordingly. The presentation was an important beginning of the 
day's proceedings. A vast assemblage of citizens from this and the 
neighboring towns, of both sexes and all ages, including several 
handsomely equipped independent militar}' companies, thronged the 
town Common. Capt. Clark Sumner commanded the Artillery Co., 
which was out in full numbers and bright uniform. Lieut. Isaac Dav- 
enport was the second officer, and John Corbctt, jiui., the third, or 



112 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

standard-bearer. A suitable platform had been erected on the wester- 
ly side of the Common, commodious enough to seat the Committee of 
Arrangements, Rev. clergy, etc. After prayer by one of the clerg}* 
present, I forget whom. Miss Luc}* Hunt, eldest daughter of Pearley 
Hunt, Esq., then in her seventeenth year, with Miss Laura Ann 
Adams on her right hand and Miss Harriet Hunt on her left, all in 
their maiden bloom, and tastefully attired, partially unfurled the ban- 
ner, gracefully delivered an appropriate address, and presented it to 
2d Lieut. Corbett. He received it with an appreciative response, 
when the band struck up one of their liveliest airs, and the ladies 
were gallantly escorted back to Col. Sumner's hotel, whence they had 
come, amid the delighted manifestations of the multitude. 

In the spring of 1S26, a sprightly company of light infantry was 
organized in town, called " the Lafayette Guards." Its first officers 
were Lewis Johnson, Capt. ; Samuel B. Penniman, 1st Lieut. ; 
Albert Newhall, 2d Lieut. This company emulated the artillery, and 
shared its honors in a greater or less degree down to 1846, or there- 
abouts, when it was disbanded for some reason by Gen. Order. The 
following statement will exhibit the succession of Milford captains in 
the three several companies, and their promotion to higher grades, 
when that occurred, from 1786 down to 1846. I may have overlooked 
one or two in my examination of the Adjutant-General's rosters : — 

CAPTAINS OF THE ORDINARY INFANTRY. 

Ichabod Thayer, Capt., 1786; Majr., 1788; Lieut.-Col. Commandant, 1790. 

Samuel Jones, Capt., 1788; Majr., 1790; Lieut.-Col. Commandant, 1792. 

Nathaniel Parkhurst, Capt., 1791. 

Samuel Nelson, Capt., 1793; rose to be Majr. and Col. before 1800. 

Benjamin Godfrey, Capt., 1699; Majr., 1802; Lieut.-Col. Comdt., 1S05. 

Ezekiel Jones, Capt., 1802. 

Hachaliah Whitney, Capt., 1805; Majr., 1809. 

Henry E. Wheelock, Capt., 1809. 

Arial Bragg, Capt., 1812; Majr., 1815; Lieut.-Col., 1817; Col., 1819. 

Sullivan Sumner, Capt., 1815; Majr , 1817; Col., 1820. 

Silas Parkhurst, Capt., 1817. 

Robert Corbett, Capt., 1821. 

Sylvester Dean, Capt., 1823. 

Rufus Chapin, Capt., 1825. 

Eleazer Parkhurst, Capt., 1828. 

Fowler Bragg, Capt., 1831. 

Leonard Hunt, Capt., 1834; Majr., Lieut.-Col., 1837. 

Samuel Oliver, Capt., 1839, etc. 

The old militia organization abolished, 18-10. 



MILITARY OFFICERS, ETC. 113 

CAPTAINS OF THE ARTILLERY CO. 

Pearley Hunt, Capt., 1803; Majr. of Battalion, 1806. 

John Claflin, jun., Capt., 1806; Majr. of Battalion, 1808. 

Levi Chapin, Capt., 1808; Majr. of Battalion, 1810. 

Samuel Penniman, Capt., 1S10; Majr. of Battalion, 1812. 

Amasa Parkhurst, Capt., 1812. 

Zuriel Hayward, Capt., 1814; Majr. of Battalion, 1814. 

Rufus Thayer, Capt., 1814. 

Ezra Nelson, Capt., 1816. 

Henry Nelson, Capt., 1819. 

Clark Ellis, Capt., 1821. 

Clark Sumner, Capt., 1823; Majr. of Battalion, 1827. 

John Corbett, jun., Capt., 1827; Majr. of Battalion, 1829. 

Peter Corbett, Capt., 1829; Lieut.-Col., Infantry, 1832; Col., 1833. 

Hiram Hunt, Capt., 1832. 

Cooledge Perry, Capt., 1834; soon after rose to be Majr. 

Horatio N. Smith, Capt., 1835. 

Orison Underwood, Capt., 1837; Majr., 1837; Col., Infantry, 1839; Brig. 

Gen., 1841. 
Ira Cheney, Capt., 1837. 
Ziba Thayer, Capt., 1838. 

Adam Hunt, Capt., 1839; rose to be Col., Infantry Regt., 1841. 
Sterling Parkhurst, Capt., 1839. 
Artemas B. Vant, Capt., 1840. 
William Cook, Capt., 1841, etc. 
William P. Miller, Capt., 1844, etc. 
Alonzo Thompson, Capt., 1845. 
Disbanded Dec. 12, 1846. 

CAPTAINS OF THE LAFAYETTE GUARDS. 

Lewis Johnson, Capt., 1826; Lieut.-Col., 1830 to 1832. 
Albert Newhall, Capt., 1829. 
Charles T. Eames, Capt., 1832. 
Aaron Claflin, Capt., 1833. 
Samuel Daniels, Capt., 1835. 
Morton Newhall, Capt., 1836. 
William R. Bliss, Capt., 1838; Lieut.-Col., 1S43. 
Washington Ellis, Capt., 1842. 
Augustus Thayer, Capt., 1843. 
Timothy Ide, jun., Capt., 1845, etc. 
Disbanded April 6, 1846. 

So many changes have been made in the militia-laws since 1840, 
that it is difficult for any one but an expert to treat of them accurately. 
About that time, the old-fashioned infantry organizations were abol- 
ished, and train-bands of that class have become obsolete. What are 



114 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

called volunteer companies were constituted our "active militia.''' 
But the statutes required an annual enrolment to be made of citizens 
held liable to do military service in certain emergencies. It was made 
the duty of the assessors to make up such enrolments, and. if I mis- 
take not, the town-clerk's duty to send a cop}' of them to the Adjt.- 
Gen's. office in Boston. The number enrolled in Milford may be 
inferred from the following specifications made for every fifth year 
since the requirement commenced : For 1840, 145 ; for 1845. 4G4 ; 
for 1850. 819 : for 1855. 1,072 ; for 18G0, 970 for 18G5, not found; 
for 1871. 1.395 : for 1875, 1.38G. 

In 1853, a volunteer co. of infantry, designated as " Co. A," was 
organized in town. This co. continued in greater or less vigor till 
the war of the Rebellion broke out, soon after which, a portion of it 
became incorporated with a N. Y. regt., called "the Mozart," and 
went into the Federal service. Its succession of captains was nearly 
as follows : — 

Nathan W. Heath, 1853. 

James H. Barker, 1S55; Lieut. -Col. 10th Regt., 1856. 
Elbridge Mann, 1857. 
James M. Mason, 1S59. 

P. Alleu Lindsey, 1861. Capt. Lindsey went to the war with a portion of 
his co., and perhaps other enlisted men. 

There was a military company of Irish-Americans, some little time 
preceding the war. called " the Davis Guards," commanded by Capt. 
Robert Peard. But, if I have been correctly informed, that co. organ- 
ized themselves, and operated outside of the regular State militia, on 
their own responsibility. When, however, the war broke out, and 
volunteers were called for. Capt. Peard went into the conflict, became 
Lieut. -Col. of the Ninth Regt., contracted a fatal disease by his ex- 
posure, and ultimately died in consequence. Probably more or less 
of " the Davis Guards " enlisted in the national service. 

DURING AND SINCE THE SECESSION REBELLION. 

Perhaps I cannot do better than to embody in this section a copy 
of Adjutant-Gen. William Schouler's summary of Milford's patriotic 
sacrifices in behalf of the American Union during the great civil war. 
Gen. Schoulcr published an elaborate Histor}' of Massachusetts in 
that war. The summary referred to is given in the second volume of 
the work. Our excellent town-clerk, at that historian's request, fur- 
nished him. in ample detail, all the requisite data; and he arranged 
and condensed them according to his own judgment. I cop} - from 
him as follows : — 



MILFORD'S WAR CONTRIBUTIONS. 115 

Mil ford.— Incorporated April 11, 17S0. Population in 1860,9,132; in 
1S65, 9,102. Valuation in 1860, S3, 155,601; in 1865, 53,275,232. 

The selectmen, in 1861, were James II. Barker, Obed Daniels, George B. 
Pierce; in 1862, Obed Daniels, Leonard Hunt, George Jones; in 1863, Obed 
Daniels, Leonard Hunt, Andrew J. Sumner; in 1864, Henry O. Lothrop, 
Zibeon C. Field, John S. Mead, William S. Wilkinson, Elbridge G. Cook; 
in 1S65, Zibeon C. Field, John S. Mead, James K. Davis. 

The town-clerk, during all these years, was Lewis Fales. The town- 
treasurer, during the years 1861, 1862, and 1SG3, was Sylvester Dean; in 
1S64 and 1865, Ethan C Claflin. 

1861. — The first meeting to consider matters in relation to the war was 
held on the 13th of May, at which A. C. Mayhew, Obed Daniels, Winslow 
Battles, J. C. Scammell, A. C. Withington, F. A. Johnson, and A. W. Wal- 
cott, were appointed to consider and report " a plan of procedure in relation 
to the course the Town should adopt in respect to the war." This commit- 
tee reported that the Town appropriate three thousand dollars to equip the 
soldiers of Milford who have enlisted, and for incidental expenses; two 
thousand dollars for a contingent war-fund; and ten thousand dollars to pay 
State aid to soldiers' families, and for other purposes. One dollar a day was 
allowed to each person " belonging to Company A," while engaged in drill- 
ing. The report was accepted ; and James R. Claflin, Elias Whitney, John 
Morris, Edwin Battles, and Freeman Walcott were chosen " to carry out 
the recommendations contained in the report " June 11 provision was 
made for the payment of State aid to the families of soldiers, and to parents, 
brothers, and sisters dependent upon them; the whole, for both, not to 
exceed twenty dollars a month to each family and dependents of a soldier. 
Dec. 9 six thousand dollars were appropriated for State aid to soldiers' 
families. 

1862. March 31. — Twenty thousand dollars were appropriated for aid, 
during the year, to the families and dependents of volunteers belonging to 
Milford. The following resolutions were unanimously adopted : — 

Resolved, By the inhabitants of the town of Milford, in legal town-meeting 
assembled, that we have heard with pride of the heroic conduct of the officers 
and soldiers of Company B, Twenty-fifth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 
anil our other fellow-citizens of Milford engaged in the battles of Roanoke aud 
Newbern. 

Resolved, That our thanks are due to an overruling Providence, and our con- 
gratulations to our fellow-citizens in the fields aforesaid; that amid perils by sea, 
in the camp, and in the shock of battle, so few have paid for their patriotism with 
their lives; that the patient endurance of these our fellow-citizens, their unflinch- 
ing courage, and their glorious victories, will live forever in the history of the 
town of Milford. 

Resolved, That we tender them our congratulations, that, as members of tho 
Twenty-fifth Regiment, and bearers of the flag, they were the first to raise the 
flag of our old Commonwealth over the batteries of the enemy at Newbern. 

Resolved, That we tender to the friends of those who have fallen in the service 
our heartfelt sympathies, with the assurance that the names of the falleu will 
ever be held in honored memory. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be recorded in the town-records, and a copy of 
the same be sent to Capt. Willard Clark, commanding said company. 



116 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

The treasurer was authorized to borrow twenty thousand dollars, if it be 
necessary, to pay aid to the families of volunteers. The town-clerk, James 
H. Barker, and John Reed, were appointed to prepare a full list of the per- 
sons belonging to the town who have enlisted, or who shaJl enlist, in the 
United States service, " and also to keep a record of any action the Town 
may take in the suppressing of the present Rebellion." July 21 the select- 
men were authorized to pay a bounty of one hundred and twenty-five dollars 
for each volunteer who shall enlist for three years, and be credited to the 
quota of the town. The selectmen were authorized to open a recruiting- 
otfice in the town. Aug. 18 Peter O'Callaghan, George Draper, T. G. Kent, 
John Reade, and Elbridge Mann — a committee appointed at a previous 
meeting — made a report in regard to making provision for the support of 
persons wounded in the military service, and the families of persons killed. 
The recommendations were just and liberal, and the Town took favorable 
action upon the same. A bounty of one hundred and twenty-five dollars 
was directed to be paid to volunteers for nine months' service. Nov. 4 four- 
teen thousand dollars were appropriated for State aid to soldiers' families. 

1863. April 6. — State aid was directed to be paid to soldiers' families 
during the year, as provided by law ; and the treasurer was authorized to 
borrow money for that purpose. 

1864. March 7. — Forty thousand dollars were appropriated for the pay- 
ment of State aid. June 9 the bounty to persons enlisting for three years 
waa fixed at one hundred and twenty-five dollars, and twelve thousand dol- 
lars were appropriated to pay the same. Provision was also made to give 
the returning soldiers belonging to the town a public reception by the citi- 
zens. Several other meetings were held during the year to encourage recruit- 
ing, and to pay bounties. 

1865. March 6. — The selectmen were directed to continue recruiting, 
to pay bounties, and to furnish State aid to the families of volunteers. 
Money was appropriated for these purposes. 

Milford furnished 1,142 men for the war, which was a surplus of 132 over 
and above all demands. [Mr. Schouler adds, in a note, " Milford claims to 
have furnished 1,205 men for the war, all of whom were inhabitants of the 
town. This would make the surplus 195 "] Thirty-five were commissioned 
officers. The whole amount of money appropriated and expended by the 
Town on account of the war, exclusive of State aid, was sixty-two thousand 
six hundred dollars ($62,000). $14,832 were contributed by private sub- 
scription. Total amount, $77,432. 

The amount of money paid by the Town during the war for State aid to 
soldiers' families, and repaid by the Commonwealth, was as follows : In 
1861, $6,419.86; in 1862, $20,500; in 1863, $22,715.76; in 1864, $28,000; 
in 1865, $18,500. Total amount, $96,135.62. 

[Meanwhile] the ladies of Milford devoted much time and labor to pro- 
vide comfortable underclothing and sanitary stores for the soldiers all through 
the war, among which were 98 hospital-gowns, 257 pillow-cases, 240 sheets, 
77 pairs slippers, 222 pairs drawers, 885 rolls bandages, 448 shirts, 227 pairs 
woollen hose, 595 towels, 189 woollen undershirts, 447 handkerchiefs, 24 







/ / / 



/', / 



/ 'A./ 



/V ) J J 



GEN. UNDERWOOD. 117 

"boxes of delicacies," 225 napkins, 65 pillows for wounded limbs, etc. 
(Vol. ii., pp. 648-651.) 

It ought to be added here that a brilliant juvenile company was 
organized in the autumn of 18G1. It numbered from sixty to seventy- 
five patriotic lads, between the ages of fifteen and eighteen years. It 
was fully officered, handsomely uniformed, thoroughly armed with 
light guns, and well drilled. Its first and principal captain was 
"W. J. Mann, a son of our well-known Capt. Elbridge Mann. This 
company exhibited an interesting outgrowth of the war. and per- 
formed escort duty on various occasions, in and out of town, during 
the absence of their seniors in active service. 

Gen. Adin B. Underwood's services, sufferings, and reputation, as 
a hero, in this terrible war, are justly claimed, at least in a secondary 
sense, as an important item to the credit of this his native town, 
although he entered the army from Newton, as a captain in the 
Second Massachusetts Regiment, under Col. Gordon. I will here 
present brief extracts from Headley's "Massachusetts in the 
Rebellion," reserving a more comprehensive notice for the bio- 
graphical sketch to be given in Part II. of this work, the Genea- 
logical Register of our families. 

" The day after Fort Sumter was fired upon, he turned the key in his 
office-door, and never entered it again for a client." "Capt. Underwood 
raised a company in Boston, which with three other companies . . . was 
mustered into service, May 18, 1861, for three years, . . . from which service 
Capt. Underwood was not discharged until as brevet major-general, Sept. 
1, 1865, to accept a position in the civil service of the government, ... as 
surveyor of customs at the port of Boston." Referring to the memorable 
exploit at Lookout Mountain, near Chattanooga, Tenn., Headley's Record 
says, "This re-enforcement from the East found the army about Chatta- 
nooga starving. The rebels held Lookout Mountain, and its approaches on 
the south side of the Tennessee River, including the railroad. The line of 
communication on the north side of the river was circuitous, the roads in a 
terrible state from mud and other causes, and the army was on one-quarter 
rations. The mules and horses were dying from starvation, and a retreat 
would have left behind the artillery; for there were no horses to draw it 
away. One of the first orders of Gen. Grant, on being assigned to the com- 
mand, was to Gen. Hooker to carry the enemy's position on the south side 
of the river, and open the railroad and lines of communication there. 

" On the morning of the 27th October, 1863, the Eleventh Corps, and 
Gerry's division of the Twelfth, started on the enterprise, and, the first day, 
marched unmolested throngh the valley of the Raccoon Range; the second 
day approaching Lookout, from whose bald, overhanging summit the rebels 
could watch and count even the line of Yankees, threading their way along 



118 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

the defiles." " At midnight the camps were aroused by the long roll; and, 
before an hour was over, the slumbering army at Chattanooga heard such a 
rattling of musketry as those hilJs had never echoed before. The enemy, 
under cover of the night, had advanced upon a little chain of hills at the 
foot of the mountain, and intrenched themselves. It was necessary in- 
stantly to dislodge them, or the movement had failed. While Gen. Gerry 
was fighting at his end of the line, two small regiments were directed to 
storm the rebel position on the left, and did one of the most gallant things 
of the war." 

" Col. Underwood started up the hill with but seven companies; three 
having been sent on a secret expedition the evening before. The hill was 
very steep, covered with woods and underbrush, and almost inaccessible. 
The night was dark: but this little band of Massachusetts men, almost 
alone, carried the rebel intrenchments, after two assaults with fixed bayo- 
nets, fighting some of the time hand-to-hand, and, before the supports 
were called into the fight, drove a brigade of Longstreet's men, their old 
foes in the East, from the hill. It met a fearful loss. Wrote the correspond- 
ent of ' The Cincinnati Times : ' ' The brave Col. Underwood, of the 
Thirty-third Massachusetts Regiment, was also wounded. This officer 
passed through some of the hardest fights on the Potomac, to meet this hard 
fate on the banks of the Tennessee in a midnight fight.' Gen. Hooker in 
his official report said, ' Col. Underwood, of the Thirty-third Massachusetts 
Volunteers, was also desperately wounded: and for his recovery I am deeply 
concerned. If only for his meritorious services on this field, his many mar- 
tial virtues, and great personal worth, it would be a great satisfaction to me 
to have this officer advanced to the grade of brigadier-general.' 

" In accordance with this recommeudation, he was soon made a brigadier- 
general. But his career in the field was ended. He was carried to Nash- 
ville, and afterwards home, where he underwent a long and tedious illness of 
a year and a half, six months of it continuously in bed, before he recovered 
sufficiently from the effects of the terrible wound to go upon court-martial 
duty at Washington in the summer of 1805, though then with impaired con- 
stitution, and permanently disabled. He was made president of a court- 
martial, and was at length assigned to the trial of Wirtz, but, before the 
trial began, was appointed surveyor of customs at Boston." — Headley 
(chap, xviii., between pp. 357 and 303). 

Doubtless, if I could command particulars of performance and ex- 
perience in the cases of all our soldiers during their several cam- 
paigns, I could present on these pages many thrilling sketches of 
personal gallantry, achievement, and suffering, alike creditable to 
the individuals and the town ; but I must, at least, mention the 
names of officers, ranking from 2d lieutenant and upward, the 
estimated number that lost their lives for their country, and a few 
kindred facts. 



OFFICERS. 119 

OFFICERS. 

Ahern, John, Reg. 28, Co. K, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 

Barker, James II., Reg. 36, Major. 

Brittou, Isaac, Reg. 28, Capt. 

Bufflngton, Charles E., Reg. 25, Co. B, Sergt., 2d Lieut. 

Burke, Timothy, Reg. 9, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., Capt. 

Burke, William R., Reg. 9, Co. H, Sergt., Sergt. -Major, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 

Carter, John G. Mc, Reg. 25, Co. B, 1st Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 

Chamberlain, George N., Reg. 40, X.Y., Corpl., Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., 
Capt. 

Chipman, James L., Reg. 39, Assist Surgeon. 

Clair, James P. (or Clere), Reg. 19, Drum Major, 2d Lieut. 

Clark, Willard, Reg. 25, Capt. 

Clark, Dixwell, H., Co. 19, unattached, 100 ds., 2d Lieut. 

Clark, Elisha P., Reg. 31, Assist. Surgeon. 

Cook, Albert W., Reg 57, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., Capt., etc. 

Cooley, John J., Reg. 23. Co. K, 1st Lieut., Capt. 

Draper, William F., Regts. 25 and 36, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., Capt., Major, 
Lieut -Col., Brev. Brig.-Gen. 

Emery, William, Reg. 25, Co. B, 1st Lieut., Capt. 

Fiunerty, Michael A., Reg. 9, Co. H, Sergt., Sergt. -Major, 2d Lieut., 1st 
Lieut , Capt. 

Fletcher, Emmons F., Reg. 40, N.Y , 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut , Capt., Major. 

Gilford, Thomas J., Co. 19, unattached, 1 y., 1st Lieut. 

Hancock, Joseph, Reg. 36, Co. F, 1st Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., Capt. 

Hayward, Henry J., Co. 19 unattached, 2d Lieut. 

Holland, William, Reg. 28, Co. K, Sergt., Sergt. -Major, 2d Lieut. 

Holmes, Otis W., Regts 25 and 36, Sergt., 1st Sergt., 1st Lieut., Capt. 

Hoyt, Dixi, Reg. 2, Heavy Artillery, Assist. Surgeon (d. Nov. 1, 1861). 

Hovt, Alpheus E , Reg 25, Assist. Surgeon, prom. Surgeon Oct. 21, 1864. 

Johnson, Francis, Co. 19, unattached, 1 y., Capt. 

Johnson, William H. H., Reg. 40, N.Y., Corpl., Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 

Keene, Augustus W., Reg. 40, N.Y., Corpl., Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., 
Capt., Major. 

Legg, Edwin, Reg. 2, H. Artillery, 2d Lieut., Co. E. 

Leland, Francis, Reg. 2, Infty., Surgeon. 

Lindsey, P. Allen, Reg. 40, N.Y., Capt., Major, Lieut. -Col. 

Marshall, Edward M., Reg. 40, N.Y., Corpl., Qr.-Mr. Sergt., 1st Lieut., 
Qr.-Mr. 

Mason, James M., Reg. 16, Infty., Capt., Co. B; also Capt., Co. 19, un- 
attached. 

Matthews, Albert E., Batt. 1, Frontier Cavalry, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 

Murphy, Patrick E., Reg. 9, Qr.-Mr., Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 

Nolan, Patrick, Reg. 28, Co. K, wagoner, 1st Lieut., Capt. 

O'Neil, Jeremiah, Reg. 9, Co. K, Capt. 

Peard, Robert, Reg. 9, Major, Lieut. -Col. 



120 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Perkins, Stephen G., Reg. 2, Infty., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 
Pond, Bernard H., Reg. 40, N.Y., Qr.-Mr. Sergt., 1st R., Qr.-Mr. 
Reade, John, Reg. 48, 9 mo., 1st Lieut.; also Reg. 57, Co. A, 1st Lieut. 
Roche, Thomas K., Reg. 9, 1st Lieut., Capt. 

Scammeil, William H., Reg. 40, N.Y., Qr.-Mr. Sergt., Qr.-Mr., 1st Lieut. 
Shea, Dennis, Reg. 20, Co. F, 1st Sergt., 1st Lieut., Capt. 
Spencer, Daniel E., Reg. 2, H. Artillery, 1st Sergt., 2d Lieut. 
Sullivan, John, Reg. 28, Co. K, Sergt., 2d Lieut. 
Sweet, Edwin J., Reg. 40, N.Y., Co. G, Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 
Tuttle, Augustus S., Reg. 36, Co. F, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., etc. 
Walcott, Alfred AV., Reg. 40, NY., Co. G, 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut. 
AValcott, Harrison T., Reg. 40, N.Y., Co. G, Sergt., 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., 
Capt. 

Here are fifty-one officers all claimed to the credit of our town, 
though circumstances threw a part into the 40th Reg. of N.Y. 

The number of our soldiers and officers killed during the war was . 50. 

The number discharged on account of disability .... 180. 
Died of wounds and disease 76. 



A total loss of ........ . 306. 

Grand Army of the Republic, Majr. E. F. Fletcher Post 22, was 
organized in October, 1867, to commemorate the military achieve- 
ments and services of our soldiers in the war that preserved the 
National Union, to foster the spirit of martial patriotism, and to 
promote social sympathy among the survivors of that tremendous 
conflict. Its officers, elected annuallv in January, are a commander, 
senior vice-commander, junior vice-commander, adjutant, quarter- 
master, surgeon, and chaplain. It holds weekty meetings ; takes 
charge of demonstrations on Decoration Day ; looks after the welfare 
of poor comrades, their widows and orphans ; and does itself honor 
in the laudable discharge of numerous duties appropriate to its own 
peculiar sphere. The Town has generalby, if not uniformly, made 
an annual appropriation of not less than a hundred dollars towards 
the expenses on Decoration Day, which takes place about the end of 
May. 

Since the termination of the great civil war, Milford has had two 
regular volunteer companies. The first of these was organized Sept. 
2, 1866, and known as " The Mayhew Guards." It was designated 
as " Company F," and belonged to the " 10th Regt. Mass. Volunteer 
Militia." It continued in existence ten or eleven years. It had a 
succession of five captains : viz., "Willard Clark, who rose to be Lieut. - 
Col.; John G. McCarter; Charles E. Belcher; Henr}- J. Bailey; 
and Henry E. Fales. The second co., and most recent, was organ- 



RECENT VOLUNTEER COMPANIES. 121 

lzed Jan. 3, 1879. It is designated as "Company M, 6th Regt., 
Mass. Vol. Militia." Officers elect, Capt. Henry J. Bailey ; 1st Lieut., 
Geo. P. Cooke; 2d Lieut., Jesse A. Taft. I will draw to a close 
by adding that our town has always yielded a respectable supply of 
martial music, having from earlv times raised its full share of geniuses 
in this line, and a goodly succession of excellent bands. 

After this chapter had been quite completed, I consulted several 
citizens on the propriety of inserting some memorial of the common 
soldiers who served the town during the great conflict in behalf of 
the Union. It seemed to be the unanimous opinion that I should 
give general satisfaction by presenting at least a catalogue of their 
names. But when I came to examine our town-clerk's War Record, 
containing man}' particulars and memoranda of interest to numerous 
parties concerned, I did not see how I could meet public expectation 
without copying the substance of the entire volume. This must needs 
occupy more space than I wished, but, with allowable abridgment 
and abbreviation, not more than might be deemed excusable. The 
result is a ver}* long additional chapter on "The Annals of Warlike 
and Military Service." This has cost me some wearing labor, but 
will, I trust, bring me more approval than censure. I have entitled 
this additional chapter, " War Record of the Rebellion.'" 



122 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

WAR RECORD OF THE REBELLION". 

Memoranda of Soldiers and Officers furnished by Mil ford to the Union Armies for svp- 
pressiny the Great Secession Rebellion ; abridged from the Toicn-Clerk' s originally 
compiled Record. 

AnnREViATioxs: b. for born: s. for son; en. for enlist, enlisted, and enlistment; 
m. for mustered; y. for year and years; mo. for months; ds. for days; R. for 
Regiment; Batt. for Battalion and Battery; Co. for Company; ft. for fought; 
icd. for wounded, wound, etc.; k. for killed; d. for died; dis. for discharged; 
scr. for served, service, etc.; erp. for expiration; pri. for private; prom, for pro- 
moted; and numerous others in common use, or easily apprehended. It will 
be understood that every man enlisted or drafted either belonged to Milford or 
was claimed to its credit, unless the contrary is specified. 

ADAMS, CHARLES O. : b. Vassalboro', Me., Jan. 2, 1S35; s. Otis C. and 
Eleanor; bootmaker; en. Aug. 6, 'G2, and m. same day; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F., 
wagoner; ft. at Fredericksburg, Va., 'G2, and at Jackson, Miss., '63; 
dis. Oct. 21, '63, at Boston, on surgn's cert, of disability. 

Adams, Orrick H. : b. Me., May 25, 1S37; s. Otis and Eleanor; boot- 
maker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, corpl. ; dis. June 
8, '65, at exp. ser. 

Adams, George S. : b. June 16, 1S33, Newport, N.H. ; s. Jeremiah and 
Lucy; en. Sept. 12. '61, and in. same day; 3 y. R. 23, Co. B, pri.; ft. in bat- 
tle at Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsborough, Old Town, 
Drury's Bluff, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, etc.; never wd. ; m. out Oct. 20, '64, 
in Worcester, at exp. ser. 

Adams, Asa F. : b. Readfield. Me., Mar. 21, 1S16; s. Eli and Roxa; express- 
man; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, Co. G, New York, pri.; dis. for 
disability by order Gen. Stoneman at Falmouth, Va., Jan. 31, '63; d. '68. 

Adams, William P.: b. Medway, Mass., 182S; s. of ; bootmaker; en. 

and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, Co. G, N. Y., pri.; d. July 18, '62, of conges- 
tive chills, at Harrison's Landing. 

Adams, Asa Roscoe: b. Bradford, Me., Sept. 7, 1S43; s. Asa F. and Jane E. ; 
printer; en. June 14, '61, and m. June 21 ; 3 y. R. 5, Co. D, Excelsior Brigade, 
N. Y., pri.; taken prisoner Williamsburg, May, 5, '62; paroled, and dis. by War 
Department May 23, '62, being a paroled prisoner. Entered naval ser. Oct., 
'62, as landsman on board steamship "Huron, " and continued in that ser. till 
'66. 

Adams, Johx Q. : b. Newport, N.H.,1836; s. Josiah and Lucy; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri.; d. of diphtheria at 
Alexandria, Va., Nov. 22, '61; interred Vernon Grove Cem., Milford, Mass. 

Adams, Horace: b. Medway, Mass. Dec. 12, 1845; s. John, jun.,and Eliza; 

bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. Nov. 25; 1 y. R. , Co. 19, pri.; dis. 

June 22, '65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 



WAR RECORD. 123 

Adams, George W. : b. 1835; no parentage given, nor occupation; en. and 
m. July 14, '64; 100 ds. R. 42, Co. C, pri. ; dis. Nov. 11, '64, at exp. of ser. 

Adams, Hikam R. : b. 1S45; parentage, etc., not given; en. and m. Dec. 31, 
'64 ; cavalry, 3 y. R. 3, Co. L, pri. ; dis. Sept. 2S, '65, close of war. 

Ahern, John: b. Ireland, 1833; parentage not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Oct. S, '61 ; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, 2d lieut. ; prom, to be 1st lieut. Dec. 3, '61 ; dis. 
Sept. 23, '62. 

Albee, Albert: b. Milford, Mass., Jan. 27, 1843: s. Clark and Yianna; 
farmer; en. and m. Sept. 13, '62; 9 mo. R. 42, Co. B. pri.; dis. Aug. 20, '63. 

Albee, Seth: b. Mil., Mass., Apl. 10, 1839; s. Clark and Vianna; occupa- 
tion not given; en. and m. July 22, '64; 100 ds. R. 42, Co. E, pri.; dis. exp. 
ser. Nov. 11, '64. 

Alden, George N. : b. 1845; place, etc.. not given, nor parentage, nor occu- 
pation; en. and m. Nov. 25, '64; 1 y. R. 19, unattacbed Co., pri. ; date of dis. 
not given. 

Aldrich, Henry K. : b. Cumberland, R.I., Feb. 12, 1837; s. Dutee T. and 
Lucinda; carpenter; en. Aug. 5, '62. m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; ft. 
at Fredericksburg, Va., Jackson, Miss., siege Petersburg, Va., and at Poplar 
Grove Cburcb, where wd. in right ankle; dis. July 10, '65, Dale Gen. Hospital, 
Worcester, Mass. 

Aldrich, Aaron: b. Smitbfield, R.I., Oct. 23, 1827; s. Alvah and Keziah; 
bootmaker; en. Oct. 2, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. at Roan- 
oke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, and Goldsboro', N.C. ; dis. Jan. 19, 
'64, at Newport News, Va.; re-en. next day in same R. and Co.; dis. exp. ser. 
July 13, '65. 

Aldrich, William H. : b. Leicester, Mass., Sept. 26, 1S44; s. Dutee and 
Lucinda; student; en. and m. Oct. 8, '61; 3 y. R. 25, Co. I, pri.; ft. at New- 
bern, N.C, Petersburg, Ya., May, '64. and at Drury's Bluff, 16th same mouth, 
where wd. in shoulder; dis. Oct. 20, '64, Worcester. 

Allen, Frank E. : b. Augusta, Me., Apl. 20, 1845; s. Ephraim J. and 
Zepha; bootmaker; en. Aug. 18, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; 
dis. Sept. 21, '63. disability. 

Allen, Mowrt A.: b. Mil., Mass., Apl. 4, 1846; s. Elijah M. and Mar}' A.; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Nov. 19, '64; 1 y. R. 19, unattached Co., pri.; date of 
dis. not given. 

Angell, Charles R. : b. 1841; s. Alfred and Betsey; laborer; en. and m. 
Jan. 1, '62; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G. pri.; dis. Feb. '62, disability. 

Anson, Ezekiel W. : b. Uxbridge, Mass., 1836; s. Manning W. and Susan 
A.; machinist; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; d. 
Louisville, Ky., Aug. 24. '63. of malarious fever. 

Armstrong, William H. : b. 1S28: parentage, etc.. not given; bootmaker; 
en. June 9, '61, and m. 11; 3 y. R. 9, Co. G, wagoner; dis. June 21, '64, exp. 
ser. 

Armstrong, James A.: b. Roxbury, Mass., Oct. 30, 1846; s. James and 
Fannie; lastmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; R. not given, unattached Co., 
pri. ; dis. at Boston Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war, 

Arnold, Charles A.: b. Smithfield, R.I., Apl. 15, 1843; s. Micajah C. and 
Abigail; bootmaker; en. and in. June 21. '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. : ft. 
at Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Seven Days, and >iege of Yorktown, Ya. ; taken 
prisoner, and confined in Richmond 4 or 5 weeks; m. out July 2, '64, exp. ser. 

Aylwood, Richard: b. in Ireland, 1S34; parentage not given; shoemaker; 



124 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

en. Aug. 4, '62, and m. 5; 3 y. R. 1, Co. H, cavalry recruit, corpl. ; ft. at 
Fredericksburg, Va., Brandy Station, Aldie, June 17, '63, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Rapidan, Culpepper, Mine Run, Wilderness in raid to Va., May, 
'64, kail's Shop, May 27, St. Mary's Ch., June 24, Malvern Hill, Weldon Rail- 
road, etc. ; dis. at Boston, Nov. 7, '64. exp. ser. 

Bael, Lawrence: b. 1835; parentage, etc., not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Aug. 7, '61; 3 y. R. 19, no co. named; recruit; nothing further given. 

Bagley, Andrew: b. Brookfield, Vt. ; parentage not given; bootmaker; 
en. 2d time Dec. 1, '63; 3y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. in Va. at Port Walthal, Arrow- 
field Ch., Drury's Bluff, and Cold Harbor; dis. July 20, 1865, Worcester, Mass. 

Bailey, Henry J.: b. Aston, Eng., Dec. 26, 1845; s. Geo. W. and Har- 
riet; student; en. 1st time for Cambridge, Sept. 17, '62, and m. Oct. 7; 9 mo. R. 
45, Co. I, pri. ; ft. at Kinston, Whitehall, and Goldsboro' ; m. out at Readville, 
Mass., July 7, '63. En. and m. for Milford, Dec. 9, '63; 3 y. Batt. 1 Heavy 
Artillery, Co. A, pri.; stationed in our coast forts during his term of service; 
and dis. from Fort Warren, Oct. 20, '65, by order of War Department, close of 
the war. 

Baker, Isaac D. : b. South Yarmouth, Mass., June 3, 1843; s. Davis and 
Mary J. ; painter; en. Nov. 19, '64; 1 v., unattached Co. 19, pri.; this his 3d 
enlistment during the war; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Balcome, Edwin: b. Douglas, Mass., Aug. 20, 1S26; s. Sarpl. and Sub- 
mit; carpenter; en. Sept. 12, 1861; 3 y. R 25, Co. B, pri.; detailed to hospital 
ser. Dec. 25, '61; dis. at Worcester, Feb. 24, '64, to re-enlist; re-en. the next 
day, and m. in for 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, as hospital steward ; dis. July 13, '65, close 
of war. 

Ball, Eli G. : b. Bennington, Vt., 1842; s. ; machinist; en. first time 

Sept. 9, '61; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke Island, Kinston, Whitehall, 
Deep Gully, and Green Swamp; dis. Jan. 18, '64, at Newport News, Va.; en. 
2d time and m. in same day, same Co. and R., 3 y., pri.; ft, at Arrowfield Ch., 
Port Walthal, Drury's Bluff, and Cold Harbor, in which last battle he was wd., 
missed, never seen more, and undoubtedly killed. 

Ballou, Herbert: b. Mil., Mass., Oct. 28, 1847; s. Cyrus and Laura; 
straw-worker; en. Nov. 19, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached infantry, pri. ; stationed 
at Forts Warren and Winthrop; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Banks, Adoniram H. : b. 1833; nothing further given; en. and m. Aug. 
9,'64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached infty., sergt. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Barber, John P.: b. Mil., Mass., May 27, 1816; s. James and Nancy; boot- 
maker; en. Nov. 10, '63, and ra. Dec. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, pri.; ft. at Plym- 
outh, N.C., made prisoner there, taken to Andersonville 6 mo., thence to 
Charleston, S.C., a week, and thence to Florence, S.C., where d. Sept., '64, of 
starvation. 

Barber, John Waldo: b. Franklin, Mass., Nov. 20, 1842; s. John P. and 
Rhoda P.; bootmaker; en. and m. June 26, '61; 3 y. R. 12, Co. C, 5th sergt.; 
d. Warrenton, Va., July 17, '62, from an injury reed, when bathing. 

Barker, James H. : b. Westmoreland, N.H. ; s. Benjamin and Abigail; 
boot-manufacturer; en. and m. Sept. 2, '62; 3 y. R. 36, major; ft. at Fred- 
ericksburg, Va., Dec. 11, '62; resigned Jan. 29, '63. 

Barnabd, Charles F. : b. Berlin, Mass., Oct. 27, 1838; s. Oliver H. and 
Mary G. ; carpenter; en. Oct. 1, '61, and m. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. at 
Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', and Green Swamp; 
was detailed June 26, '03, as carpenter in the Ordnance Dept., and dis. at 
Beaufort, N.C., Oct. 31, '65, exp. ser. 



WAR RECORD. 125 

Barrett, John: b. in Galway Co., Ireland, June 31, 1827; s. Andrew and 
Mary; currier; en. and m. March 22, '64; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; nothing 
further given. 

Barrett, John: b. Roscommon Co., Ireland, 1839; s. Patrick and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. and m. March 31, '64; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; transferred to 
Veteran Reserve Corps, Sept. 13, '64. 

Bassett, Oscar H. : b. Greenbush, N.Y., Oct. 9, 1S39; s. Nathaniel B. and 
Caroline; bootmaker; en. and m. May 21, '61; 3 y. R. 29, Co. A. pri.; dis. to 
re-enlist Jan. 1, '64; re-en. the next day; 3 y. in same Co. and R; dis. July 
29, '65, exp. ser. 

Bates, Ira D. : b. Uxbridge, Mass., Dec. 25, 1843; s. Peter and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. 1st, Sept. 12, '61, and m. Oct. 7, 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, musician; 
was in all the battles with his R., and dis. at Newport News, Dec. 17, '64, to 
re-«m., which lie did in same R and Co. the next day; was prom, to be drum- 
major May 1, '64, and was in all the battles with his R. ; dis. July 13, '65, at 
exp. ser. 

Bates, Henry: b. 1838; clerk, no further particulars given; en. July 16, 
'61; 3 y. R. 13, Co. B, corpl.; dis. Aug. 1, '64, exp. ser. 

Batchelder, George W. : b. Quincy, Mass., Sept. 16, 1842; s. James and 
Harriet; stonecutter; en. Sept. 5, '61, ra. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; trans- 
ferred to regular army Mar. 8, '63; went into signal corps in N. Carolina, 
and made sergt. therein; ft. at Roanoke Island, Whitehall. Kinston, Goldsboro', 
and Newbern; dis. Sept. 11, '65. Newbern, N.C., close of war. 

Batchelder, Lawrence E. : b. Quincy, Mass.. May 29, 1S44; s. James 
and Harriet; stonecutter; en. Sept. 5, '61, m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; 
ft. at Roanoke Island and Newbern, N.C. ; dis. Worcester, Mass., Oct. 20, 1864, 
exp. ser. 

Batchelder, Jacob Lindset: b. Quincy, Mass., Oct. 29, 1845; s. James 
and Harriet; farmer; en. 1st, Aug. 5, '62, m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R 36, Co. F, 
musician; dis. Apl. 3, '63, disability. En. 2d. time Mar. 9, '64; 3 y. R. 25, 
Co. B, pri. ; dis. July 13, '65, exp. ser. 

Battles, Frank: b. Billerica, Mass., 1847; s. Edwin F. and Josephine; 
en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 d., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, 
exp. ser. 

Battles, Edwin M. : b. Billerica, Mass., 1845; s. Edwin F. and Josephine; 
en. Mar. 30, '64, as hospital steward; dis. not given. 

Baxter, Barney, alias Barnard : b. Ireland, 1831; parentage not given; 
bootmaker; en. Sept. 20, '61, and m. Dec. 13; 3 y. R 2S, Co. K, pri.; 
wounded Sept. 1, '62; dis. Feb. 27, '63, disability. 

Beattey (or Berty). Richard H. D. : b. 1819, parentage not given; tailor; 
en. and m. July 26, '61 ; 3 y. R. 19, Co. D, pri. ; transferred to Vet. Reserve 
Sept. 26, '63. 

Beattey, John: b. Ireland, 1820: 8. Christopher and Ann; bootmaker; en. 
Aug. 29, '64, ra. 30; R. 2, Heav: Artillery, Co. II, pri.; ft at Kinston, 
N.C; transferred to 17th Infantry, Co. G, Jan. 17, '65, at Plymouth, N.C; dis. 
at Greensboro', N.C, June 30, '65, close of war. 

Beaudette, David: b. Montreal, Can., 1841; s. Alexander and Maria; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 2, '63, m. 9; 3 y. R. 2, Co. F, pri.; dis. June 26, '65, from 
Co. H, exp. ser. 

Beaume, Anthony - : b. 1827; parentage, etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 5, 
'64; 3 y. R 2, Co. C, Heavy Artillery, pri.; transferred to 17th lufty., Co. D, 
Jan. 9, '65; dis. June 30, '65, close of war. 



126 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Belcher, Parion C. H. : b. Randolph, Mass., June IS, 1S40: s. Jolin and 
Cordelia; bootmaker; en. 1st time, Sept. 5, '61, m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, 
sergt. ; prom, sergt. Oct. 16. '61, and to be 1st sergt. Jan. 9, "64: ft. at Roanoke 
Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', and Green Swamp, not wd. ; 
dis. Jan. 18, '64. at Newport New*. Va. ; re-en. in same R. and Co., same day, 
Jan. IS, '64, for 3 y. sergt. ; ft. in two battles, — Valley Farm and Arrow Creek 
Church, at Drury's Bluff and Cold Harbor; taken prisoner to Richmond, June 
3, '64, then to Andersouville, Savannah, etc.; paroled Nov. 26, '64; exchanged 
Mar. 25, '65; and dis. June 9, '65, by an order relating to those who had 
suffered in rebel prisons. 

Belcher, Charles E. : b. Randolph, Mass., June 3, 1S43: s. John and 
Cordelia; bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 d. R. 19, unattached Co., 
corpl. ; stationed Fort Warren, Boston ; dis. exp. ser. 

Bell, Frank N. : b. Concord, Vt., Jan. 3, 1S4T; s. Noah S. and Mary H.; 
farmer; en. Aug. 6, '62; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; prom, corpl. '04: mustered out 
with R. near xllexandria, Va., June S. '65, close of war. 

Bell, John: b. Ireland, May 12, 1S45; s. Joseph and Elizabeth; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40. N. Y., Co, G, pri.; k. Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13, '62. 

Bell, Geo. Edward: b. Concord, Vt., Aug. 3, 1S45; s. Noah S. and 
Mary H. ; bootmaker; en. Mar. 14, '64, m. Mar. 24; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; 
transferred to R. 50, Co. B, June S, '05, when the COth was m. out; prom, 
corpl.; dis. July 12, '05, exp. ser. 

Bellows, Andrew J.: b. Blackstone, Mass., Nov. 12, 1S43; s. Thayer and 
Sarah; farmer; en. Nov. 19, '64, ra. 25; 1 y., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; he had 
previously served in R. 15, Co. B, from the town Blackstone; finally dis. in 
Boston Harbor. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Bennett, Benjamin K. : b. Smithfield, R.I., 1S30; s. Benj. and Eliza; boot- 
maker; drafted July 15, '63; 3 y. R. 22, no Co. named, pri.; transferred Oct. 
26, '64, to R. 32 Infty., Co. M; dis. June 9, '65, close of war. 

Bennett, Eugene G. : b. Webster, Mass., Mar. 1, 1S44; s. Artemas and 
Mary S. ; farmer; en. Dec. 7, '63, m. Dec. 10; 3 y. R. 2, Co. I, pri.; d. in 
Milford of chronic diarrhcea, Mar. 25, '65. 

Bennett, William H. : b. 1S43. parentage, etc., not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 17, '64: 3 y. R. 2, Co. B, Heavy Artillery, pri.; dis. June 26, '05, exp. ser. 
Bergin, Luke: b. Ireland, ISIS, no parentage given; weaver; en. and m. 
1st time, Sept. 25, '02; 9 mo. R. 51, Co. A, pri.; m. out with R. July 27, '63. 
Re-en. Nov. 19, '63; 3 y. R. 25, Co. G, pri. ; d. at Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 28, 
'64. 

Bergin, Stephen: b. Ireland, 1S19, parentage, etc., not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Aug. 9, '61 ; 3 y. R. 19. a recruit. 

Berry, Joseph: b. Montreal, Can., 1S42; s. Nelson and Mary; laborer; en. 
and m. Dec. 15, '63; 3 y. R. 1, Co. B, pri.; dis. Aug. 16, '65, exp. ser. 

Billings, William F. : b. Blackstone. Mass., Mar. S, 1S48; s. Wm. L. and 
Eunice E. ; teamster; en. Nov. 19, '64, m. 25; 1 y. R. 19, unattached Co., infty., 
pri.; stationed at Forts Warren and Winthrop, Boston Harbor; dis. June 27, 
'65, close of war. 

Birch, William: b. England, 1821, parentage not given; tailor; en. and 
m. first time, Aug. 9, '04; 100 ds. R. 19. unattached Co., pri.; dis. Nov. 10, '64, 
exp. ser. ; re-en. Feb. 12, '05, 1st Batt. H. Artillery, Co. C, pri. ; dis. June 24, '65, 
close of war. 



WAR RECORD. 127 

Birch, Wm, Henry: b. Mil., Mass., 1847; s. Wm. and Mary Ann; boot- 
maker; en. and m. 1st, Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 
16, '64, exp. ser. Re-en. Feb. 12, '65; 3 y. H. Artillery, 1st Batt., Co. C, pri. ; 
dis. June 24, '65, close of war. 

Birmingham, Patrick: b. Ireland, Co. Gal way, Dec. 20, 1S36; s. Patrick 
and Catherine; bootmaker; en. Dec. 30, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. 
A, pri. ; dis. July 30, '65, close of war. 

Bishop, Henry L. : b. 1S34, no parentage, etc., given; en. and m. Aug. 9, 
'64; 100 days, Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Bixby, Montgomery: b. Hopkinton, Mass., Oct. 2, 1S37; s. Joel and 
Elizabeth; bootmaker; en. July 14, '63, and m. 28; 3 y. H. Artillery, R. 2, Co. 
A. pri.; ft. at Kinston, N.C.; dis. Sept. 3, '65, at Smithville, N.C., close of 
war. 

Bixby, Montcalm: b. Hopkinton, Mass., 1S30: s. Joel and Elizabeth; 
bootmaker; en. 1st, Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, 
exp. ser. Re-en. Feb. 11, '65, Batt. H. Artillery, an unassigned recruit; dis. 
June 14, '65, close of war. 

Bixby, Warren: b. Hopkinton, Mass., 1841; s. Joel and Elizabeth; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, 
'64, exp. ser. 

Blake, George H. : b. 1838; place and parentage not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 9, 64; 100 ds., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Bliss, John G. : b. 1837; place and parentage not given; mason; en. Aug. 
5, '62; m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F., pri. ; d. July 23, '63, at Milldale, Miss. 

Blood, Lucius: b. Weathersfield, Vt., Oct. 14, 1S32; s. Shattuck and Fi- 
delia; bootmaker; en. Apl. 19, '61; m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G., 1st 
corpl.; prom, to sergt. Jan. 5, '62; ft. at Torktown, Williamsburg (where wd. 
bullet, left shoulder), Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, Kelley's Ford, Mine Run, 
Wilderness, Po River, Spottsylvania, Mattipan River, North Anna River, Cold 
Harbor, Petersburg, Weldon R. R. ; and m. out at the last-named place, June 
27, '64, exp. ser. 

Blunt, Patrick: b. Ireland, 1836; bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 
y. R. 9, Co. H, sergt. ; ft. at Yorktown, Hanover Court House, Mechanicsville, 
Gaines's Mills, Chickahominy, Glendale, Malvern Hill, 2d Bull Run, Antietam, 
Ranneysville, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, 
Bristow Station, Rappahannock, Mine Run, Wilderness, Todd's Tavern, Spott- 
sylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, etc.; dis. Boston, Mass., June 15, '64, exp. 
ser. 

Bodere, Patrick: b. 1842; place and parentage not given; farmer; en. 
July 25, '61 ; 3 y. R 20, Co. F, pri. ; nothing more given. 

Boniface, Jean: b. 1S23; en. Oct. 5, '63; 3 y. R 2, Co. E, H. Artillery, pri.; 
dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. ; nothing else given. 

Boyle, Patrick: b. Ireland, Co. Gal way, Nov., 1845; s. Luke and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 9, '63; m. Jan. 1, '64; 3 y. R 2, Co. B, pri.; transferred 
to a new organization at the m. out of Co. B; dis. July 13, '65, from Co. C, R. 
25. 

Boyle, Bernard: b. Ireland, Co. Gal way, 1S43; s. Luke and Ellen; boot- 
maker; en. and m. 11, '64, recruit; 3 y. R 25, Co. B, pri. ; transferred to a new 
organization at the m. out of Co. B, Newbern, N.C. ; no further traceable. 

Bradbury, William H. H. : b. Newburyport, Mass., 1S40; s. Ebenezer and 
Mary; wheelwright; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; sent 
to Insane Asylum, Washington, D.C. ; dis., date not given, disability. 



128 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Bradford, Charles W. : b. 1845; place, etc., not given; en. and m. July 
27. '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64; exp. ser. 

Bradley, Patrick: b. Boston. Mass., 1837; s. Win. and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. July 25. '61; 3 y. R. 2. Co. E, pri. ; dis. Dec. 2, '62; disability. Re-en. Nov. 
6, '63, and m. Dec. 0, following; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, pri.; ft. Plymouth, N.C. 
taken prisoner to Andersonville, Ga., to Mellen, Ala., to Savannah, Ga. ; ex- 
changed in about 7 mos., and dis. June 26, "65, disability. 

Bradley, John: b. Ireland, Co. Donegal, Dec. 25, 1823; s. George and 
Margaret; bootmaker; en. Jan. 4, '64, m. 11; 3 y. R. 57, Co. B, pri.; ft. Wil- 
derness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Cold Harbor, front Petersburg, Va. ; wd. 
Spottsylvania by a rifle-ball in right hip, also in front Petersburg by ball in 
right side and chest; dis. May 27, '64, Readville, Mass., -with R. ; but was pre- 
viously reported unfit for ser. 

Bradley, Peter: b. Ireland, 1837; parentage not given; bootmaker; en. 
and ra. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H. pri. ; deserted Feb. 22, '03. 

Brannan, Delano W. : b. 1821; nothing given of parentage, etc.; en. and 
m. Aug. 18, '64. in H. Artillery, 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, pri. ; dis. June 17, '65, at Fort 
Richardson, Va. ; exp. ser. 

Brayton, Charles F. : b. 1S43; en. and ra. Nov. 25, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unat- 
tached, sergt. ; dis. June 27, '65 ; exp. ser. ; nothing else told. 

Briggs, CnARLEs H. (previously ser. for New Bedford): b. New Bedford, 
Mass., Feb. 13, 1844; s. Alfred and Elvira; mechanic: en. Nov. 19. '64, and m. 
Nov. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, 1st sergt.; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Brigdale, James: b. Ireland, Co. Clare. Dec. 25, 1819; s. John and Judith; 
bootmaker; en. 1st time Oct. 14, '61, and m. Dec. 13; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K. pri.; 
dis., Washington, D.C., Apl. 20, '63, disability; having ft. at Fort Pulaski, 
James Island, Bull Run, Chantilly. Antietam, and Fredericksburg. En. again 
Dec. 2, '63, and ra. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri. ; but rejected as a recruit 
June 29, '64. 

Brigdale, Patrick: b. Ireland, 1831; parentage not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; deserted Jan. 13, '63. 

Brigham, Alfred M. : b. 1829: place and parentage not given; bootmaker; 
en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 25; 3 y. R. 39, Co. I, pri.; nothing further recorded. 

Britton, Isaac: b. Littleton; date, parentage, etc., not given; R.R. con- 
ductor; en. Oct. 8, '61; R. 28, capt. ; resigned Dec. 8, '61. 

Brock, Peter: b. Ireland, Co. Roscommon, 1842; s. Peter and Nabby G. ; 
bootmaker; en. Sept. 26, '61, and m. Dec. 13; 2 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; ft. James 
Island, S.C., 2d Bull Run, Chantilly, So. Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg; wd. last place, ball iu left shoulder; and dis. 
hospital, Boston, Apl. 21, '64, on acct. of wd. 

Broderick, William: b. Ireland, 1843; s. Mary; bootmaker; en. and in. 
June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9. Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Brogan, Dennis: b. 1843; place and parentage not given; bootmaker; en. 
1st time, July 25, '61, and in. next day; 3 y. R. 20, Co. F, pri.; dis. Jan. 1, '64, 
to re-en. ; which he did next day in same R. and Co. ; but deserted from Co. C, 
Apl. 13, '64. 

Brooks, Henry D- : b. Stow, 1837; s. Luke and Lucy; musician; en. Oct. 
2, '61, and ra. 18; 3 y. R. 26, band musician; dis. Sept. 15, '62, order War Dept. 

Brown, George A.: b. Smithfield, R.I., Nov. 27, 1823; s. Henry and Sally; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '62. and ra. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, sergt.; ft. in every 
engagement with his 11. ; never wd. or sick in ser.; prom, to orderly sergt. Sept. 
1, '64; and m. out, near Alexandria, Va., June S, '65, close of war. 



WAR RECORD. 129 

Brown, Thomas F. : b. Smithfield, R.I., Apl. 13. 1S43; s. Otis and Sarah; 
first ser. in rebel army, from which he seceded; en. and in. in Union ser, Mil., 
Jan. 29. '64: 3 y. R. 25, Co. B. ; nothing further told of him. 

Brown, Levi: b. 1S23; place and parentage not given; carpenter; en. and 
m. June 15. '61; 3 y. R. 7. Co. H, pri. ; m. out with his R. June 27. '64. 

Brown, George G. M. : b. Quincy, Mass., Feb. 17, 1826; s. Timothy and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. 1st time Aug. 19, '62, and m. 23; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; 
made brigade teamster; dis. Dec. 31, '63, to re-en.; which he did next day in 
same R., Co. C, pri.; dis. near Alexandria, Va., June 30, '65. close of war; but 
d. of chronic diarrhoea,, Milford, Oct. 25. '65; disease contracted in ser. 

Brown, Dexter F. : b. Milford, Mass., Oct. 1, 1S2S; s. Abel and Polly; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 16, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36. Co. C, pri.; ft. at Freder- 
icksburg, Ya., Dec. 14, '62; dis. Washington, D.C., Feb. 11, '63, surgeon's cert., 
disability from chronic diarrhoea. 

Bruce, Sanford: b. South Royalston, 1839; parentage not given; boot- 
maker; en. and rn. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; prom, corpl. Jan. 
1, '64; taken prisoner, battle Fredericksburg, Va. ; dis. June 27, '64, exp. ser. 

Bullard, Edward D. : b. 1S44; place, parentage, etc., not given; en. and 
m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Buffinoton, Charles E. : b. Pawtucket, R.I.. 1840; s. Mary A.; boot- 
maker: en. 1st time Sept. 9, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, corpl. ; prom, 
sergt. July 1, '63: ft. Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, and 
Goldsboro', N.C. ; dis. Jan. 18, '64, to re-en. at Newport News, Va. ; which he 
immediately did in same R. and Co.; prom. 2d lieut. May 17, '65; dis. July, 
1865, exp. ser. 

Buffington, Amasa F. : b. Attleboro', Mass.. May 29. 1845; s. David A. 
and Elizabeth; teamster; en. Dec. 8, '63, and m. 10; 3 y. Batt. 1, H. Artillery, 
pri. ; dis. Oct. 20, '65, Fort Warren, Mass. 

Burke, Samuel H. : b. Grafton, Mass., Feb. 27, 1845; s. Houston and Caro- 
line; bootmaker; en. Dec. 8, and m. 10; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. C, H. Artillery, pri.; 
dis. on acct. disability, Aug. 14, '64. 

Burke, Timothy: b. Ireland, 1836; parentage, etc., not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 11, '61: 3 y. R. 9, 2d lieut.; prom. 1st lieut., Jan. 5, '62; prom, 
capt. Aug. 27, '62; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Burke, William R. : b. Ireland, 1841; place and parentage not given; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, sergt; prom, sergt. maj. Sept. 
26, '62, to 2d lieut. Jan. 8, '63, to 1st lieut. Aug. 4, '63; dis. June 21, '64, exp. 
ser. 

Burke, David: b. Ireland, Co. Mayo, Mar. 10, 1828; s. John and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, 61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; ft. at Yorktown, 
Hanover Court House, Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, Chickahominy, Glendale, 
Malvern Hill, 2d Bull Run, Antietara, Botelier's Mills, Ranneysville, Freder- 
icksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, Bristow's Station, 
Rappahannock, Mine Run, Wilderness, Todd's Tavern, Spottsylvania, North 
Anna, and Cold Harbor; wd. left elbow slightly at Malvern Hill; dis. Boston, 
June 21, '04, exp. «er. 

Burke, William: b. Milford, Mass., 1S43; s. Caroline; bootmaker; en. 1st 
time Sept. 14, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; prom, to corpl. Aug. 
13, '63; ft. at Roanoke Island, Newberu, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep 
Gully, and Green Swamp. N.C; dis. Jan. 18, '64, Newport News, Va. to re-en. ; 
which he did next day, for 3 y. ; in same Iv. and Co., corpl.; dis. July 13, '65, 
exp. ser. 



130 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Burke, John: b. Ireland. 1S2S. parentage, etc., not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. June 21, '61: 3 y. K. 40, X. Y., Co. G, pri. ; deserted, Aug. 17, '62, on the 
march from Harrison's Landing. 

Burke, Michael D. : b. Ireland, 1S3S; parentage, etc., not given: boot- 
maker; en. July 23, '62, and m, 26; 3 y.Jt. 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. June 21, '64, 
exp. ser. 

Burke, Miles: b. Ireland, 1833; parentage, etc., not given; bootmaker; en. 
Mar. 31, '64; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; nothing further told. 

Burke, William: b. Ireland, 1840; parentage, etc., not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 12. '62; 3 y. R. 28, Co. F, pri.; k. Sept. 17, '62, at Antietam, Md. 

Burke, Samuel: b. Ireland, Minister, Co. Cork, Dec. 27, 1S39; s. Thomas; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. 11: 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; ft. in all the 
battles with his Co.; taken prisoner at Spottsylvania, May 12, '64; held in Rich- 
mond till paroled, Aug. 12, '64; dis. Sept. 12, '64, Boston, exp. ser. Holliston 
counted this man on its quota; but he lived in Milford when he en., and has 
lived here since his discharge constantly. 

Burns, John: b. Ireland, Co. Clare, Dec. 25, 1844; s. John and Honora; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 4, '63, and m. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, pri. ; k. in battle, Plym- 
outh, N.C., by a spent solid shot. 

Burns, James: b. Ireland, Co. Clare, Dec. 14, 1845; s. John and Honora; 
bootmaker; en. Jan. 1, '64, and m. Jan. 2; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; d. of 
wounds, June 19, '64, at Washington, D.C. 

Burniiam, James A. : b. Wrentham, Mass., Dec. 15, 1S39; s. Thomas and 
Nancy: farmer; en. 1st time Sept. 17, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; 
ft. in all the battles with his Co.; dis. Jan. 17, '64, to re-en., which he did next 
day, in the same R. and Co., for 3 v., and again shared with his Co. in all their 
ensuing battles; m. out with his R. at close of war. 

Burr, Liberty W. : b. 1S2S; place, parentage, etc., not given, except name 
of mother, Orvilla; bootmaker; en. 1st time Oct. 19, '61; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; 
dis. Jan. 2, '64, to re-en., which he did next day, in same R. and Co., for 3 y. ; 
dis. July 13. '65, exp. ser. 

Burr, William II.: b. North Wilbraham, Mass., 1835: parentage, etc., not 
given ; bootmaker; en. and in. June 21, '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N.T., Co. G, pri. ; taken 
prisoner battle Chancellorsville, May 5, '63; dis. June 27, '64, exp. ser. 

Burrill, Alfred A.: b. So. Scituate, Mass., Dec. 27, 1838; s. James and 
Prudence; bootmaker; en. and in. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.T., Co. G, pri.; 
fl. at Yorktown, Williamsburg, Seven Days fight, before Richmond, 2d Bull 
Run, Chantilly, Locust Grove, Mine Run, Auburn, Wilderness, Todd's Tavern, 
Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, Pamunkey River, No. Anna River, Cold Harbor, 
Petersburg and Weldon R. R. ; promoted corpl. 27 Nov. '63; dis. June 26, '64, 
exp. ser. 

Butler, Patrick: b. Ireland, 1843; s. James and Mary; laborer; en. 1st 
time, Oct. 4, '62, and m. 18; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. I, pri.; dis. Sept. 5, '63, exp. 
ser.; en. 2d time Sept. 1, '64, and m. 6; 1 y. R. 2, Co. A, H. Artillery, pri.; 
dis. June 22, '65, exp. ser. 

Butler, Edmund: b. Ireland, April 11, 1830; s. Edmund and Ellen; boot- 
maker; en. June 18, '62, and m. 22; 3 y. R. 34, Co. A, pri.; dis. May 10, '65, 
at Cumberland, Md., by order War Dept. 

Cahill, James: b. Wexford. Ireland, Mar. 1833; s. Nicholas and Joanna; 
bootmaker; en. Jan. 4, '04. and m. 11; 3 y. R. 25, Co. D, pri.; ft. before 
Petersburg, at Drury's Bluff, aud Cold Harbor, where wd., June 30, '04, in 



WAR RECORD. 131 

left shoulder, also in left leg below knee, by minie-balls, in a charge; dis. May 
25, '65, at New York, close of war. 

Cahill, Timothy: b. Ireland, 1843; parentage, etc., not given; trunk- 
maker; en. and m. June 11. '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. E, pri. ; ft. in all the battles of 
his R., and not wd. till k. at Gaines's Mills, June 27, '62. 

Cahill, Maurice: b. Ireland, Co. Cork, 1839; s. Jeremiah and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. May 1, '61, and m. June 11 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; in siege 
Yorktown, 7 ds. ns;ht; wd. at Gaines's Mills by piece of shell in left hip, June, 
'62; dis. Oct. 14, '62, on surgn.'s cert, of disability. 

Cain, Timothy: b. Ireland, 183S; parentage not given; tailor; en. Dec. 13, 
'61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; ft. at James Island, Bull Run, Chantilly, So. 
Mountain, Antietam; dis. Jan. 14, '63, Lincoln Hospital, Washington, D.C., 
on acct. of disability caused by a strain. 

Cain, Michael: b. Donegal, Ireland, Aug. 1S28; s. Barney and Elizabeth; 
bootmaker; en. July 22, '62; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; was with his Co. during 
term of ser., and not wd. or sick, till regularly m. out with the R. 

Cain, John: b. Co. Galway, Ireland, April. 1846; s. Barnard and Ellen; 
bootmaker: en. Aug. 19, '64; 1 y. R. 2, H. Artillery, pri.; nothing more told. 

Callaohan. Robert: b. Co. Derry. Ireland, 1S41 ; s. Robt. and Susanna; 
laborer; en. Dec. 9, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R 57, Co. A, a recruit for H. 
Artillery, pri. ; d. July 18, '64, in prison, Andersonville. 

Callaghan, Daniel: b. Ireland, 1S3S; parentage not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Jan. 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; wd. Gaines's Mills, June 27, '62; 
dis. Oct. 1, '62, disability. 

Callaghan, Peter: b. Co. Cork, Ireland, about 1838; s. Michael and 
Mary; bootmaker: en. and m. Oct. 5, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artillery, pri.; 
ft. in 7 battles in N.C. ; m. out with R, Fort Fisher, Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Cannon, James, 1st: b. Leitrira Co., Ireland, 1843; s. Timothy and Mar- 
garet; bootmaker; en. and m., 1st time, Dec. 25, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; 
ft. James Island, 2d Bull Run, Chantilly, So. Mountain, Antietam, 1st Fred's- 
burg, where wd. by a musket-ball through right groin; dis. Nov. 30, '63, disa- 
bility; en. again in N. Jersey Infty. Vet. Vols. April 8, '65; 1 y. R. 9, Co. II, 
pri. ; dis. July 12, '65, Greensborough, N.C, close of war. 

Cannon, James, 2d: b. Ireland, 1S33; no parentage given; shoemaker; en. 
and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. Mar. 30, '63; Convalescent 
Camp, Va., on surgn.'s cert., disability. 

Carey, Lawrence: b. about 1825, Ireland; s. John and Ann; bootmaker; 
en. first time, Aug. 24, '61; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri.; wd. in battle Antietam, left 
arm; transfd. to 2d Battalion, 10th Corps, at Columbia College, Washington, 
D.C. ; dis. from that position Aug. 25 or 28, '64. En. 2d time, Nov. 19, '64, 
and m. 25; 1 y., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. not reported. 

Carey, Michael: b. Co. Galway, Ireland, 1839; s. Martin and Julia; boot- 
maker; en. Feb. 15, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. F. pri.; ft. Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
No. Anna, So. Anna, Cold Harbor, Petersburg, and Hatch's Run; dis. with R., 
exp. ser. 

Carlton, William G. : b. Derby, Vt., Sept. 24, 1829; s. Franklin and 
Mary; farmer; en. July 21, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; ft. 
Fred'sburg, Va., and Jackson, Miss. ; transferred to Vet. Reserve Corps, Mar. 
25, '64; dis. April 18, '65, Elmira, N.Y., disability. 

Carpenter, Hiram: b. Killingly, Ct., 1823: s. Oliver and Emma; boot- 
maker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, corpl.; d. Jan. 13, '63, 
in Milford, chron. diarrhoea. 



132 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Carpenter, Willard: b. Killingly, Ct.., 1825; s. Oliver and Emma; boot- 
maker; en. Aug. 5, '62, ami m. 27; 3 y. K. 36, Co. F, pri. ; d. Oct. 24, '63, Camp 
Dennison, 0. 

Carr, John: Ireland, 1S37; parentage, etc., not given ; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 11, '61: 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, 64, exp. ser. 

Carr, John W. : b. Ireland, 1840; parentage, etc., not given; bootmaker; 
en. and in. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9. Co. H, pri.; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Carr, George A.: b. Woonsocket, R.I., Oct. 26, 1837; s. Peleg and Har- 
riet; en. 1st time June 15, '61; 3 y. R. 7, Co. A, corpl.; dis. June 27, '64, 
Taunton, Mass., exp. «er. ; en. 2d time Nov. 19, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattacbed, 
pri. ; July 7, '65, at Milford, sick. 

Carter, William: b. Manchester, Eng., 1S19; s. Edward and Mary: ma- 
chinist; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; ft. Williamsburg, 
May 5, '62, and reed, injuries on acct. of which he was dis. June 6, '62. 

Carter, Edward: b. Co. Lancashire, Eng., Nov. 11, 1839; s. William and 
Catherine; bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.T., Co. G, pri.; 
ft. in nearly every engagement with his R. ; wd. in left arm, Petersburg, Va. ; 
dis. June 27, '64, exp. ser. En. again, Nov. 19, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, 
pri. ; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, exp. ser. 

Carver, David A.: b. Prince Edward Island, 1842; s. Oliver and Sarah; 
bootmaker; first ser. a term for New Bedford. Mass. For Milford en. Nov. 19, 
'64, and m. 25 ; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Har- 
bor, clo*e of war. 

Cart, William J.: b. Ird., 1836; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 11, '01; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, 64, exp. ser. 

Casey, Michael: b. Ird., about 1830; s. Michael and Ellen; bootmaker; 
en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25: 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '05, 
Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Caswell, Earl F. : b. Leeds, Me.; ptge. not given; bootmaker; drafted 
July 15, '63; 3 y. R. 22, Co. K. pri.; dis. Apl. 25. '64, at Beverly Ford, Va., by 
reason of transfer to Navy, where he continued from May 9, '64, till reg. dis., 
Aug. 22, '65. 

Chamberlain, Eugene C. : b. Upton or Mil., Mass., 1S45; s. Nelson and 
Salina; bootmaker; en. and ra. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri.; dis. Nov. 
16, '04, exp. ser. 

Chamberlain, Franklin: b. Maiden, Mass., 1822; s. Elbridge G. and 
Ellen; bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 
14, '64, exp. ser. 

Chamberlain, George N. : b. Upton. Mass., 1S43; s. Nelson and Salina; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '01; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri.; prom, corpl. 
Mar. 1, '63, to sergt. Dec. 29, '63. to 2d lieut., to 1st lieut., and finally to capt. ; 
meantime he re-en., '63; wd. at bat. of Spottsylvania, May 12, '64; m. out June 
27, '65, close of war. 

Chamberlain, Calvtn W. : b. Upton, Mass., 1838; s. Nelson and Salina; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; dis. Feb. 1, 
'63, on surgeon's cert, disability, at Camp Pitcher, Va. ; d. consumption, Apl. 
9, '66. 

Chapin, Willard H. : b. Mil., Mass., Mar. 25, 1846; s. Joel and Izanna; 
bootmaker; en. and ra. Mar. 19, '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B or C, pri. ; ft. Walthal, 
Drury's Bluff, Petersburg, and at Newbern, N.C. ; dis. June 16, '65, at Camp 
Gen. Hospital, David's Island, N. Y. Harbor, close of war. 



WAR RECORD. 133 

Chexey, Almox F. : b. Mil., Mass., 1846; s. Chandler and Mary H. ; boot- 
maker; en. and m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64. 

Cheever, Nathaniel: b. Salem, Mass., July, 1824: s. Nathaniel and 
Lucy; bootmaker: en. July 22, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, sergt. ; d. Dec. 
14. '63, in Mil., of chron. diarrhoea. 

Cherry, Petek: b. Ird., 1835; s. Joseph and Ellen: bootmaker; en. and 
m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. May 28, '62, disability. 

Chickerixg, Henry C. : b. 1847; neither place, ptge., nor occupation 
given; en. and m. Feb. 14, '65; 1 y. R. 61, Co. I, pri.; dis. July 16, '65, close 
war. 

Chipmax, James L. : b. 1831; place and ptge. not given; physician; en. 
and m. Aug. 25, '62; 3 y. R. 39, assistant surgeon; dis. May 23, '64, disability. 

Claflix, Dexter: b. Mil., Mass., Feb. 13, 1834; s. Rufus and Sophia; 
bootmaker; en. Sept. 25, '61, and m. Oct. IS; 3 y. R. 26; band musician; dis. 
Sept. 15, '62, order War Dept. 

Claflix, He.vry A.: b. 1835; place and ptge. notgiven; bootmaker; draft- 
ed July 16, '63, 3 y. R. 22, Co. K, pri.; ft. in all the bats, with his Co., till k. in 
that of Malvern Hill. 

Claxcy, Johx: b. Co. Limerick, Ird., 1838; s. Thomas and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Oct. 5, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artillery, pri.; somehow he 
was counted on the Upton quota; m. out with the R. at Boston, close of war. 

Clark, Dixwell H. : b. Boston, Mass., May 17, 1831; s. Natbaniel and 
Abigail; painter; en. Apl. 29, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, 
2d sergt.; prom, to commissary sergt. July 10, '61; dis. Feb. 4, '62, disability; 
re-en. Aug. 2, '62, and m. 5; 3 y. R. 38, Co. B, pri.; dis. Dec. 5, '62, disa- 
bility. Re-en and m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, 2d lieut. : stationed 
at Fort Warren; dis. Nov. 16. '64, exp. ser. ; re-en. and m. Jan. 26, '65: 1 y. R. 
25, Co. D, pri.; ft. at Five Forks and Kinston, N.C., Mar. 9 and 12; prom. 2d 
sergt. Feb. 21, '65; dis. July 13, '65, close of war. 

Clark, Willard: b. Mil., Mass., Dec. 5, 1830; s. Chester and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. Sept. 5, '61 ; 3 y. R. 25, capt., commissioned Oct. 13, '61 ; ft. at Roan- 
oke Island and Newbern, N.C. ; resigned Apl. 8, '62. 

Clark, Elisha P.: b. Westerly, R.I., Aug. 17, 1833; s. Robert and Dorcas; 
physician; en. Feb. 17, '64; 3 y. R. 31, assist, surgn. ; date commission Feb. 
17, '64; dis. Sept. 9,'65, exp. ser. 

Clarke, Johx; b. Co. Cavan, Ird., 1840; s. Patrick and Harriet; elsewhere 
previously a vol.; en. Aug. 17, '64, and m. 22; 3 y. R. 2, Co. K, cavalry pri. ; 
dis. July 20, '65, exp. ser. or close of war. 

Clere, George: b. Cork, Ird., 1S2S; s. Maurice and Ann; bootmaker; en. 
Sept. 5, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. at Roanoke Island, 
Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green Swamp; dis. 
Nov. 30, '63, at Newport News, Va., to re-en., which he did next day, for 3 y. 
same R. and Co. ; fell overboard from steamer " Winonah" in Hampton Roads, 
night of Sept. 7, '64, and drowned. 

Clere, James P.: b. Co. Cork, Ird., Mar. 23, 1846; s. David A. and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. July 27, '61, and m. Aug. 14; 3 y. R. 19, Co. E, drummer; 
was in bats. Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Seven Pines, 7 ds. retreat, 2d Malvern Hill, 
Antietam, 2d Fred'sburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg; prom, drum majr. 
Nov., '63, and to principal musician Dec. 20, '63; dis. Dec. 21, '63, to re-en., 
which he did the next day, for 3 y., same R. and Co., drum major; dis. June 
30, '65, exp. ser., being then 1st sergt. 



134 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

Clifford, Patrick: b. no date, ptge., or occupation given; en. 3 y. R. 3, 
H. Artillery, pri.: and nothing more told. 

Clifford, John: b. 1841; noplace, ptge., nor occupation given; en. and ra. 
Aug. 23, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, IT. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 20, "65, exp. ser. 

Coffet, Martin: b. Ird., 183S; ptge. not given; hostler; en. Dec. 13, '61, 
and m. Jan. 3, '62; 3 y. R. 3S, Co. K, pri. ; deserted Jan. 10, '62. 

Coffey, John: b. Ird., Aug. 15, 1S43; s. Thomas and Elizabeth; boot- 
maker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, 
'65, Boston, close of war. 

Coffin, William H. : b. New Bedford. Mass., May 5, 1S30; s. Timothy 
and Betsey; farmer; first a New-Bedford vol.; en. Mil., Nov. 9, '64, and m. 
25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, Boston, close of war. 

Coleman, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S37; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Aug. 7, 
'62; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; no more told. 

Coleman, William A. : b., neither place, date, ptge., nor occupation given; 
en. and m. Oct. 4, 1S64; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. A, cavalry, pri. ; dis. from Co. B, June 
25, '65, close of war. 

Coleman, Mark: b. Ird., 1S37; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '62; 
3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; no more told. 

Collicott, Geo. W. : b. 1835; neither place, ptge., nor occ. given: en. and 
in. Nov. 21, '63; 3 y. R. 1, Co. F, cavalry, pri. ; dis. June 26, '65, exp. ser. 

Collins, Patrick: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. II, pri.; d. Oct. 21, '63, Baltimore, Md. 

Collin's, Wm. L. : b., neither date, place, nor occ. given; en. 1862; 3 y. R. 
5, Co. B, pri., R. I. Artillery; no more told. 

Collins, Charles: b., no date, place, or occ. given; s. John; en. 1S61 ; 3 
y. R. 8, Co. B, pri., Illinois cavalry; re-en. Nov. 1, '63, — a broken account. 

Collins, William T. : b., minus place, date, etc.; s. John; en. and in. Aug. 
11, '62; 3 y. R. 3, Co. H, pri. R. I. Artil. ; dis., date not given. 

Congdon, Isaac W. : b. 1828; no place, ptge., nor occ. given; en. and m. 
Aug. 18, '64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., pri.; dis. Fort Richardson, Va., June 
17, '65, exp. ser. 

Connell. Maurice: b. 1846; place, ptge., and occ. not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 9, '64: 100 ds., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16. '64, exp. ser. 

Conniffe, Michael: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S37; s. John and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 7, '63. and m. 10; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, recruit for H. Artil., 
pri.; taken pris. at Plymouth, N.C., carried to Andersonville 6 mo., thence to 
Charleston, S.C., 2 weeks, thence to Florence a while; there paroled, Dec. 7, '64, 
and finally dis. Aug. 11, '65. for disability. 

Conley, Edward: b. Co. Monaghan, Ird., Aug. 1, 1823; s. Patrick and 
Mary; soapmaker; en. Aug. 20, '64, and m. 22; 1 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; 
trans, to 17th Infty. Jan. 17, '65. 

Connolly, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1826; s. Patrick and Sarah; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 22, '63, and m. Jan. 5, '64; 3 y. R. 59, Co. B, pri.; desert- 
ed before going in ser., yet his wife has since been assisted by Milford. 

Connolly, Hugh: b. Ird., 182S; place, ptge., etc., not given; bootmaker; 
en. June 28, '61, and m. July 12; 3 y. R. 16, Co. F, pri. ; dis. Dec. 23, '63, to 
re-en., which he did same day, for 3 y. R. 11, Co. F, pri. ; dis. July 14, '65, exp. 
ser. 

Connors, James: b. Ird., 1S43; s. John and Mary; bootmaker: en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; ft. Torktown, Hanover Ct. House, Median- 



WAR RECORD. 135 

iosville, Gaines's Mills, Freds'burg, Chickahominy, Glendale, Malvern Hill, 2d 
Bull Run, Antietam. Botelier's Mill, Ranneysville, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, 
Wapping Heights, Bristow's Station, Rappahannock, Mine Run. Wilderness, 
Todd's Tavern, Spottsylvania, No. Anna, and Cold Harbor; dis. June 15, '04, 
Boston, Mass., exp. ser. 

Connors, Martin: b. Ird., 1837; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 21, '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N. T., Co. G, pri. ; dis. on acct. of wds. reed, in bat. 
of Charles City Cross Roads. 

Connors, Patrick: b. 1846; place not given; s. Timothy and Margaret; 
bootmaker; en. Feb. 22, '64; in cavalry R. 2, pri. ; nothing more. 

Connors, Martin: b. Ird., 1S41; s. Joseph and Sarah; bootmaker; en. 
Jan. 26, '04; landsman on board the war-vessel "Osceola;" in bat. of Fort 
Fisher: dis. in 1 y. by exp. ser. He had previously ser. 1 y., from May 4, '61, 
on board sloop "Vineennes." 

Connors, John M. : b. 1843, place, ptge., occ, etc., not given: en. and m. 
Feb. 29, '64; 3 y. Cavalry R. 2, Co. F, corpl. ; dis. July 20, '65, close of war. 

CoNNOUGirroN, Timothy: b. Ird., 1830, ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, wagoner; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Cook, Albert W. : b. Shelburne Falls, Mass., Sept. 18, 1S43; s. Albert A. 
and Maria F. ; student; en. Sept. 6, '01 ; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, corpl.; prom, sergt. 
Apl. 10, '62, 1st sergt. Oct. 9, '62: dis. to accept office of 2d lieut. in Co. B, 57th 
R., Jan. 7, '64; dis. from R. 57, etc., to re-en. Feb. 1, '64; which he did same 
day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co. as 2d lieut. ; prom, to be 1st lieut. in Co. I, R. 
57. Mar. 4, '64; to be capt. Co. I, June 15, '65; detailed to act as provost- 
marshal, 3d Brig., 1st division, 9th Army Corps., Apl. 3, '65; commanding 57th 
R. from Mar. 25, '65, to Apl. 3; detailed as assistant adj. -gen. same brigade, 
May, '65; ft. in course of service under the two enlistments, at Roanoke Island, 
Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Green Swamp, Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania Ct. House, Cold Harbor, siege of Petersburg, and Fort Stedman. Dis. 
July 30, '65, exp. ser., Washington, D.C. 

Cook, Brenton B. : b. Cumberland, R.I., Feb., 1841; s. Barton B. and 
Lavina H. ; traveller; en. July 9, '01, on board "Cumberland" man-of-war, 
seaman; was on the Cumberland till she was sunk in bat. at Newport News, 
when he swam ashore; dis. by vote of Congress with the other survivors of that 
terrible scene; re-en. Sept. 25, '02; 9 mo. R. 51, Co. I, and in. Oct. 14, pri. ; 
m. out with R. July 27, '63, exp. ser. 

Cook, Edwin H. ; b. Milford, Mass., June 4, 1S43; s. Stephen and Diana H. ; 
butcher; en. and m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, 
exp. ser. 

Cook, Solon S ; b. Mil.. Mass., July 16, 1S40; s. Stephen and Diana H. ; 
butcher; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, 
'04, exp. ser. 

Cook, Edward E. : b. Mendon, Mass., 1845; s. Ira W. and Elma M. ; en. 
and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. 
ser. 

Cook, Puineas N. : b. 1S45; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. July 
27, '64; 100 ds., pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Cook, Theodore L. : b. 1846; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 
25, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

Cook, I. W. : b. 1829: place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
July 12, '61; 3 y. R. 15, Co. G, pri.; dis. Aug., 1861. 



136 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Cooley, Johx: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given ; bootmaker; en. and ra. Dec. 
13, '(51 ; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. : nothing further recorded. 

Cooley, John - J.: b. Co. Galway, Ird., June 23, 1827; s. John and Bridget; 
bootmaker; en. Aug.. 1S01; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, 1st lieut. ; prom, to be capt. Dec. 
3, '61 ; was in no engagement; ilis. Apl. 4, '62; en. again Dec. 1, '03, and m. 
Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A. sergt. : ft. Wilderness, Spottsylvania Ct. House, 
Cold Harbor, Chancellorsville, and k. in battle of Petersburg, Va., June 17, 
'64. 

Coo.vey, John*: b. 183G; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Feb. 15, 
'05; 1 y. R. 61, Co. I, pri.; dis. July 16, '65, close of war. 

Copp, David G. ; b. 1S43; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and ra. 
July 31, '63; 3 y. R. 19, Co. B, pri. ; dis. June 30, '65, close of war. 

Corbett, Augustus O.: b. Milford, Mass., Mar. 9, 1837; s. John and 
Almira; farmer; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, X. Y.. Co. G, pri.; wd. 
in neck by a musket-ball, battle Fair Oaks, May 31, '62; dis. on acct. of wounds 
Dec. 9, '62. 

Cosgroye, Michael: b. Ird., 1S43; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and ra. 
June 11, '61: 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, corpl.; no more reported. 

Cottkell, Robert W., jun.: b. Boston, Mass., 1S46; s. Robt. and Bridget: 
bootmaker; en. Feb. 3, '64, and ra. 25; 3 y. R. 25, Co. C, pri.; wd. bat. Cold 
Harbor in hip; dis. July 13, '65, close of war. 

Cottekell, Robert; b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1819; s. Benjamin; bootmaker; en. 
Sept. 9, '01, and ra. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri. ; ft. Roanoke Island, Newbern, 
Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green Swamp; dis. Dec. 18, 
'63, to re-en., which he did next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., pri.; taken 
prisoner Drury's Bluff, and d. in Andersonville prison, Ga., Aug., 1864. 

COUGH LAN, Matthew: b. Ird, 1840; s. Valentine and Joanna; stonemason; 
en. Oct. 20, '02, and ra. Nov. 1; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. K, corpl.; m. out with his R. 
Sept. 3, '63. 

Couom.AX, James: b. Co. Kilkenny, Ird., Sept. 9, 1831; s. Valentine and 
Joanna; bootmaker; en. Aug. 6, '62, and in. 7; 3 y. R. 1, Co. H, pri. ; dis. Nov. 
7, '64, exp. ser. ; en. again Feb. 14, '65; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. A, H. Artillery, pri.; 
dis. Oct. 7 or 20, '65, exp. ser. 

Cowells, Merrick: b. Ird., 1840; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9. Co. H, pri.; dis. Oct. 29, '61, disability. 

Cowex, ABRAM R. : b. 1S20; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 
25, '64; 1 y., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Cox, Nelson: b. Turner, Me., Mar. 15, 1S34; s. Jacob and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. July 21, '62. and in. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, corpl. ; ft. in all the 
actions of his Co., and never wd. or sick in ser. ; prom, sergt. Jan. 1, '64; dis. 
June 8, '65, near Alexandria, Va., close of war. 

Coy, Michael: b. Boston, Mass., May 1, 1S47; s. Michael and Bridget; 
bootmaker; en. Oct. 13, '62, and m. 18; 9 mo. R. 4S, Co. I, pri.; ft. Port 
Hudson Plains, May 21, '63, and Port Hudson 27; dis. July 25, '63, to re-en.; 
which he did same day in Gen. Banks's body-guard for 1 y. ; m. out with R. 
Aug. 24, '63. 

Cor, James; b. Ird., 1S41; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; deserted Aug. 14, '62. 

Coy, O^YEx: b. Ird., 1819; s. Alexander and Bridget; bootmaker; en. Sept. 
3, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. Sept. 3, '65, Smithville, N.C., close 
of war. 



WAR RECORD. 137 

Covi.e, Thomas H. : b. Mechanicsville, N.Y., Aug. 17, 1S30; s. Barney and 
Mary; mechanic; en. June 9. '61; 3 y. R. 40, X. Y., Co. G, pri. ; ft. Williams- 
burg, '62. Fair Oaks, 2d Bull Run, and Chantilly; w«l. at Fair Oaks; (lis. Mar. 
29, '63, disability. 

Coyne, Thomas: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., Dec, 1832; s. Patrick and Sabina; 
bootmaker; en. Apl. 3, '61, and in. 18; 3 y. R. 1, Co. B, Irish Brigade, N. Y., 
pri ; transferred to Capt. Hogan's battery (A), 2d N T . Y. State Vols.; ft. York- 
town. Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 7 ds. figbt before Richmond. Ya., June, '62, 
Malvern Hill, 2d Bull Run, South Mountain. Antietam, Freds'burg, and 1st 
Cliancellorsville, where wd. in left foot, taken prisoner, paroled, and sent back; 
prom, sergt. in 'G2; dis. Sept. 30, '64, at Point Lookout, Md.. exp. ser. En. 
again Mar. 17, '65; 1 y. R. 4, Co. H, pri.; Hancock Yet. Reserve Corps; prom, 
corpl. Apl. '65; dis. Mar. 17, '66, Columbus, O.. exp. ser. 

Crawford, Joiix: b. Derry, Sept. 14. 1S14: s. James and Nancy; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K. pri.; ft. James Island, June 
11, '62, and there wd. in left leg below knee; dis. Aug. 29, '62, disability. En. 
again Aug. 2S, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. Sept. 3, '65, Smith- 
ville, N.C., order War Dept. 

Crawford, Hugh: b. X. York City, Dec. 29, 1S47; s. Henry and Sarah; 
bootmaker; en. and m. July 29, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. B, H. Artil., pri.; ft. at 
Wise's Cross Roads. NC. ; dis. Sept. 3, '65, Smithville. N.C., exp. ser. 

Ckawford, Jamf.s: b. Ird. about 1840; s. Henry and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. naval ser. Aug. 27, '61; seaman on board vessels " Mohegan " and "Key- 
stone State;" dis. end 3 y. ser. from "Keystone State," Aug. 26, '64. En. 
again Nov. 19, '64; 1 y., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Boston Harbor, June 27, 
'65. close of war. 

Ckockek, George; b. Uxbridge, Mass., July 20, 1820; s. Samuel M. and 
Charlotte; farmer; en. Oct. 16, '61; 3 y. R. 25, Co. D, and m. Oct. 19, pri.; 
ft. at Roanoke Island Feb. S, '62, Newbern, Mar. 14 following, Whitehall, 
Kinston, Goldsboro', and Green Swamp expedition; dis. Dec. 17, '63, disability. 

Cronix, John: b. Ird., 1839: ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11. '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 1, '64, exp. ser. 

Cronix, Patrick: b. Co. Cork, Ird., Mar., 1S34; s. Daniel and Margaret; 
bootmaker; en. and m. July 5, '62; 3 y. R. 2, Co. I, pri.; ft. Cedar Mountain 
and Cliancellorsville, where wd. in right arm by a minie-ball; dis. Dec. 30, 
'43, to re-en. ; which he did same day in same R. and Co. for 3 y. ; wd. in hip by 
bullet May 15, '64, and d. next morning at Resaca, Ga. 

Croxix, Sterhex: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and ra. 
Dec. 13, '01; 3 y. R. 28, Co. D, pri. ; dis. Dec. 19, '64, exp. ser. 

Cummixgs, Thomas: b. Ird., 1842; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; k. at Gaines's Mills, Ya., June 27, '62. 

Cummings, Sumner: b. 1823; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
9, '64; 100 ds., Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Curley, Thomas: b. Co. Roscommon, Ird., about 1S25; s. John and Mar- 
garet; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 15, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; ft. James 
Island, Cedar Mountain, So. Mountain, Antietam, Freds'burg, Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Bristow's Station, and Moulton's Ford: dis. Jan. 1. '64, to re-en., 
which he did next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co.; ft. Wilderness, Spottsyl- 
vania, Pamunky, Cold Harbor, and siege of Petersburg; dis. Aug. 19, '65, 
Worcester, Mass., Dale Hospital, disability. 

Curley, William: b. Ird., 1821; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Aug. 11, '62; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; dis. Dec. 13, '64, exp. ser. 



138 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Curley, Malachi W. : b. Ird., 1S40; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 11. '(51; 3 y. R. 9. Co. H, sergt. ; prom, color-sergt. Jan. 14, '63; wd. 
at Gaines's Mills June 27. '62; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Curry, William: b. Ird., 1S34; ptge. not'given; blacksmith; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. : dis. Nov. 30, '63, disability. 

Cushman, Charles F. : b. Bellingham, Mass., Oct. 3, 1825; s. Sabin and 
Mary; bootmaker: en. and m. June 15, '61 ; 3 y. R. T, band as musician: dis. 
Aug. 11, '62, at camp near Harrison's Bar, Va., by Gen. Order 151, H. Quarters 
Army Potomac. 

Daley, John: b. Sturbridge, Mass., May 25, 1S28; s. Joseph and Mary; 
shoemaker; en. and m. Aug. 12, '62; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; ft. So. Mountain, 
Antietam. and Fredericksburg, where wd. in right thigh; prom, corpl. Nov. 
'62; dis. hospital, Washington. DC, Feb. 25, '63, disability from wd. 

Daley, Patrick: b. Ird., 1823; s. John and Mary; bootmaker; en. Nov. 27, 
'63, and m. Dec. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, pri., a recruit for H. Artil. ; ft. Plymouth, 
N.C., Apl. 1S64; taken prisoner to Andersonville, 6a., thence to Florence, S.C., 
in Sept.; paroled Dec. 13, '64; sent to Annapolis, Md., and thence to Dale Hos- 
pital, Jan., '65; sick with scurvy and rheumatism ; dis. Sept. 3, '65, Boston, order 
of War Dept. 

Daley, Daniel: b. 1842; place, ptge., etc., not given; shoemaker; en. and 
m. Dec. 2, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. from Co. H, July S, '05, 
disability. 

Davis, Galon*, jun. : b. Reading, Vt., Dec. 9, 1818; s. Galon and Rhoda; 
carpenter: en. July 21. '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; ft. Jackson, 
Miss.: reed, a breach Apl. 9, '63, but remained with the R. till Oct. 22; then to 
hospital at Camp Dennison, 0. : transfd. to Vet. Reserve Corps Mar. 25, '64; dis. 
Mar. 27, '65, Elmira, N.Y., disability. 

Davoren, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S29; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, corpl.; prom, sergt. Sept. 17, '62; trans, to Yet. 
Res. Corps, Oct. 5, '63; no more told. 

Dawson, Anthony E.: b. 1S46: place, ptge. etc., not given ; en. and m. July 
29, '64; 3 y. R. 28, Co. C, pri.; k. Locust Grove, Ya., Mar. 25, '65. 

Day, Usher: b. Alfred, Me., 183S; s. Robert and Ednor; teamster; en. 
Aug. 5, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; m. out with R. June 8, '65. 

Day, Samuel: b. Ird. 1837; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; k. Gaines's Mills, Ya., in battle, June 27,*'62. 

Day, David L. : b. Smithfield, R.I., June 27, 1S22; s. Daniel and Elizabeth; 
bootmaker; en. Sept. 6, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, corpl.; ft. in all 
the battles with his Co. except at Cold Harbor, and never wd. ; prom, sergt. Oct. 
15, '62: m. out Oct. 20, '64. 

Day, Moses, jun.: b. Newfield, Me. 1S32; s. Moses and Fanny; bootmaker; 
e-\ and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, corpl. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. 
ser. 

Delaney, Patrick: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., 1818; s. Richard and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. Dec. 8, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. A, pri.; a recruit for 
H. Artil. ; ft. Wilderness, and Fort Stedman, where taken prisoner and paroled ; 
dis. July 30, '65, Delaney House, D.C., order War Dept. 

Delaney, Richard, b. Co. Gal way, Ird., 1836; s. Richard and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Jan. 9, '62; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; k. in battle of James 
Island, June 16, '62. 

Delaney, Thomas: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S27; s. Richard and Mary; boot- 



WAR RECORD. 139 

maker; en. and m. Aug. 22, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. D, H. Artil., pri. ; ft. Newport 
Barracks, and Newbern, N.C. ; dis. Sept. 3, '65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Delaxey, Matthew: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., 1S34; ptge. not given; laborer; 
en. and m. Aug. 22, '64; 3 y. R. 13, Co. K, pri.; dis. from Vet. Res. Corps, 
Nov. 30, '65, Portland, Me., close of war. 

Derby, Wallace W. : b. 1S3S; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 18, '04; 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., pri.; deserted Apl. 9, '65. 

Desautelle, George G. : Castleton, Vt., Aug, 5, 1S45; s. Jacob and Agnes; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Jan. 5, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. not given, pri.; transferred 
Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, '65; no more recorded. 

Devixe, Timothy: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., Nov. 21, 1S24; s. Timothy and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. IS, '62; 3 y. R. 1, Co. H. Cavalry, corpl. ; ft. at 
Aldie, and taken prisoner, June IT, '03, but escaped; dis. Dec. 27, '63, to re-en. 
at Warrenton, Va. ; which he did next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., corpl. ; 
dis. June 26, '65, from Co. F, exp. ser. 

Devlin, Henry: b. Ird., 1S41; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Sept. 
30, '62; 9 mo. R. 50, Co. I, pri.; dis. Aug. 24, '63, exp. ser. ; en. and m. Dec. 7, 
'63; R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil.: taken prisoner at Plymouth, held in Andersonville 
about 6 mos., in Charleston, S.C., about 2 Aveeks, and in Florence till paroled, 
March or Apl., '65; soon after which, dis. from parole camp. 

Dillon, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1818; s. Cornelius and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 2S, '03. and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri. ; k. in 
battle May 12, '64, at Spottsylvania, Va. 

Dillo.v, Jerry: b. Ird., 1839; s. Ellen; bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 
3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Dillox, Patrick: b. Ird., 1821; ptge. not given: bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. Feb. 4, 63, disability. 

Dillox, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., Jan. 26, 1845; s. William and Mary; 
carpenter; en. and m. Nov. 11, '64; 3 y. R. 1. Co. C, pri.; ft. Hatcher's Run, 
Mar. 25, '65; at Petersburg wd. in left leg below knee by aminie-ball; dis. June 
13, '65, Summit-House Hospital, Philadelphia, Penn., close of war. 

Dodd, Cyrus J.: b. about 1839; place, ptge., etc., not given: en. and m. 
Sept. 3, '04; 3 y. R. 2. Co. C, H, Artil.. pri. ; dis. June 26. '65, exp. ser. 

Doherty, Patrick: b. Ird., 1841; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, sergt. ; dis. June 21, '04, exp. ser. 

Doherty, Patrick: b. 1840: place, ptge., etc.. not given; en. and ra. Aug. 
26, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; dis. June 1, '65, order War Dept. 

Doherty, James: b. Ird., 1830; ptge. not given; shoemaker; en. June 17, 
'62, and m. Aug. 6; 3 y. R. 33, Co. C, pri. ; supposed burned to death at Colum- 
bia, S.C. 

Doherty, Hugh: b. Ird., 1S41; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '01; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H. pri.; drowned Sept. 6, '61, in Potomac River. 

Donahue, James: b. Co. Latrim, Ird., 1824; s. Hugh and Bridget; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; ft. Bull Run, James 
Island, Antietam. Chantilly, South Mountain, and Fredericksburg, where wd. 
by a ball through right thigh, and in head and shoulder by piece of shell; dis. 
Mar. 30, '03, at Convalescent Camp, Alexandria, Va., disability; re-en. Oct. 20, 
'63, and m. 24; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri. ; ft. at Newbern, N.C. ; dis. with 
R. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Doxahuk, Bernard: b. Ird. about 1842: s. John and Alma; occ. not 
given; en. Nov. 19, '04, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. dis. June 27, 
'65, close war. 



140 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Donahue, Johx: b., 1842; place, ptge.. etc., not given; en. and m. Feb. 14, 
'Go; 3 y. Battal. 1, Co. C, II. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 24, '65, close of war. 

Doxegax, Patrick: b., no date, ptge., or occ. given; en. and m. 1862; 3 y. 
R. 1, Co. A, R. I. Light Artil., pri; no more recorded. 

Doxxegax, alias Dexnixguam. Johx: b. Ird., 1822; no ptge. or occ. given; 

en. and m. Jan. 12, '64; 3 y. It. 56, Co. F, pri.; d. June 3, '64, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Doxxelly, Philip, jun. : b. Ird., Mar. 12, 1S31 ; s. Peter and Mary ; en. Nov. 

10, '64. and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, 

close war. 

Doxovax, Johx: b. Ird., 1843; s. James and Sarah II ; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 15, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, corpl. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Doxovax, Richard: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1S3T; s. Michael and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Sept. 9, '61; 3 y. R. 25, Co. E, pri.; ft. Roanoke Island, New- 
bern, Goldsboro', and Kinston. N.C.; dis. Dec. 16, '63, at Newport News, Va., 
to re-en. ; which he did next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., pri. ; ft. before 
Petersburg, Va. ; wd. in left thigh by a musket-ball; resumed ser. in R.,Sept. 
'64; dis. July 13, '65, at Charlotte. N.C., by order War Dept. 

Doxovax, Thomas: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1840: s. James and Honora; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Feb. 16, '64; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; dis. March 1, '65, disa- 
bility. 

Doxovax, Jeremiah: b. Ird., Nov. 18, 1842; s. Michael and Mary; sea- 
man; 1st ser. New Bedford. Ma«s, and 2d Mil.; en. Nov. 19, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, 
unaltached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Dormax, Peter: b. place, date, ptge., occ, not given; en. and m. Aug. 11, 
'62: 3 y. R. 1, R. I, cavalry, pri.; no more told. 

Dork, Vax Burex : h. Sutton, 1836: ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 
29, '63. and in. Aug. 4: 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. Jan. 13, '65, Boston, 
Mass., surgn's cert., disability. 

Dott, Altox P.: b. place, date, ptge., not given; bootmaker; 3 y. R. 1, Co. 
D. R. I, cavalry; re-enlisted; no more recorded. 

Doyle, Owex: b. Co. Galway. Ird., 1829; s. John and Fanny; laborer; en. 
Dec. 7, '63, and in. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri., a recruit; ft. Wilderness, 
and Spottsylvania; wd. left hand, and lost 1 finger, also the use of his hand ; dis. 
May 13, '65, Chester. Penn., surgn's. cert, disability. 

Doyle, Johx: b. Ird., 1831; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en and m. Dec. 
13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; transfd. '64 to Vet. Res. Corps; no more told. 

Doyle, Axdrew H. : b. Ird., 1827, ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; transfd. '64 to Vet. Res. Corps; no 
more told. 

Drake, Wiixiam B. : b. Nantucket, Mass., June 3, 1839; s. Nathan and Sta- 
tira; printer; en. Apl. 19, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, corpl. ; 
ft. Williamsburg and Fair Oaks, Va. ; transfd. quartermaster's dept., June 10, 
'62; sent to hospital, Philadelphia, sick, Aug. 10, '62; Jan., '63, sent to Military 
Headquarters, Philadelphia; detailed, Feb. 11, '63, as clerk of Philbert St. 
Hospital; dis. May 30, '64, on surgeon's cert, of disability, but continued in 
ser. till hospital closed, June, '65. 

Draper, William F. ; b. Lowell, Mass., Apl. 9, 1842; s. George and Han- 
nah B. ; draughtsman; en. Sept. 5, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; 
prom, to 2d lieut. Oct. 11, '61, to 1st lieut. Apl. 15, '62, to capt. in 36th R. 
Aug. 12, '62, to major Aug. 17, '63, to lieut,. col. May 6, '64, brev. bri<j. gen. ' 
Oct. 12, '64. He ft. at Koauoke Island Feb. 8, and 9, '62, Nuwbern Mar. 14, 



WAR RECORD. 141 

'62, Fort Macon same year, Fredericksburg Dec. 13, '62, Vicksburg July 4, '63, 
Jacksonville July 11, '63; was in all the battles of 36th R. except when absent 
on acct. of wds. ; was wd. in shoulder at Wilderness; dis. Oct. 12, '64, exp. ser. 

Draper, Daniel: b. Weston, Mass., Nov. 20, 1S26, s. Rufus F. and Polly; 
teamster; en. Aug. 22, '61, and m. 24; 3 y. R. 20, Co. G; teamster, and made 
wagon-master; dis. Aug. 23, '64, before Petersburg, Va., exp. ser. 

Driscoll, Michael: b. Ird. 1S39, ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Drury. George A.: b. 1846, place, ptge. etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
25, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri..; transferred, Dec. 16, '04, to 17th R. infty., Co. 
D. ; dis. June 30, '65, order War Dept. 

Dugan, Daniel: b. Cahirciveen, Ird., 1833; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Dec. 13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; dis. Dec. 25, '64, before Peters- 
burg, Va., on surgn's cert, disability. 

Duniiam, Nathaniel: b. Montpelier. Vt., 1820; s. Nathaniel and Mary; 
laborer; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, 
'64, exp. ser. 

Dunn, Walter R. : b. Northbridge, Mass., 1S40; ptge. not given: farmer; 
en. and ra. Sept. 17, '61, 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. with his Co. at Roanoke 
I>land, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green 
Swamp, all in N. C, '62-3; dis. Jan. 18, '64, at Newport News, Va., to re-en.; 
which he did same day, for 3 y., in same R. and Co., pri. ; dis. July 13, '65, 
exp. ser. 

Dunn, Peter, jun. : b. Co. Tyrone, Ird., 1843: s. Peter and Margaret; boot- 
maker: en. Dec. 4, '63, and m. 9; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H. pri.; a recruit for EL 
Artil. : made prisoner in bat. Plymouth, N. C, and carried to Andersonville, 
Ga., where he d. from diarrhoea and starvation, July 31, '64. 

Dunton, Henry C. : b. Upton, Mass.: ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
Sept. 14, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; prom, corpl. Oct. 15, '61, 
but reduced to the ranks Aug. 13, '63; ft. Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, 
Whitehall, and Goldsboro', N. C. ; dis. Jan. IS, '64, to re-en.; which he did, at 
Newport News, Va., next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co. He was taken pris- 
oner at Cold Harbor, June 3, '64, and d. Richmond, Va., from wds. reed, in 
action, July 31, '64. 

Dugan, James: b. Ird., 1833, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Feb. 9, '61; 
3 mo., 3d battal. rifleman ; dis. Aug. 3, '61, exp. ser. 

Eames, George A. : b. Grafton, Mass., 1834; s. Aaron A. and Hannah W. ; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; d. Aug. 16, 
'63, Louisville, Ky. 

Eastman, Thomas C. : b. Dennysville, Me., Jan. 6, 1836; s. Thomas and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; dis. 
Camp Sackett, Va., Dec. 27, '61, severe sickness. 

Echman, Peter; b. Ird., 1S29, ptge. not given; bootmaker; drafted, July 
15, '63; 3 y. R. 1, Co. C, provost-guard; no more told. 

Edwards, George H. : b. Halifax, N. S., Oct. 20, 1S36. s. William and 
Susan; mechanic; en. and m. July 11, '63; 3 y. R. 3, Co. A, H. Artil., pri.; m. 
out at Washington, D.C., Sept. 18, '65, close of war. 

Ellard, John: b. Co. Cork, Ird., June 24, 183S; s. William and Honora; 
occ. not given ; en. Dec. 1, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri. ; was 
in battle of Wilderness, and supposed to have deserted. He had previously 
enlisted, but where is not known. 



142 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

Ellis, Albert: b. Mil., Mass., 1829; s. Clark Ellis; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds., Co. 19. unattached, corpl. ; dis. Nov. 1G, '64, exp. ser. 

Ellis, George H. : b. Mil., Mass., 1S39; s. George W. Ellis; clerk; en. 
Aug. 4, '62, and in. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri. ; ft. at Fred'sburg, Va., Dec. 11, 
'62; k. in bat. Jackson, Miss., July 11, '63. 

Ellis, Henry C. : b. Mil., Mass., July 7, 1S42, s. of George W. and Amanda 
M.. brother of the last preceding; clerk; en. Sept. 5, '61, ami m. Oct. 7; 3 y. 
R. 25, Co. B, pri.; prom, corpl. Oct. 15, "01, and to sergt. Oct. 9, '62; ft. at 
Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully and 
Green Swamp, X. C. ; detailed by special order q. m's. dept. for service on Gal- 
loup's Island, Mass. : m. out Oct. 20, '64, at said Island. 

Ell.^voutu, Tueodore L. : b. Mil., Mass., June 11, 1833; s, Nathaniel F. 
and Caroline; clerk; en. and m. Aug. 27, '62; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; proin. to 
commissary sergt. Jan. 19, '64; dis. May 29, *65, order War Dept. 

Emer, Edwin H. : b. 1844; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Dec. 21, 
'63; 3 y. R. 20, Co. F, pri.; dis. July 16, '65, exp. ser. Had ser. a previous 
term of enlistment to the credit of Readville, Mass. 

Emery, William: b. Lunenburg, Mass., Apl. 21, 1S33; s. George and 
Nancy; carriagemaker; en. Sept. 5, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, 1st 
lieut., commissioned Oct. 13, '61; prom. capt. Apr. 15, '62: ft. Roanoke Island, 
Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall. Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green Swamp, N.C., 
also at Port Walthal, Arrowfield Church, Drury's Bluff, Cold Harbor, and 
sie<:e of Petersburg. Va. ; lie was wounded in shoulder by a piece of shell at 
Cold Harbor, June 5, '64; m. out at Worcester, Mass. Oct. 20, '64. 

Evans, Saml. J. : b. Mil., Mass., Jan. 1, 1S29; s. Samuel and Ruth : barber; 
en. Sept. 25. '61, and m. Oct. IS; 3 y. R. 26, band musician; dis. Sept. 15, '62, 
order War Dept. ; re-en. Oct. 23, '62; 9 mo. R. 47, Co. C. pri.; m. out Sept. 
1, '63, exp. ser. 

Everett, Ciiarles H. : b. Medway, Mass., Nov. 18, 1S44; s. William; occ. 
not given; en. Dec. 1, '63, and m. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, pri.; dis. Sept. 3, '64, 
exp. ser. This was his 2d enlistment; particulars of his 1st not given, 

Fahey, William: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1844; s. Patrick and Mary; laborer; 
en. Oct. 11, '62, and m. Dec. 9; 9 mo. R. 4S, Co. K, pri.: m. out Wenharn, 
Mass., Sept. 3, '63, exp. ser., ft. during his enlistment at Donaldsville and Port 
Hudson; en. and m. again July 28. '64; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. C, pri.; left arm 
broken Hatcher's Run Mar. 25, '65: dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Fauey, Cornelius: b. Ird., 1840, ptge. not given; bootmaker; en, July 25, 
and in. next day; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. Dec. 27, '62, disability. 

Fairbanks, William H. : b. Wrentham, Mass., Mar. 23, 1S23; s. George 
and Polly; farmer; en. Sept. 18, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri,; 
ft. Roanoke Island and Newbern, N.C. ; injured in his back May, 1S62; and 
dis. Oct. 8 ensuing, surgn.'s cert, disability. 

Fairbanks, Nahum B. : b. Mil., Mass., 1836, s. Nahum and Louisa; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; dis. June 22, 
'64. Petersburg, Va., exp. ser. 

Fairbanks, Leonard, Jr.: b. Worcester, Mass., Sept. 10, 1829; s. Leonard 
and Abigail; cabinet-maker; en. Aug. 8, '64, and m. 9; 100 ds. Co. 19, unat- 
tached, corpl. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Fanning, David: b. Co. Cork, Ird., Feb. 10, 1820; s. David and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Apl. 1. '62: 3 y. R. 1, Co. C, pri. ; at Williamsburg reed, 
strain in his back, while carrying Lieut. Warren on a stretcher; taken to White 



WAR RECORD. 143 

House Hospital, thence to Yorktown, and thence to Portsmouth Grove; dis. 
Dec. 27, "(!-', disability. 

FANNING, James T. : h. Portland, Me., 1840. 3. Edward and Anna; boot- 
maker; en. Apl. 3, *62, and m. 30; 3 y. R. 25. Co. B. pri. ; recruit; ft. Kins ton, 
Whitehall and Gold.sboro', N.C.; m. out from hospital, Boston, Oct., '65. 

Fanning, Ei)WAi;r> : b. Portland, Me., 1842; s. Edward and Anna: painter; 
en. Sept. 5, '01, and m. Oct. T; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B. pri.; prom, corpl. July 24, 
'03; ft. Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, 
and Green Swamp, N.C. ; dis. Dec. IT, '63, at Newport News, Va., to re-en.; 
which he did same day for 3 y. in same R. and Co., corpl.: remained with his 
Co. till bat. of Cold Harbor; where he was wd. iu side and back by a piece of 
shell, and sent to Hospital; dis. July 29, '05. 

Fanning, Alexander: b. Boston, Mass., June 15, 1S46; s. David and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Farrell, Cornelius: b. Co. Leitrim, Ird., 1S31 ; s. Michael and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. Oct. 8, '61, and m. 23d; 3 y. R. 25, Co. E, pri.; dis. Jan. 1, '64, 
Newport News, Va., to re-en., which he did next day, for 3 y. in same R. and 
Co., pri. ; taken prisoner in May, '64, and d. in prison, Charleston, S.C., Feb. 
22, '65. 

Farrington, Joiin E.: b. 1S42; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 29. '02: 3 y. R. 2, Co. H. pri. ; k. Gettysburg, Pa., July 3, '63. 

Ferguson, James: b. Ird., 1832; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13. '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. Mar. 9, '64, to re-en., which he did 
next day. for 3 y. in same R. and Co. ; absent wd. since May, '64. 

Ferguson, Joseph: b. Co. Lowth. Ird., Aug. 15, 1839; s. James and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 11, '62, and in. 12; 3 y. R. 1, Co. H, pri.; ft. at Freds'- 
burg. Brandy Station, Aldie, Chancellorsville. Gettysburg, Rapidan, Culpeper, 
Mine Run, Wilderness, and raid into Virginia; also at Ball's Shop, St. Mary's 
Ch., and Weldon R. R., without ever being wd. ; dis. Boston, Mass., Nov. 7, 
'64, exp. ser. 

Field, Dana A.: b. Chesterville, Me.; s. Zibeon and Lydia; painter; en. 
Sept. 9, 1S01, and m. 17; 3 y. R. 1, Co. D, cavalry, pri.; ft. James Island, 
South Mountain, and Antietam; detailed as wagon-master, June 17, '03; dis. 
Dec. 31, '63, to re-en., which he did the next day, for 3 y. in the same R. and 
Co., wagon-master; dis. June 29, '05, being then sergt., exp. ser. 

Field, Thomas M. : b. Nantucket, Mass., Nov. 4, 1S45; s. Caleb and Eliza- 
beth; last-maker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Fields, Charles A.: b. Nantucket, Mass., Feb. 17, 1845; s. Caleb and 
Elizabeth; photographer; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, 
pri.; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Finn, John: b. Ird., 1842; s. Patrick and Mary; bootmaker; en. July 30, 
'62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; in. out with R. June 8, '65. 

Finn, Martin: b. Ird., 1821; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Sept. 1, '61; 
and m. Dec. 13; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. March 30, '63, at Convalescent 
Camp, Va., disability; re-en. Sept. 2, '63, and m. Oct. 5; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. 
Artil., pri. ; dis. at Boston, July 2S, '65, close of war. 

Finn, Thomas: b. 1S39; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 25, 
'64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

Finnegan, Michael: b. Ird., 1835; ptge. and occ. not given; en. and m. 
May 19/01 ; 3 in. Batt. 3, riflemen, pri. ; dis. Aug. 3, '01, exp. ser. 



144 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

Fixxegax. Jonx: b. 1S43; place, ptge., etc., not given: en. and m. Ami. 
15, 't>4; 3 y. 11. 2, Co. H. H. Artil., pri. ; trans. Feb. !), '65, to R. 17 infty., Co. 
G; dis. June 24, 'G5, exp. ser. 

Fixxekty, Michael A.: b. Ird., 1S39; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. II, sergt. ; prom, sergt. major. Oct. 25, '01, to 2d 
lieut., Nov. 3 following, to 1st lieut., Sept. 26, '02, and to capt., Mar. 30, '03; 
dis. June 21, '04, exp. ser. 

Finxehty, Francis: b. Ird., 1S3T; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Aug. fi, '02; 3 y. R. 9, Co. II, pri. ; dis. Dec. 31, '03, to re-en., which he did same 
day for 3 y., same R., Co. K, pri. ; trans. June 10, '64, to 32d infty., Co. G; k. 
Slay 5, '65. 

Fixxerty, Michael: b. Co. Galway. Ird.. Sept. 25, 1884; s. Peter and 
"Winnefred; bootmaker; en. and m. Mar. 17, '64; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; trans. 
June 10, '64, to 32d R. infty., Co. G, and finally to the Yet. Res. Corps. 

Fixtox, Thomas: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., 1S31 ; s. John and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; ft. in all the bats, of his R. ex- 
cept during first campaign in Maryland, where he was on guard at Fortress 
Monroe; dis. June 31, '64, exp. ser. 

Fixtox, Patrick: b. Ird. about 1S32; s. John and Mary; laborer; en. July 
30, '61, and m. Aug. 23; 3 y. R. 21, Co. B. pri. ; d. in Washington, D.C., of wds. 
reed, in battle, Dec, '62. 

Fixtox, Timothy: b. Ird., 1S35; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Aug. 4, 
'02. and m. 0; 3 y. R. 1, Co. S, cavalry, pri., recruit; dis. Nov. 8, '04, exp. ser. 

Fisk, George II.: b. Mil., Mass., 1S40; s. Jonathan and Gracia: barber; 
en. and m. June 21, '01; 3 y. R. 40. X. Y., Co. G, pri.; wd. in battle Williams- 
burg, Ya. ; deserted Dec. 12, '62, at Falmouth, Ya., when his Co. was going 
into action. 

Fish, Corxelius A. : b. 1S43; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 
1, '64; 2 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 25, '65, exp. ser. 

Fisher, Amasa H. : b. Upton, Mass., 1806; s. Daniel and Anna; painter; 
en. Sept. 10, '61, and in. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, drummer; d. of congestive 
fever and chills, Xewbern, N.C., Aug. 4, '62. 

Fisher, Charles A.: b. Nantucket, Mass., June 4, 1S46; s. Meltiah and 
Azubah; carpenter; en. and m. Mar. 9, '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; d. in Mil- 
ford, Oct. S, '04, chronic diarrhoea. 

Fisher, Robert A.: b. Elmdale, N. Scotia, Feb. 24, 1845; s. David and 
Elizabeth; boxmaker; en. Dec. 8, '63, and m. 10; 3 y. Battery 1, Co. C, H. 
Artil., pri.; dis. at Boston Harbor, Oct. 20, '05, close of war. 

Fisher, Hexry M. ; b. Harvard, Mass., Nov. 28, 18:35; s. George and Mary 
n. ; clerk: en. and ra. Aug. 22, '04: 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., pri.; dis. at Ft. 
Richardson, Ya., June 17, '05, close of war. 

Fitzgerald, James: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., Sept. 20, 1840; s. Edmund and 
Mary ; bootmaker; en. in naval ser. May 24, '01 ; went first on board the war-vessel 
"Preble," then, Dec. 9, '63, on board "The Bermuda," and, Feb. 15, '65, on 
board "The Richmond;" was in the engagement at the head of the Passes in 
the Mississippi River. 

Fitzgerald, Michael, b. Ird., 1826; ptge. not given; tailor; en. July 21, 
'02, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri. ; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 2d Bat- 
talion, Co. 89; dis. from the same, Aug. 18, '65, Baltimore, Md.,on acct. of wd. 
reed, in battle of Fredericksburg, Ya., Dec. 15, '62. 

Fitzpatrick, Edward: b. New York City, Mar. 4, 1S40; s. John and Mary ; 



WAR RECORD. 145 

bootmaker; en. and in. June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R, 9, Co. IT, pri. ; ft. in all the battles 
with his R. and Co., and was wd. in left arm at Gaines's Mills, June 27, '02; 
(lis. .June 21, '64, exj>. ser. 

Fitzsimoks, Patrick: b. Co. Limerick, Ird., Feb. 28, 1847; s. James and 
Margaret; en. and in. Dec. 10, '63; 3 y. R. 9, Co. K, pri., a recruit; trans. June 
1U, '04, to 32d infty. ; dis. June 29, '65, exp. ser. 

Fitzsimons, Patrick: b. Ird., March 17, 1S31 ; s. Thomas and Ann; boot- 
maker; en. Nov. 21, '63, and m. Dec. 7; 3 y. It. 2, Co. H, pri.; ft. Plymouth, 
N.C., and taken prisoner; confined successively at Andersonville, Ga., Charles- 
ton, S.C., Florence, and Wilmington: escaped from the last-named place, Feb. 
22, '65, — the day it was taken; dis. July 8. '65, order War Dept. 

Flahertv, Michael: b. Ird., 1S42; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, corpl. ; deserted Aug. 22, '62. 

Flaxxegax, Joiix: b. Ird., 1S3S; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Aug. 7, '62: 3 y. R. 9, Co. C, pri.; k. May 5, '64, battle Wilderness, Va. 

Fletcher, George E. : b. West Brookfield, Oct.. 1844; s. John M. and Cor- 
delia: bootmaker; en. Dec. 21. '63, and m. 22; 3 y. R. 25. Co. B, pri.; ft. Port 
Walthal, Arrowfield Church, Drury's Bluff, and Cold Harbor; wd. at latter 
place, June 3, '64, in left arm and left thigh; d. of his wds. at Washington, 
D.C., June 27, '64. 

Fletcher, James M. : b. Mil., Mass.. Jan., 1S45; s. James M. and Esther; 
farmer; en. Dec. 21, '63, and ra. 22; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri. ; ft. at Port Walthal, 
Arrowfield Church, Drury's Bluff, and Cold Harbor; wd. at latter place, June 
3, '64. by a minie-ball through left arm; dis. Greensboro' Hospital, N.C., July 
10, '65, disabled by fever and pneumonia. 

Fletcher, Giles E. : b. Belvidere, Vt., Mar. 5, 1S39; s. Giles E. and Mary 
E. ; farmer; en. Nov. 19, '64, and in. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Bos- 
ton Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war. He had served out a previous enlist- 
ment of 3 y. for Sherborn, Mass., R. 12, Co. E; having ft. at Cedar Mountain, 
Bull Run, and Antietam. 

Fletcher, Emmons Fraxklix: b. Mil., Jan. 30, 1S35; s. Martin and Mary 
B. ; managing agent; left New Orleans at opening of the war; en. and m. 3 y. 
R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, then encamped Yonkers, pri.; prom. 2d lieut., Nov. 28, 
'(51. 1st lieut. July 8, '62. capt. Aug. 12, '62, majr. July 7, '63; ft. hard battles; 
wd. Williamsburg, and again Spottsylvania Ct. House; m. out July 18, '64; 
went to Arkansas to manage a cot. plantation, and d. there 1867. 

Flyxx, Patrick: b. Co. Cork, Ird., Mar., 1S42; s. Michael and Joanna; 
laborer; en. Dec. 4, '63, and m. 9; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., recruit, pri. ; taken 
prisoner at battle of Plymouth, N.C., and confined at Andersonville, Ga., till 
he d. of starvation, about Aug., '64. 

Flynx, Patrick, 1st: b. Co. Limerick, Ird., 1S37; s. Patrick and Margaret; 
farmer; en. Dec. 26, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; dis. July 
30, '65, exp. ser. 

Flyxx, Patrick, 2d: b. Co. Roscommon, Ird., 1S33; s. Thomas and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. Jan. 15, '64, and m. 25; 3 y. R. 57, Co. D, pri. ; ft. in battles of 
Wilderness, Spottsylvania, and Pegram Farm; wd. Spottsylvania in right foot, 
and at Pegram Farm by piece of shell in left shoulder; dis. at Harwood 
Hospital, Washington, D.C., June 11, '65, order War Dept. 

Flyxx, Daxiel: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1S39; s. John and Johanna; bootmaker; 
en. Dec. 28, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; k. in battle Peters- 
burg, Va., June 17, '04. 



146 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Flynn, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S34; c . John and Bridget; boot- 
maker; en. and in. June 11, '(51; LI y. R. 9, Co. II. pri. ; it. at Hanover Ct. House, 
and Gaines's Mills; \vd. right hand and arm, June 27, '(52, at Gaines's Mills, 
by a ball; dis. Sept. 2(5, '02, at Fort McHenry, Md., disability. 

Flynn, Charles: b. Ird.. 1836, ptge. not given; shoemaker; en. July 31, 
'62, and m. Aug. 26; 3 y. K. 30. Go. G, pri.: deserted Sept. 2, '02. 

Flynn, David; b. Co. Cork, Ird., about 1S2S; s. Daniel and Ellen; boot- 
maker; en. Sept. 24, '63, and m. Oct. 5; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; in. 
out, Sept. 3, '05, Boston, Mass., exp. ser. 

Flynn. Miles: b. Ird., 1832; ptge., etc., not given ; en. and m. July 2G. '01; 
3 y. R. 20, Co. F, pri.; deserted Dec. 4, '01. 

Flynn, John: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1^20: s. Patrick and Johanna: bootmaker; 
en. Aug. 4, '64, and m. S; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., pri.; dis. at Sinitbville, 
N.C., Sept. 3, '65, close of war. 

Foley, Martin: b. Ird., 1843; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. July 
1, '61; 3 y. R. 20, Co. K, pri.; dis. Aug. 1, '04, exp. ser. 

Foley, William: b. Ird., 1825; ptge. not given; carpenter: en. and m. Dec. 
13, '01; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; k. Aug. 30, '62, at Bull Run, Va. 

Foley, Peter: b. Ird., 1S41; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 
13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; deserted Aug. 22, '62. 

Foley, Francis: b. 184U; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. June 11, 
'61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. Jan. 20, '03, disability. 

Folger, Obed L. : b. Nantucket, Mass., Feb. 8, 1830; s. Roland and Eliza 
Ann; bootmaker; drafted July 15, '03; 3 y. R. 22, Co. K, pri.; ft. Mine Run, 
Rappahannock Station. Rappabannock Creek, and Culpeper: consolidated 
with R. 32, Co. M, Oct. 20, '04: dis. June 29, '05, near Washington, D. C. 

Ford, John J.: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1834; s. Michael and Bridget; boot- 
maker; en. Jan. 1. '64, and m. same day; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; wd. May 5, 
'64, in battle of Wilderness, by ball in right side, and shell in left hip; transfd. 
June 10. '64, to 32d infty., Co. H, then. Aug. 25, to Vet. Res. Corps; .retained 
in ser. till cured of his wds. ; dis. Aug. 9, '00. 

Ford, William: b. Ird., 1837; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '01; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. June 21, '04, exp. ser. 

Ford, Dennis: b. Ird., 1S28; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. July 
20, '61; 3 y. R. 19, Co. E, pri.; deserted Aug. 22, '01. 

Foster, Francis H. ; b. So. Boston, Mass., 1833; ptge. not given; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; ft. at Chancel- 
lorsville, and taken prisoner at White House Landing, Va. ; dis. June 27, '04, 
at Petersburg, exp. ser. 

Foster, William B. (or P.); b. 1842; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and 
m. Oct. 18, 'G2; 3 y. R. 11, Co. G, pri.; dis. July 14, '65, exp. ser. 

Foster, Nelson: b. 1S44; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 3, 
'64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 25, '65, exp. ser. 

Frampton, James A.: b. New Bedford, Mass., May 30, 1844; s. Robert L. 
and Elizabeth; farmer; 1st ser. New Bedford; en. for Mil., Nov. 19, '64, and 
m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, exp. 
ser. 

Frampton, Robert L., jun. : b. New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 18, 1846; s. Rob- 
ert L. and Elizabeth; fanner; first ser. New Bedford; en. for Mil., Nov. 19, '64, 
and in. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, musician; dis. June 27, '05, Boston Harbor, 
close of war. 



WAR RECORD. 147 

Franklin, Benjamin A.: b. 1S40; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
July 27, '6-4; 100 ds. R. 5. Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64. exp. ser. 

Freeman, William: b. Cbarlestown, Mass.. 1S2T; ptge. not given; sea- 
man; en. and ra. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; \vd. in right 
side at battle of Fair Oaks. June 1, '62: dis. Nov. 29, '02, on acct. of his wd.; 
en. and ra. again, Aug. 4, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, H. Artil., corpl. ; dis. May 17, 
'64, to enlist in navy. 

Fuller, George A.: b. Charlestown, Ma<s., Oct. 20, 1S45; s. Stephen and 
Mary: farmer; en. and m. Dec. 1, '63; 3 y. R. 2, H. Artil., vol. recruit, pri.; 
nothing further recorded. 

Gallagher, John: b. Tipperary, Ird. ; ptge. not given; shoemaker; en. 
and m. Mar. 4, '62; 3 y. R. 1, Co. M (Edward A. Chandlers), pri.; dis. Mar. 20, 
'64, to re-en. as a veteran volunteer. 

Gallagiier, Owex: b. Ird., 1S39; s. Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. E, corpl.; k. Malvern Hill, July 1, '62. 

Gallon, Michael: b. Co. Leitrim, Ird., Sept. 14. 1S29; s. Michael and 
Bridget; bootmaker; en. July 20, '61, and m. 21: 3 y. R. 20. Co. F. pri.; ft. 
at Ball's Bluff; dis. May 22. '62, surgn's cert., disability: re-en. Aug. 15, '63, 
and m. 22; 3 y. R. 2, Co. D, H. Artil., pri.; ft. at Newport News, Feb. 2, '64; 
detailed for hospl. ser. at Newbern, N.C., Sept., '64; dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Gallon, Patrick: b. Co. Leitrim, Ird., 1S33: s. Michael and Bridget; 
bootmaker; en. Feb. 9, '64, and m. IS; 3 y. R. 57, Co. C, corpl.; ft. battle 
Wilderness, and wd. in left hand, losing forefinger; was in Fort Steadinan, 
front Petersburg, Va. ; taken prisoner there, confined in Richmond till paroled, 
and finally dis. at Washington, D.C., July 30, '65, close of war. 

Gaynor, Thomas H. : b. Co. Dublin. Ird., 1S41: ptge. not given ; bootmaker; 
en. May 31, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 10, Co. K, pri.; dis. July 31, '62, Clif- 
ton Hospl., disability. 

Gkhagan, John: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S19; s. Michael and Bridget; boot- 
maker; en. Dec. 19, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; taken 
prisoner, June 2, '64, at Cold Harbor, and d. prison at Mellen, about Oct. 1, '64. 

Gellet, Charles W. : b. 183S; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Nov. 25, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

George, Albion H. : b. Milford, Feb. 21, 1S45; s. Edward and Ruhama; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 9, '63; 3 y. R. 2, H. Artil., recruit, pri. : no further 
reported on record. 

Gerry, Elbridge: b. Hillsboro', Vt., Apl. 16, 1S24; s. John and Betsey; 
farmer; en. Jan. 4, '64, and m. 14; 3 y. R. 1, Co. I, pri. ; transfd. to Vet. Res. 
Corps, Sept. 20, '64, by special order of War Dept. ; dis. July 5, '65, Washing- 
ton, D.C., close of war. 

Getchell, Thomas B. : b. 1843; place and ptge. not given; farmer; en. 
and m. May 25, '61; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, musician; dis. May 2S, '64, exp. ser. 

Gibbons, Barney (or Barnard): b. Ird., 1S24; ptge. not given; boot- 
maker; en. Oct. 1, '61, and m. Dec. 13; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; k. Chantilly, 
Sept. 1, '62. 

Gibson, Victor: b. St. John, N.B., Apl. 10, 1S34: 8. James and Ann; 
bootmaker: en. May 1, '61, and m. June 17; 3 y. R. 9, band; ft. siege York- 
town, Hanover Ct. House, Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mills, Chickahoininy, White 
Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, etc.: dis. Harrison's Landing. Aug. 11, '62, order 
War Dept.: en. again, Dec. 29, "62, and m. Jan. 10, '63; 3 y. R. 3, H. A. Co. A, 
pri. ; dis Sept. IS, '05, exp. ser. 



148 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Giffoud, Thomas J. : b. 1S41 ; place, ptge., etc., not given ; en. anil m. Nov. 
25, '04; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached. 1st lient. ; dis. June 27, '05. exp. ser. 

Gilbride, Hugh: b. Ird.. 1S35; ptge. not given: bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. K. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. Jan. 3, '63. from bosptl., disability. 

Gilday, Philip; b. Co. Sligo, Ird.. Sept. 25, 1819; s. Owen and Mary; 
laborer; en. and m. Feb. 5, '61 ; 3 y. R. 25, Co. E, pri. ; no further record. 

Gilgox, Michael: b. Ird., 1S39; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Aug. 11, 
'62, and in. 12; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. : dis. Dec. 19, '04. exp. ser. 

Gilligax, Matthew: b. Co. Kavagen, Ird., 1S28; s. Andrew and Cath- 
erine; bootmaker; en. Dec. 10, '63, and in. Feb. 9, '04; R. 57. Co. D, recruit, 
pri.; ft. Wilderness, Weldon R. R., Cold Harbor, Hatcher's Run; dis. Delaney 
House, D.C., special order War Dept., July 24, '05. He was transfd. to R. 59, 
infty., when m. into ser. 

Gillespie, Edwin C. ; b. 1S39; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
May 24, '61; 3 y. R. 1, Co. F, pri.; prisoner of war, Aug. '62; no more given. 

Gleasox, Jesse D. : b. 1830; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
Aug. 6, '62, and m. 27 ; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; with his R. till k. at siege, 
Petersburg, Va., July 25, '04. 

Gleasox, William: b. Co. Tipperary, Ird., 1S3S; ptge. not given; spin- 
ner; en. and m. July 12, '61; 3 y. R. 15, Co. K, pri.; dis. at Boston, Oct. 30, 
'63, disability. 

Glexnax, Patrick: b. Ird.. Dec. 12, 1S46; s. Patrick and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25: 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, 
'65; Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Godfreaux. Pedro: b. Canada, 1824; s. John and Ellen; carriagemaker; 
en. and m. March 21, '04; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F; nothing more recorded. 

Goodell, alias Goodale, Sidxey W. : b. Cabot, Vt., Feb. 14, 1S31 ; s. 
John and Lucy; farmer; en. June 9, '01, and m. 21; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, 
pri. ; ft. Williamsburg and Fair Oaks; dis. Jan. 7, '03, Philadelphia. Pa., com- 
plicated disability; en. again Nov. 19, '04, and in. 25; 1 y., Co. 19, unattached, 
pri.: dis. June 27, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Goodxow, HENRY B. : b. Sterling, Mass., Mar. 29, 1S30; s. Charles and 
Mercy S. ; bootmaker; en. Apl. 19, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. 
G, pri.; ft. William;.burg, Fair Oaks. Gaines's Mills, Charles City Cross Roads, 
Malvern Hill, and 2d Bull Run; prom, corpl. Apl. 1, '02; dis. Mar. 29, '63. on 
acct. wd. reed, battle Bull Run; en. again July 13, '63, and m. Aug. 4 ; 3 y. 
R. 2, Co. C, pri.; dis. Aug. 2, 'C>5, at hospl., Worcester, Mass., close of war. 

Goodxow, Charles E. : b. Stow, Mass., 1841; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 21, '61 : 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri.; taken prisoner at battle 
Freds'burg, Dec. 13, '62; d. of disease, Annapolis, Mil., Jan. 13, '03. 

Goodxow, Peter: b. 1S30; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and in. Aug. 
29, '04; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June. 26, '05, exp. ser. 

Gore, Alfred E. : b. Augusta. Me., Nov. 25, 1844; s. Alfred L. and Mary 
Ann; hatter; en. Feb. 9, '64, and m. IS; 3 y. R. 57, Co. F, pri.; dis. July 30, 
'65, exp. ser. 

Gormax, Maurice: no date of birth, place, ptge., or occ. given; claimed as 
a Mil. soldier, though serving among R. I. volunteers, under a 3 y. en. in R. 4, 
Co. A; no more told. 

Goucher, Alfred: b. Montreal, Can., Mar. S, 1S38; s. Anthony and Doro- 
thy; bootmaker; en. Apl. 19, '01, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, 
pri.; was in all the engagements of his R., till wd. battle Fair Oaks, where he 



WAR RECORD. 149 

lost left forefinger; again Chancellorsville, where he lost right great toe; dis. 
June 27, '(33, Boston, .Mass., surgn's cert, disability. 

Gould, Moses: b. Mil., Mass., Dec. 11, 1824: s. Josiah and Olive; boot- 
maker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and ra. 27; 3 y. R. 36. Co. K, pri. ; in all the battles of 
his Co.; dis. from Co. B, June 8, 'Go, Readville. Mass., exp. ser. 

Grace, Edward: b. Ird., 1834; s. Nicholas; bootmaker: en. Nov. 19, '64, 
and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, 'Go, Boston, close of 
war. 

Grace, Richard: b. Ird., 1833; s. Nicholas; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, 
and in. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, Boston, close of 
war. 

Grant, George O. : b. Uxbridge, Mass., Dec. 22. 1S42; s. Harrison G. O. 
and Sarah J.; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, 
pri. : dis. June 27, '65, Boston, close of war. 

Gray. THOMAS R. : b. Boston, Mass., Apl. 27, 183-; s. Richard and Sarah 
E. ; bootmaker; en. and m. July 27, '61 ; 3 y. R. 20, Co. F. pri. ; ft. Ball's Bluff, 
Yorktown, Seven Ds. retreat, 2d Bull Run, two battles Freds'burg, Antietam, 
Gettysburg, and before Petersburg, without ever being wd. ; dis. July 27, '65, 
Petersburg, Va., exp. ser. 

Greene, Edward: b. Ird., 1S36; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and in. 
June 11, '01; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; deserted Sept., '61. 

Greene, J. Marshall: b. Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 26, 1S3S; s. George A. 
and Avis; bootmaker; en. May, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N. T., Co. G, 
pri.; ft. Williamsburg May, '62, Fair Oaks, Charles City Cross Roads, aud 
Malvern LTill, all in '62; dis. Sept. 30, '62, disability. 

Green, William S. : b. Wilton, Me., Mar. 30, 1S34; s. David and Hannah; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '02, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri.; dis. June S, '05, 
near Alexandria, Va., exp. ser. 

Greene, Charles B. : b. Dorset, Vt., Mar. 20, 1S45; s. Benjamin and 
Angeline; laborer; en. Aug. 20, '64, and m. 22; 1 y. R. 4, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; 
dis. June 17, '05, exp. ser. 

Greene, John E. : b. Cambridge, Mass., 1S40; s. George A. and Avis; 
bootmaker; eu. and m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '04, 
exp. ser. 

Greelish, Owen L. : b. Ird., Mar. 1, 1841; s. Owen and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. and in. June 13, '61; 3 y. R. 11, Co. D, pri.; dis. Nov. 22, '61, disability; 
en. again Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, 
'65, Boston, close of war. 

Greelish, Michael: b. 1837; place not given; s. Mary; bootmaker; en. 
and m. Aug. 5, '65; 3 y. R. 1, Co. H. corpl. ; ft. in all the engagements with 
Ferguson and James Coughlin, in same Co.; dis. Nov. 11, '64, exp. ser. 

Greenlaw, Theophilus: b. 1832; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. Aug. 6, '02, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; d. Oct. 27, '62, Knoxville, 
Tenn. 

Greenwood, James H. : b. 1836; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. July 31, '02, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri.; dis. June 8, '05, with 
his K. 

Griffin, John: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1826; s. John and Eliza; bootmaker; 
en. Dec. 24, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; dis. Oct. 15, '64, 
disability. 

Griffin, John W. : b. Ird., 1S42; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 



150 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Griffin, John: b. Ircl., 1S"9; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and in. Dec. 
13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; (lis. Feb. IS, '63, Point Comfort HospL, Md., 
disability. He afterwards en. in 10th Regulars, and was k. at Island No. 10. 

Griffin, Thomas: b. Ird., 1S40; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, Til; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K. pri.; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en.; which he did 
next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., pri. ; m. out with his R., close of war. 

Guild, Charles T. : b. Franklin, Mass., 1S42; s. Charles A. and Elizabeth; 
bootmaker: en. Apl. 19, 'HI, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, X. Y., Co. G, pri.; 
taken prisoner at White Oak Swamp July 1, '02, and carried to Richmond, Ya. ; 
dis. Sept. 27, '62, disability. 

Guild, Charles A.: b. Wrentham, Mass., Feb. 10, 1S12; s. Timothy and 
Esther; mason; en. Dec. 7, '63, and m. 10: 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., recruit, 
pri.; taken prisoner in battle at Plymouth, X.C., carried to Andersonville, Ga., 
and d. there of chron. diarrhoea, Aug. 14, "64. 

Hadlet, Leonard D. : b. Mendon, Mass., Apl. 13, 1S29; s. William and 
Mercy; bootmaker; en. Sept. IS, 'CI. and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. 
at Roanoke Island Feb. 7 and S, '62, and at Newbern Mar. 14 following, where 
he lost his right arm; dis. Nov. 11, '62, disability. 

Haley, Jeremiah: b. 1S35; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 
2, '04; 3 y. R. 22, Co. E, pri. ; dis. June 29. '65, close of war. 

Hall, Erastus D. ; b. Rind.se, X.H., Sept. 1, 1S37; s. Darling C. and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. >ov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. He first 
ser. under an en. in N. H., R. 6, Co. H, from which he was dis. Jan. 13, '63, on 
acct. of disability. Under this sec. en. he was stationed at Forts Warren and 
Winthrop, Boston Harbor, and thence dis. June 27, '65. 

Hancock, Joseph: b. Mil., Mass., Feb. 6, ISIS; s. Samuel and Submit; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F. 2d sergt.; prom. 1st 
sergt. Jan. 5, '63; ft. Freds'burg, Va., and Jackson, Miss.; prom. 2d lieut. 
July, '63, to 1st lieut. Feb. 2, '«4, and to capt. Oct. 11, '64; ft. Spottsylvania <t. 
House, Cold Harbor, Pegram's Farm, and before Petersburg, Apl., '65; dis. 
June 8, '65, at Alexandria, Va. 

Hand, William: b. 1839: place, ptge.. etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 12, 
'62; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K; no further reported. 

Handley, Levi L. : b. Mil., Mass., June 10, 1S35; s. John and Sylvia; 
farmer; en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36. Co. F, pri.; transfd. to R. 15, 
Co. I, Vet. Res. Cor., Apl. 1, '65; dis. July 8, '65, Springfield, 111. 

Handley, James W. : b. Mil., Mass., July 27, 1S40; s. John and Sylvia; 
en. and m. Jan. 19, '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. K, pri.; had previously ser. a term on 
the quota of Upton, from which he was dis. the day before this sec. enlistment; 
dis. finally July 13, '64, exp. ser. 

Hannan, John: b. Co. Galway, Ird., Mar. 19, 1849; s. John and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. and m. July, 1S64; 3 y. R. 2, artil., pri. ; no more told. 

Hanneqan, Patrick: b. Co. Cork. Ird., 1830; s. Daniel and Ellen; boot- 
maker; en. Sept. 12, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. E, pri.; dis. Dec. 17, 
'63, to re-en. ; which he did next day for 3 y., same R. and Co. ; dis. June 21, 
'65, disability. 

Hanson, Edward, jun. : b. Medway, Mass., July 12, 1845; s. Edward and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. July, '61. and m. 12; 3 y. R. 15, Co. K, pri. ; dis. Nov. 4, 
'63, Convalescent ("amp, Va., disability ; ft. Fair Oaks, Gettysburg. 2d Freds'- 
burg, and Chancellorsville; wd. at Fair Oaks by niinie-ball in left hip: en. 
again Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '05, 
Boston Harbor, exp. ser. 



WAR RECORD. 151 

Harden, Hosea: b. Hingham, Mass., Mar. S, 1S39; s. ITosea and Hannah; 
carpenter; en. Apl. 19, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, X. Y., Co. G, pri.; ft. 
Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Charles City Cross Roads, and Malvern Hill, between 
May 1 and July 1, '62; dis. Nov. 20, '62, on acct. of an injury in the back. 

Hardy, William H. : b. Tewksbury, Mass., 1S32; ptge. not given; sales- 
man; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; dis. Jan. or Feb. 
4, '62, Alexandria, Va., disability. 

Harlow, Henry L: b. Plymouth, Mass., 1845; s. Ansel Tl. and Mary O. ; 
en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, cornl. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, 
exp. ser. 

Harrigan, James: b. Ird., Apl. 4, 1S43; s. Jeremiah and Elizabeth; boot- 
maker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, 
'65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Harrington, Joseph: b. Manchester, Eng.. Nov., 1S2T: s. Joseph and 
Catherine; tailor; en. Jan. 4, '64, and m. 27; 3 y. 11. 4. Co. E, cavalry, pri.; 
deserted Mar. 1, '64. 

Harrington, Jedediah C. : b. Cornish, N.H., 1S0S; s. Aaron and Nancy; 
mechanic; en. 3 y. R. 10, Ohio cavalry; no more told. 

Hart, Toby: b. Agate Falls, Vt. ; ptge. not given; shoemaker: drafted 
July 15, '63; 3 y. R. 22, Co. K, pri.; trans. Oct. 26, '64, to R. 32, Co. M, and 
Jan. 21, '65, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Harvey, William: b. Blackstone, Mass., Mar. 21, 1846: s. Henry W. and 
Eliza Ann; carpenter; en. and m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
stationed Fort Warren ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Haskins, Clark T. : b. New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 10, 1S39: s. Samuel and 
Sarah C. ; seaman: first ser. a term in navy; dis. July 17, '64: then en. in Mil- 
ford, Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Boston Har- 
bor, June 27, '65, close of war. 

Hastings, Frank S. : b. Mendon, Mass., June 29, 1S46; s. Seth and Ruth 
S. ; photographer; en. Nov. 19, '64, and in. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
dis. June 27, '65, Boston, close of war. 

Hatch, Daniel A.: b. Portsmouth, N.n., May IS. 1838; s. Daniel and 
Fidelia M. ; shoemaker; en. and m. May 25, '61 ; 3 y. 11. 2, Co. C, pri. ; dis. Apl. 
1, '64. disability. 

Hatch, William L. F. : b. Hopkinton, Mass., Sept. 8, 1S20; s. Lyman and 
roily; trapper; en. Sept. 9, '63, and in. Oct. 5; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; 
ft. at Newbern, N.C., Rainbow Bluffs, Cleowan River, Colerain, and Columbia; 
dis. Smithville, N.C., July 16, '65, disability. 

Haverty, John F. : b. 1S43; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. May 25, '01; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C. pri.; dis. Mar. 1, '03. disability. 

Hawes, William C. : b. Walpolc, Mass., 1S35; ptge. not given; coal-oil 
manufacturer; en. and m. May 30, '62; 6 mo. Batt. 8, Light Artil., pri.; dis. 
Nov. 29, '62, exp. ser. 

Hawkins, George M. : b. Franklin, Mass., Jan. 22. 1S33; s. Hezekiah and 
Sarah; bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, corpl, ; ft. 
Fred'sburg, Va., Jackson, Miss., and Jamestown, Ky. : trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, 
R. 13. Co. G, May 4, '64; dis. Boston Harbor, July 6, '65, exp. ser. 

Hawkins, George W. : birth-date, place, ptge., etc., not given; en. 1S62; 
3 y. R. 1, Co. D, R. I., Light Artil. ; no more told. 

Hayes, John: b. Co. Tipperary, Ird., 1841; s. Daniel and Bridget; boot- 
maker; cm. Nov. 19, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '05, Bus- 
ten, close of war. 



152 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Hayxes, Milo E. : b. Mil., Mass., Dec. 25, 184G: s. Jeremiah and Louisa; 
bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '04, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 
27, '05, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Hayxes, Walter S. : b. Saco, Me., Feb. G, 1835; s. Timothy and Orinda; 
clerk: en. Aug. 0, "02, and m. 27: 3 y. R. 30. Co. F, pri.; ft. Fred'sburg, Va., 
and Jackson. Miss.; dis. Sept. 28, '63, disability. 

Hayxes, Hakrisox: b. 1S23; place, ptge.. etc., not given: farmer; en. and 
m. Dec. 7, '63; 3 y. R. 2. Co. H. H. Artil., recruit, pri. ; rejected recruit. 

Hayward, Hexky J.: b. Mil., Mass., Feb. 28, 1S42; s. Bainbridge and 
Martha; student: en. Aug. 25, "02, and in. Sept. 10; 9 mo. It. 43, Co. K, pri.; 
ft. Kinston. Whitehall. Goldsboro', and Blunt's Cross Roads ; dis. July 30, "03, 
exp. ser: en. again, Aug. 9, '04; 100 ds. Co. 19. unattached, sergt. : dis. Nov. 
10, '04. exp. ser.; en. and m. auain, Nov. 25, '04; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, 2d 
lieut. ; dismissed July 17. '05, close of war 

Hexelly, Bartholomew: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S29: s. Coleman and 
Mary: bootmaker; en. Sept. 9, '01. and m. Oct. 7: 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. 
Roanoke Island and Newbern. N.C. ; trans, to Co. E, before leaving Camp Lin- 
coln : dis. Apl. 24, '03, disability ; en. again, Dec. 4, '03, and in. 9; 3 y. R. 2. Co. 
G, pri. ; recruit H. Artil. ; taken prisoner battle Plymouth, N.C, and carried to 
Andersonville, Ga., and thence to Florence, S.C., where he d. of starvation, 
Oct., 1S04. 

Hexxessey, Patrick: b. Co. Limerick, Ird., Mar. 17. 1S3S; s. Michael and 
Bridget: bootmaker; en. Aug. 18, '64, and m. 19; 1 y. R. 4, Co. F, pri.; dis. 
June 17, '05, Fort Richardson, Va,. close of war. 

Hexxes«ey, Maurice; b. Co. Limerick. Ird.. Aug.. 1S40: s. Michael and 
Bridget; bootmaker: en. Aug. 18. '04. and in. 19; 1 y. R. 4, Co. F, pri.; dis. 
June 17, '05, Fort Richardson. Va., close of war. 

Henry. James: b. Co. Mayo, Ird.. 1S33; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
Nov. 27, '63. and m. Dec. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., recruit, pri. ; d. Ander- 
sonville, Ga., Aug. 1. '04. 

Hkrrick, George W. : b. 1820: place and ptge. not given; tailor; en. Sept. 
3. '04, and m. 5: 3 y. R. 2. Co. E, H. Artil.. pri.; trans, to iufty. R. 17, Co. A, 
Dec. 10. '04: k. in battle Kinston. N.C, Mar. 8, '05. 

HtAYixs, Walter J: b. Bellingham, Mass., Aug. 19, 1S44: s. Leonard F. 
and Elizabeth: bootmaker: en. and m. Mar. 24, '04; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri.; 
never sworn in, on acct. of poor health. 

Higgixs, Daxiel E. : b. Charlotte, Me., May 7, 1843; s. John and Abigail; 
bootmaker: en. July 1. '01, and m. 3; 3 y. R. 29, Co. B, pri. ; ft. Newport News, 
'61, 7 ds. light, 2d Bull Run. Antietam, So. Mountain, and 1st Fred'sburg, Va. ; 
dis. Jan. 1, '04, to re-en.; which he did next day, for 3 y. R. 29, Co. B, corpl.; 
dis. July 29, '05; exp. ser. 

Higgixs, Jonx J.: b. Charlotte, Me., Apl. 3, 1S35; s. John and Abby; boot- 
maker; en. Aug. 5, '02, and in. 27; 3 y. R. 30. Co. F, corpl.; ft. at Jackson, 
Miss., and wd. in right side, at Blue Springs, Campbell's Station, and siege of 
Knoxville, Tenn., at Wilderness, Spottsylvania Ct. House, and Cold Harbor, 
Va. : wd. at last place in right leg; dis. May 16, '05, at Lovell Gen. Hospl. 
Portsmouth Grove, R.I. 

Higgixs, John C : b. Buckingham. Canada, Apl. 20, 1S43; s. Michael and 
Ann; bootmaker; en. Sept. 5, '61. and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. 
Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, ami 
Green Swamp, all in N. C ; dis. Jan. 18, '04, at Newport News, Va., to re-en. ; 



WAR RECORD. 153 

which he did same day, for 8 y. in same II. and Co. ; accidentally wd. by a pistol- 
shot, Portsmouth, Va., Sept. 0, '04: dis. July. 27, '65, Boston, exp. ser. 

Higglns, Patrick: b. Ird., about 1S39; s. Michael and Margaret; boot- 
maker: en. Nov. 19, '04, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, uuattached, pri.; dis. June 2l, 
'05, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

IliGiiixs, James: b. Buckingham. Canada, Dec. 22, 1SJS; s. Michael and 
Ann; bootmaker: en. and m. July 23, '03, 3 y. R. 2, Co. B, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. 
Sept. 3, '05, exp. ser. 

Higgins, George S. : b. Charlotte, Me., Dec. 10, 1841; s. John and Abhy: 
bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 25, '01: in naval ser., boy: drawn from receiving- 
ship "' Oliver " to ser. on board frigate " Congress; " was lost in the battle with 
''The Merrimack" at Hampton Roads, Va. 

Hill, Isaac: b. 183S; place, ptge., etc., not given: en. and m. July 28, '02, 
3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri. ; dis. May 28, '04, exp. ser. 

Hiller, Alfred: b. 1840: place, ptge., etc., not given: en. and m. Nov. 
25, '04: 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, corpl.; dis. June 27, '05, exp. ser. 

Holbrook, William: b. Upton, Mass.. Oct. 10, 1S42; s. Ezra W. and Polly; 
bootmaker: en. and m. Apl. 10. '01: 5 y. R. 1, Co. G, U. S. Artil., pri. ; ft. at 
Blackmail's Ford, July 18. '01, 1st Bull Run, siege of Yorktown, Williamsburg, 
Hanover Ct. House, Fair Oaks, Gaines's Mills, White Oak Swamp, and Charles 
City Cross Roads; wd. at the last-named place by a ball through the right 
shoulder, and sent to hospl. ; ft. at Antietam, and was again sent to hospl. on 
acct. of his wd. ; dis. Jan. 12, '03, from Portsmouth-Grove Hospl.. R.I., on acct. 
of wd. ; en. again, Sept. 25, '63. for 3 y. in R. 5, Co. F, X. H. Inl'ty., pri. : ft. 
at Spottsylvania and Cold Harbor, Va. ; wd. at the last-named battle, and taken 
prisoner; confined successively in Richmond, Andersonville, Savannah, Mellen, 
Blackshire, Charleston, Florence, and Goklsboro'; paroled Mar. 2, '05, and sent 
to hospl. on acct. of sickness, and thence to Parole Camp at Annapolis, Md. ; 
dis. June 7, '65, close of war. 

Holbrook, Sewell B. : b. Upton, Mass., Nov. 2S, 1S4S; s. Ezra W. and 
Polly; farmer; somehow got counted on the quota of Hadley, Mass.; en. and 
m. June 5, '64; 3 y. R. IT, Co. B, pri. ; ft. at Yes Fork. N.C., Mar. 8, 9, and 10, 
also at Bennettville, N.C. ; wd. at the Forks by a shot in mouth; dis. July 27, 
'65, Readville, Mass., close of war. 

Holbrook, James M. : b. Mil.. Ma?s., Oct. 18. 1829; s. Theron and Nancy; 
bootmaker: en. Sept. 10. '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.: ft. at 
Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinstou. Whitehall, Gold>boro', Deep Gully, and 
Green Swamp, N.C; d. of disease at Hammond Gen. Hospl., Beaufort, N.C, 
May 2, '04. 

Holbrook, Mkllex T. : b. Mil., Mass., May 2-4, 1844; s. Benjamin and 
Loui>a; bootmaker; en. Apl. lit, '01, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40. N.Y., Co. 
G, pri. ; prom, corpl. Mar. 1, 'G3, sergt. Apl. 1, '04; ft. Yorktown, Williams- 
burg, 7 ds. fight, 2d Bull Run, Chantilly, 1st Fred'sburg, Chancellorsville, and 
Gettysburg; at the last-mentioned battle wd. in head by a musket-ball, and 
sent to hospl. till Aug. 29, '03; afterwards ft. at Locust Grove, Wilderness, 
Todd's Tavern, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, Pamunkey River, No. Anna, Cold 
Harbor, and Petersburg, Va. June, '64; m. out June 27, '64, exp. ser. 

Holbrook, Robert S. D. : b. Dummerston, Vt., Feb. 13, 1833; s. Charles 
and Betsy; carpenter: en. Sept. 9, '61, and m. Oct. 7: 3 y. R. 25, Co. B. pri.; 
ft. at Roanoke Island. Newbern, Kinslon. Whitehall, Goldsltoro', and Green 
Swamp, N.C, between Feb. 1, '02, and June 1, '0^; dis. Sept. 17, '03, disability. 



154 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

IIot.crook. Charles: b. Sherborn, Mass., Oct. 14, 1S17: s. Lewis and Han- 
nah; bootmaker; en. Nov. 22, '63, and m. Dec. 9: 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., 
recruit, pri. ; taken prisoner Apl., '04, and d. Andersonville, Ga., Aug. 18, '64. 

Holden, James D. : b., date, place, ptge., etc., not given ; en. and m. June 
27, '61; 3 y. R. 40. N.Y., Co. H, pri.; dis. Oct. 21, '61, Alexandria, Va., disa- 
bility. 

Holien, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S41; s. Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, 
'61 : 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; k. July 1, '62. 

Holland, William: b. Ird.. 1829: ptge. not given; carpenter; en. Dec. 13, 
'61. and in. 23: 3 y. R. 2S. Co. K, sergt. prom, serut. major Nov. 1, '62, and 2d 
lieut. Nov. 15, '62; k. Fred'sburg, Va.. Dec. 13, '62. 

Holland, Howard: b., date ami place not given: s. John and Martha; 
bootmaker; en. and in. Nov., 1S61, regular U. S. Army, R. 1, Co. B, Light 
Artil., pri. ; no more told. 

Ho LL All AN, Edward: b. Lowell. Mass., 1S43; s. Edward; bootmaker; en. 
and in. Dec. 13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; ft. James Island, 2d Bull Run, So. 
Mountain, Antietam, Chantilly, 1st Fred'sburg, and Gettysburg; slightly wd. 
at Bull Run on the back in left shoulder; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en.; which he 
did .Ian. 2, '64, for 3 v., in same R. and Co. ; dis. June 30. '6-1, exp. ser. 

Holmes, Otis W. : b. Hopkinton, Mass., Nov. 26. 1S35; s. William G. and 
Betsey C. ; bootmaker: en. Sept. 9, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; 
prom, sergt. Oct. 15, '61, to 1st sergt. Apl. 2S, '62, to 1st lieut. in 36th R. Aug. 

12, '62, and to capt. May 2, '63; d. Harwood Hospl., Washington, D.C., June 
23, '64. 

noi.T, Charles E. : b. 1S44; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
19, '04; I y. R. 4. Co. K. H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 17, '65. exp. ser. 

Honey, James M. : b. New Boston. N.H., Nov. 11, ISIS ; s. Parmenter and 
Hannah; bootmaker; en. Aug. 5. '61, and in. 2S; 3 y. R. 19, Co. I, teamster; 
ft. West Point, Fair Oaks, and 7 ds. retreat; dis. Falmouth, Va., Feb. 12 or 13, 
'6:1, disability. 

Horner, John: b. Ird., 1841, ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 

13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; dis. Jan. 1, 64, to re-en.; which he did next day, 
for 3 v., in same R. and Co. ; dis. June 30. '65, exp. ser. 

IIornek, John: b. In!.. 1840; ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Oct. 18, '62; 
9 mo. R. 4S, Co. I., pri.; de: ? ertod Dec. 16, '62, at Read vi lie, Mass. 

Horton, John S. : b. Attleboro", Ma>s., June 21, 1833; s. John and Susan; 
mason; en. Sept. 9, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke, 
Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Gohlsboro', and Green Swamp expedition; dis. 
Jan. 18, '64, to re-en. ; which he did next day in same R. and Co.; dis. July 13, 
'65, with his R., at Charlotte, N. C. 

Horton, Charles A.: b. Fall River, Mass., Aug. 2, 1843; s. John B. and 
Eliza J.; bootmaker; en. Dec. 16, '63, and m. 21; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. 
at Port Walthal and Pocahontas, Va. ; at last-named place shot through the 
bowels, and d. May 10, '64. 

Horton, Henry W. : b. Fall River, Mass., June 4, 1S46; s. John B. and 
Eliza J.; bootmaker; en. Dec. 16, '63, and m. 21; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, corpl.; 
dis. July 13, '65, exp. ser. 

Horton, Andrew J.: no birth-place, date, ptge., or occ. given; en. with 
R. I. Vols., 3 y. It. 4, Co. D; no more told. 

Hor<;iiTON, Nathan II.: b. 1824: pjace and ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. Aug. 5, '62, and in. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, sergt. ; dis. July 30, '63, disability. 



WAR RECORD. 155 

Hourex, Patrick: b. Ird., 1835; bootmaker; en. Aug. 1, *G2, and m. 15; 
3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; deserted Sept. 18, 'Go. 

Howard, Austin: b. Mil., Mass.. Oct. 16, 1S30; s. Albert and Hannah D. ; 
clerk; en. and in. June 1, '01; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; dis, Aug. 31, '01, 
chron. diarrhoea; re-en. and in. Feb. 4, '65, 3 y. R. 2, Co. A, cavalry; was with 
Sheridan in bis raid through Shenandoah Valley, Mar., '05; dis. July 20, "65, 
at Fairfax Ct. nouse, Va. He was also in tbe naval ser. for a considerable 
term, commencing Mar. 30, '62, on board gunboat ''Signal" and in the Missis- 
sippi Squadron; he ft. at Memphis and St. Charles in '(52, was prom, to Mas- 
ter's Mate Sept. 29, '62, ft. at Haines's Bluff on Yazoo River, at Arkansas Post, 
Jan. 11, '63, and at Fort Pemberton the Mar. ensuing. Resigned Apl. 20, '63, 
and resignation accepted May 1, '63, on acct. of fever and ague. Other services 
not above included. 

Howard, Olevan: b. 1S44; place and ptge. not given; farmer; en. July 
28, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; ft. at Jackson, Miss., and reed, 
wds. in bead of which he d. Sept. 24, '63, at Cincinnati, O. 

Howard, Whitman: b. Mil., Mass., Sept. 19, 1S49; s. Hollis and Emily; 
laborer; en. and m. Feb. 9, '65; 1 y. R. 61, Co. K, pri.; dis. June 24, '65, at 
Boston, Mass., order War Dept. 

Howard, Edgar E. : b. Mil., Mass., Sept. 15, 1845; bootmaker; en. Aug. 
10, '64, and m. IS; 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, pri. ; ft. at Forts Barnard and Albany, Va., 
and at Fort Lincoln, Md. ; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

nowARD, Edson F.: b. Bethel, Me., Apl. 15, 183S; s. Samuel J. and Sarah 
IT.; teamster; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. 
June 27, '65. Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Howard, Sylvester B. : b. Mil., Mass., Aug. 25, 1842; s. Jesse and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19. unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 
10, '64, from Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, exp. ser. Re-eu. three days after, 
for 1 y. in same Co., corpl. ; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Howard, Stephen E. ; b. 1841: place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 9, '04; 100 ds. Co. 19. unattached, corpl.; dis. Nov. 16, '04, exp. ser. 

Howarth, John: b. Manchester, Eng., June 15, 1825; s. Stephen and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64. and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
stationed in Forts Warren and Winthrop, Boston Harbor; dis. June 27, '65, 
close of war. 

Howe, Edward W. : b. Hopkinton, Mass., Dec. 2, 1S45: s. Stedman W. 
and Clara M. ; hostler; en. and m. Dec. 10, '63; 3 y. 1st Batt. H. Artil., a 
recruit, pri.; stationed in forts on the coast of Mass.; dis. June 29, '05, exp. 
ser. 

Howe, Wii.eard N. ; b. Hopkinton, Mass., 1842; s. Stedman W. and Clara 
M. ; teamster; en. and m. June 21, 01 ; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; deserted 
Aug. 20, '02, on march to 2d Bull Run; re-en. Jan. 10, '04, but deserted during 
the battle of the Wilderness, Va. ; returned to the R. Mar. 30, '65; deserted 
again the following Apl.; no more told. 

Howland, Edward F. : b. New Bedford, Mass., Apl. 17, 1846; s. Paul and 
Lydia; occ. not given; ser. a terra of enlistment for New Bedford; then en. 
for Mil., Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, 
'05, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Hoyt, Amos: b. Black Brook, Chester Co., N.Y., 1842; s. Moses and Lydia; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 0, '62, and ra. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; ft. at Fred's- 
burg, Va., Dec. 11, '02; k. in battle, Jackson, Miss., July 11, 'Go. 



156 HI STORY OF MILFORD. 

Hoyt, Dixt C. : b. Northfiekl (or Newfield), N.IL, Apl. 24, 1833: s. Enos and 
Grace: physician: en. and in. Ami. 24. '63; 3 v. R. 2, H. Artil., assist, surgeon; 
(1. Nov. !, '(',4. 

Hi'YT, Au'iiEi's E. : b. 1837; place, ptge., etc., not given: physician; en. and 
m. Sept. 25, '00; 3 y. R. 25. assist, surgeon: prom, surgeon, Oct.. 21, '04; dis. 
June 21"), "05. 

Hoyt, Merrill: b. Enfield, N.H., 1835; s. Moses and Lydia; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 1, '01, Alexan- 
dria, Va., disability. 

Hoyt, William W. : b. Keene, Essex Co., N.Y. ; date not given; s. Moses 
and Lydia; en. navy, July 9, '61, seaman; -was on steamer " Preble" a while, 
and then in navy-yard, Pensacola, Fla. ; d. yellow-fever, Sept. 21, '03. 

HUBUARD, Hortox: b. Chesterfield, N.IL, Dec. 5, 1823; s. Eber and Jane; 
bootmaker: en. and m. Feb. 0, '64; 3 y. II. 25, Co. B, pri.; supposed to have 
been rejected by surgeon for over-age. 

Hubon, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S24; s. Patrick and Mary; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Aug. 12. '02; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; wd. in right leg and back. 1st battle 
Fred'sburg, Va. : dis. Feb. 7, '03, on acct. wounds; en. again, Aug. 11, '03, 
and m. ^2: 3 y. It. 2, Co. D, H. Artil. pri.; ft. Newport Barracks, N.C. ; dis. 
June 1. '04, sergeon's cert, disability. 

Hubon, John: b. Ird.. 1845: s. Patrick; bootmaker: en. and m. Aug. 22, 
'63: 3 y. R. 2, Co. D. H. Artil., pri. : dis. Sept. 3, '05. exp. ser. 

Hubon, Thomas: b. Ird., 1S3G; s. Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, 
'61; 3 y. R. 9. Co. II, corpl. ; was in all the battles with his R. till wd. in the 
arm, Malvern Hill, and taken prisoner; d. in Richmond Prison, Va., July 22, 
'62. 

Hughes. Patrick: b. Co. Armagh. Ird.. Sept. 21, 1S36; s. Hugh and Cathe- 
rine: bootmaker; en. Dec. 5, '03, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; no 
more told. 

Hunt. Pearley M. : b. Mil., Mass., Mar. 10, 1840; s. Leonard and Lucinda; 
bootmaker; en. July 25, '64, and m. 26; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, 
'64, exp. ser. 

Hunt, Thomas C. : b. 1835; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Feb. 11, 
'63; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. E, H. Artil.. pri.: dis. June 11, '65. exp. ser. 

Hunt, Edwin O.: b. Mil., Mass., July 0. 1847; s. Hiram and Laura Ann; 
clerk; en. Nov. 19. 'G4: 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, musician; stationed Forts 
Warren and Winthrop, Boston Harbor; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Huntress, John: b. Mil., Mass., Dec. 23, 1841; s. Darling and Ruth F. ; 
bootmaker; en. and m. May 25, '01; 3 y. R. 2, Co.-E. pri.; dis. June 20, '62, 
disability. (Town-clerk not certain whether counted on quota of Milford or 
Mendon.) 

Hurley, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S36; ptge. not given; grocer; en. and m. July 
26, '01 ; 3 y. R. 19, Co. E, corpl. ; k. Sept. 17, '62, at Antietam. 

Hussey, Geohoe L. : b. 1S04; place and ptge not given; bootmaker; en. 
Aug. 6, '02, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri.; dis. Jan. 15, '63, disability. 

Hutchins, Matthew: b. 1827; place and ptge. not given; painter; en. and 
m. Jan. 14, '02; 3 y. R. 1, cavalry, Co. K, recruit, pri.; trans, to Co. K, 4th 
cavalry; dis. Apl. 20, '64, to re en. ; which he did next day; d. Aug. 23, '64, 
Hatcher's Run, Va. 

Hctciiins, Geohge O. : b. May 23, 1S40, place not given; s. Harrison and 
Mary J. ; bootmaker ; en. Apl. 19, '61, and m. June 21 ; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, 



WAR RECORD. 157 

pri. ; prom, corpl. Feb. 1, '02, serc:t. Aug. 1, '63; ft. sieire Yorktown, and at Fair 
Oaks, Peach Orchard, Charles City Cross Roads, Malvern Hill, ami 2d Bull 
Run; taken prisoner, paroled, and rejoined It. Oi'O. 27. '02; ft. Chaneellorsville. 
Gettysburg, Manassas Gap. Ridley's Ford. Locust Grove. Wilderness, Todd's 
Tavern, Laurel Hill, Spottsylvania, Pamunkey River, North Anna, Culd Harbor, 
and Petersburg; dis. Aug. '04, Petersburg. Va., exp. ser. 

Hynes, Michael: b. Co. Clare, Ird., 1S33: s. John and Artilda: bootmaker; 
en. and in. Feb. 13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 3, Co. C, U. S. Infantry, reg. army. pri. ; ft. 1st 
Bull Pain, and taken prisoner; imprisoned 2 mos. in Libby Prison at Richmond, 
Va., 4 mos. New Orleans, and 5 mos. Saulsbury, N.C. ; then paroled, rejoined 
R., and afterwards ft. at Gettysburg; uever \vd. ; character indorsed on dis- 
charge-paper, "good and honest."' 

Idk. Timothy N. : b. Temple, N.H., 1S22; s. George and Lydia: blacksmith; 
en. and m. Sept. 25, '62, 9 m. R. 51, Co. K, sergt. ; in. out with his R. July 27, 
'G3, exp. ser. 

Inman, Hir.AM B. : b. Blackstone, Mass., 1S43; s. Jonathan and Alcy; 
mason: en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds., Co. 19, unattached, pri.: dis. Nov. 16, 
'64, exp. ser. 

Jefffrds, Lysandfr: b. Dixfield. Me., 1822: s. Rufus and Susan L. ; car- 
penter: en. and m. June 15, '61; 3 y. R. 7, band musician; dis. Aug. 11, '62, 
camp near Harrison's Bar, Va. 

Jkffers. John: b. Co. Mayo, Ird.. 1S36; s. Patrick and Sarah; bootmaker; 
en. and in. June 21. '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. : ft. at Gettysburg. July 2, 
'63. and there wd. in breast by musket-ball: afterwards ft. Williamsburg, Fair 
Oaks, White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, Cbantilly, 1st Fred'sburg, and Clian- 
cellorsville; dis. June 27, '64, exp. ser; en. again and ra. Dec. I. '64, 3 y. R. 12, 
Co. E. Vet. Res. Corps, pri. ; (lis. Nov. 15, y 6b. Gen. Order War Dept. 

Jefferson. Peter: b. Canada East, Dist. Montreal, May 21. 1S32: s. Joseph 
and Anstatia; bootmaker; en. and in. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, 
pri.; ft. Williamsburg, May 5, '62. and had little finger shot from left hand; ft. 
2d Bull Run, and Chancellorsville; taken prisoner at last-named place, May 2, 
'63, and carried to Richmond, Va. : exchanged Sept. 1, '63, but taken prisoner 
a^ain, Oct. 23 ensuing, and back to Richmond; paroled May 8, '64; dis. June 
20. following, exp. ser. 

Jenkins, Martin: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., 1S36; s. Michael and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. E, sergt.; ft. in all the bat- 
tles of the R. and never wd; m. out with R. June 1, '64, at Boston; en. and m. 
again Dec. 15, '64; 1 y. R. 61, Co. H, pri.: prom, sergt. Mar. 3, '65, after battle 
Petersburg, Va., during May preceding; m. out with R., Arlington Heights, 
July 16, '65. 

Jewell, Franklin B. : b. Monmouth, Me., July 3. 1S35; s. Robert and 
Nicy; clerk; en. Apl. 1, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; dis. 
May 1, '62, at Alexandria, Va. 

Johnson, Isaac: b. 1S35: place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Aug. 
5, '62, and in. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; trans. May 30, '64, to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Johnson, William: b. Co. Mayo, Ird., May S, 1830; s. Edward M. and 
Catherine; bootmaker; en. Nov. 7, '63, and m. Dec. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. 
Artil., recruit, pri.; ft. Plymouth, N.C.. and taken prisoner to Andcrsonville, 
6a., where he d. of starvation about June 17, '64. 

Johxsox, Francis A.: b. Franklin, Mass., Mar. 22. 1828; s. Warren and 
Eliza; bootmaker; en. Apt., '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, 1st 



158 HISTORY OF MTLFORD. 

lieut. ; trans, to Co. A, and prom, capt., Nov. 28, '01; ft. Williamsburg, Fair 
Oaks, Charles City Cross Road?, Robinson's Field, 2d Bull Bun, and Fred's- 
burg, all between Aug. 29 and Dec. 14, '(52; dis. May 13, '63, disability. 

Johnson, William Henby Harrison: b. Mil., Mass., Apl. 10, 1S40; s. 
Lewis and Sally G. ; clerk: en. June, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. II. 40, N.Y., Co. 
G, corpl.: prom, sergt. Mar. 20, '02, 2d lieut. Co. D, Nov. 25, same y., and to 
1st lieut. Co. G, Feb. 3, '03; ft. in all the engagements of his Co. till death; wd. 
in battle of Fred'sburg, and k. in that of Gettysburg, July 2, 'G3. 

Johnson, Napoleon 13. : b. Mil., Mass., July 27, 1S2S; s. Lewis and Sally 
G. ; clerk; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; ft. Fred'sburg, 
Dec. 11, '02, Jackson, Miss., July 11 and 14, '62; detailed to Ambulance Corps 
Sept. 9, '63; returned to R. Feb. 1, '64; ft. Wilderness, Va., May 6, '64, Spott- 
sylvania, May 12, Cold Harbor, June 3, and was with his R. before Petersburg, 
Va., from July 5, '64, to evacuation Apl. 2, '65; dis. with his R. June 8, '65. 

Johnson, William E. : b. 1S37; place and parentage not given; tailor; en. 
and in. July 7, '02; 3 y. It. 9, Co. K, recruit; dis. Nov. 1, '62, disability. 

Johnson. Edward E. ; b. 1835; place and ptge. not given; farmer; en. and 
m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. B, pri. ; k. Fred'sburg, Va.. Dec. 13, '62. 

Johnson, Daniel R., jun. : b. 1839; place not given; s. Daniel R. ; boot- 
maker: en. July 1, '61, and m. 3; 3 y. R. 3, Co. M, pri.; trans. Nov. 14, '61, to 
R. 29. Co. B: ft. in the 7 ds. fight; dis. Dec. 4, '62, Camp Falmouth, Va., by 
reason of foreign substance in his knee-joint. 

Johnson, Charles W. : b. Med way, Mass., Feb. 4, 1837; s. Warren and 
Eliza; bootmaker; en. Apl. 19, '61, ami m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, 
corpl. ; prom, sergt. Jan. 1, '63; ft. Williamsburg, North Anna, Spottsylvania, 
and Fred'sburg; wd. in the last-named battle; dis. June 26, '64. exp. ser. 

Johnson, Alva L. : b. Nortbbridge, Mass., June 20, 1842; s. Daniel R. and 
Lutheria A. ; bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; 
ft. at Yorktown, Williamsburg, Bolton Bridge, and Fair Oaks; k. Malvern Hill, 
July 1, '62. 

Johnson, William: b. 1837; place and ptge. not given; tailor; drafted 
Aug. 27, '63; 3 y. R, 22. Co. F; deserted Nov. 27. '63. 

Johnson, Nicholas B. : b. 1S42; place not given ; s. Nicholas W. ; butcher; 
en. Aug. 24, '01, and in. 20; 3 y. R. 18, Co. I. pri.; dis. Sept. 2, '64, exp. ser. 

Johnson. Francis A.: b. Franklin, Ma>s., Mar. 22, 182S; s. Warren and 
Eliza; bootmaker; once already entered above in a former ser.; en. and m. 
again Nov. 25, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, capt.; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

Jones, Edward B. : b. Winthrop, Me., 1844; s. Edward and Roxana; 
fanner; appears to have ser. somewhere under a former en.; en. Mil., Nov. 19, 
'64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, 
close of war. 

Jonks, Patrick: b. Ird., Sept., 1S40; s. Patrick and Catherine; bootmaker; 
en. and in. Aug. 4, '02; 3 y. R. 9, Co. C, pri.; ft. 2d Bull Run, So. Mountain, 
Shepardstown, 1st Fred'sburg, Chancellorsville. Gettysburg, Wilderness, Cul- 
peper, Bristow's Station, Mine Run, Laurel Hill, and Spottsylvania; at last- 
named place, wd. across le f t kidney by a miuie-ball; dis. June 21, '64, Boston, 
Mass., exp. ser. 

Jones, George C. : b. Mil, Mass., May 15, 1S30; s. John and Malinda; 
farmer; en. Aug. 14, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. C, pri.; trans. May 31, '04, 
to Vet. Res. Corps. 

Jones, Theodore: b. 1840; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Aug. 
0, '02, and in. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri. ; dis. June £, '65, exp. ser. 





-o 



WAR RECORD. 159 

Jordan, Michael: b. Ird., 1835; ptge. not given ; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 0, Co. H, pri. : d. from fatigue, June 1, '02. 

Jourdan, John: b. Co. Cork, lid., 1839; s. Daniel and Ellen; bootmaker; 
en. Dec. 28, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '04; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; wd. in leg near 
ankle, and dis. June 14, '05, order War Dept. 

Jourdan, James: b. Ird., about 1S32; s. Daniel and Ellen; bootmaker; en. 
and m. July 25, '63 (as substitute for William Jourdan), 3 y. R. 12, Co. F, pri.; 
k. Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, '64. 

Kane, John, alias Cain: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S36; s. Micbael and Margaret; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '01: 3 y. R. 9. Co. H. pri.; ft. Hanover Ct. 
House, Fair Oaks, Gaines's Mill, White-oak Swamp, and Malvern Hill; wd. at 
last-named, in left arm and side; dis. Nov. 9, '02, on acct. of bis wds., at Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

Kane, Edward: b. Ird., 1842; ptge. not given: bootmaker: en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '01 ; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; dis. June 11, '04 to re-en. ; which he did 
next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co. ; he seems to have been on the quota Rox- 
bury, Mass. ; dis. July 29, '65, exp. ser. 

Kane, Pathick: b. Ird., 1821; s. Thomas and Penella; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Dec. 13, '01; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; d. hospl., Alexandria, Va., chron. diar- 
rhoea, Dec. 9 or 12, '02. 

Kane, Timothy: b. Co. Galway, Ird., Mar. 20, 1S37; s. Patrick and Cathe- 
rine; tailor; en. Oct. 14, '61, and m. Dec. 13; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K. pri.; ft. James 
Island, 2d Bull Run, Chantilly, So. Mountain, and Fred'sburg; dis. Jan. 14, ^2, 
hospl., Washington, D.C, disability. Drafted Aug. 28, '03, R. 22. Co. F; trans. 
R. 32, infty., Co. I., Oct. 26, '64; deserted Nov. 3 ensuing. 

Kaijiilen, William: b. 1S42; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and ra. July 22, '61; 3 y. R. 17, Co. H, pri. ; no further known. 

Kay, John: b. 1S22; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. July 2S, '64; 3 
y. R. 28, Co. A, pri. ; d. Apl. 29, '65, Washington, D.C. 

Kean, John: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S37; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. Nov. 9, '62, disability. 

Kearxs. Peter: b. Co. Leitrim. Ird., 1S37: s. Owen and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Dec. 5, '63; 3 y. R. 57, Co. H, a recruit, pri.; no further known. 

Keating, Cornelius: b. Ird., 1S43; ptge. not given; tailor; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, drummer; dis. Dec. 19, '04. exp. ser. 

Keating, Michael: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1S43; ptge. not given; painter; en. 
Sept. 7. '61. and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke Island, New- 
bern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green Swamp; dis. 
Jan. 2. '04, at Newport News, Va., to re-en. ; which he did same day, for 3 y., in 
same R. an«r*Co. Trans. Sept. IS, '04, Vet. Res. Corps. 

Keefe, Michael: b. Ird., 1839; ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. June 20, 
'63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, cavalry; dis. July 20, '65, exp. ser. 

Keenan, John: b. 1843; place, ptge., etc., not given; bootmaker; en. July 
26, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 30, Co. F, pri.; k. June 3, '64, Cold Harbor, Va. 
Keenan, Hugh: b. Ayrshire, Scot., about 1824; s. Hugh and Alice; marble- 
worker; en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; d. Fort Schuyler 
Hospl., Feb. 11, '63, of dropsy. 

Keenan, Martin: b. Ayrshire, Scot., 1820; s. Hugh and Alice; tailor; en. 
Aug. 2S, '63, and m. Oct. 5; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; m. out with Co., 
close of war, Sept. 3, '65. 

Keen, Augustus W-: b. Taunton, Mass., Mar. 19, 1S40; s. Seth H. and Isa- 



160 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

bella; painter; en. June "27, '61, and m. same day; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; 
prom, corpl., June 1, '62; sergt., Dec. 1, '62; 2d lieut., Feb. 23, '63; 1st lieut., 
Aug. 17, '63; capt. Co. H, 40 N.Y. R.. Oct. 7, '64; major of that R., Dec. 30, '64; 
and brevet-major U.S.V., Apl. 6, '65; ft. in all the engagements of R., except 
Chanceilorsville: wd. Fred'sburg, Ya., Dec. 13, "63, by musket-ball through left 
hip, and also by musket-ball through left arm; wd. twice at Spottsylvania Ct. 
House, May 12, '64, by musket-balls, left foot and in head. Dis., New York, 
July 7, '65, close of war. 

Keliher. John: b. Ird., 1S3S; s. Thomas and Mary; en. and m. Jan. 1, '64; 
3 y. R. 57, no Co. given, pri. ; nothing more told. 

Keliher, William J.: b. 1842; place, ptge.. etc., not given; en. and ra. 
July 22, '61; 3 y. R. 17, Co. H, pri.; dis. Dec. 24, '63. to re-en.; which he did 
next day, for 3 y., in same R and Co., corpl.; dis. from Co. E, July 11, '65, 
exp. ser. 

Kellet, Marcus: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., 183S; s. Thomas and Hannah; boot- 
maker; en. Dec. 4, '63, and m. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H. H. Artil., a recruit, pri.; 
taken prisoner at Plymouth, N.C. ; d. Andersonville Prison, Ga., Sept., '64, of 
scurvy, chron. d., and dropsy. 

Kelly, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S36; ptge. not given; en. and m. June 11, '61; 
3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; deserted July 1, '63. 

Kelly, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S38; ptge, etc., not given; en. July 26. '61, and 
m. Aug. 28: 3 y. R. 10. Co. F, pri.; dis. Aug. 24, '62, to enlist in U.S. Army. 

Kelly. James: b. Ird., 1S33; s. Thomas and Winneford; laborer; en. July 
26, '61, and m. Aug. 2S; 3 y. R. 10, Co. F. pri.; with his Co. in all engagements, 
till taken prisoner at Malvern Hill; confined Richmond, Va.. 6 weeks; then 
escaped, went to hospl., N.Y., and was thence dis. Dec. 23, '62. disability. 

Kelley, Patrick: b. Ird., about 1839; ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Sept, 7, '64; 3 y. R 2, Co. A, H. Artil., pri.; trans. Dec. 16, '64, to R. 17, infty., 
Co. H; dis. June 30, '65, order War Dept. 

Kelley, Andrew: b. 1845; ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 
100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16. '64, exp. ser. 

Kelly, Patrick J.: b. 1S38; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
28, '61; 3 y. R. 19, Co. D, pri. ; dis. Feb. 28, '63, disability. 

Kemp, George H.: b. 1S35; place, ptge., etc.. not given; en. and m. Aug. 
20, '64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

Kendall, George L. : b. Med way, Mass., June 10, 183S; s. Lyman and 
Nancy; butcher; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; ft. 
with his Co. Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Chantilly, 1st Fred'sburg, 
Chanceilorsville. Wiltons, No. Anna River, and Petersburg; dis. with his com- 
rades, June 27, '64, front Petersburg, exp. ser. 

Kennedy, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., Mar. 14, 1823; s. Michael and 
Margaret; bootmaker; en. Oct. 11, '61, and m. Dec. 13; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; 
ft. James Island, Chantilly, and Antietam; dis. Dec. 3, '62, Union Hospl., 
Georgetown, disability. 

Kennedy, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S32; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; nothing further recorded. 

Kennedy, Patrick: b. Ird., 1828; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Aug. 13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri. ; never left the State. 

Kennedy, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S27; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; dis. Dec. 1, '62, disability. 

Kenney, Thomas T. : b. Ird., 1835; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R 28, Co. K, pri. ; d. of wds., Sept. 17, '62. 



WAR RECORD. 161 

Kexxey, Patrick: b. Ird., 1841; ptge., etc.. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. Jan. 3, '02; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; dis. Jan. 1. '64, to re-en.; which he 
did the next day, for 3 y., in same R. and Co., corpl.; k., May 12, '64, battle 
Spottsylvania, Va. 

Kexxey, John: b. Ird., ISIS; s. Ann; bootmaker; en. and m. Oct. 5, '63; 3 
y. R. 2. Co. E. H. Artil.. pri.; dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Kimball, Israel D. : b. Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 5, 1S3S; s. Alfred and 
Margery: currier; en. Apl. 19, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, 
pri.; prom, corpl. Oct. 25, '62, and sergt. May 10, '63; ft. Yorktown, Williams- 
burg, Fair Oaks, Robinson's Fields, Charles City Cross Roads. Malvern Hill, 2d. 
Bull Run, Chantilly, 1st Fred'sburg, Chancellorsville. Gettysburg, Kelley's 
Ford, and Locust Grove; dis. June 27, '64, exp. ser. En. and m. again, Aug. 
25, '64, 3 y., Vet. Res. Corps; dis. Nov. 20, '65, exp. ser. 

Kxight, George W. : b. Uxbridge, Mass., Feb. 20. 1S41; s. William and 
Minerva W. ; machinist; en. and m. Sept. 1, '64: 1 y. R. 2, H. Artil., pri.; trans. 
Feb., '65, to R. 17, Co. G. ; detailed for hospl. ser., Newbern, N.C. ; dis. June 30, 
'65. 

Kxight, James F. : b. Manchester, Mass., 1S35: ptge. not given; upholsterer; 
en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, corpl. ; dis. Jan. 3, '63, disa- 
bility. 

Kxowles, Charles W. : b. Norton, Mass., May 19, 1828; s. William and. 
Almira; carpenter; en. and m. June 15, '61; 3y. R. 7, Co. H, pri.; prom, corpl. 
and then color-sergt. ; ft. in all the battles of his R. except Antietam; m. out 
with the R., June 27, '64. 

Kxowltox, William H. : b. Dover, Apl. 13, 1843; s. Henry and Angeline 
B. ; butcher; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, uuattached, pri.; dis. 
Boston Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war. 

Krum, Sylvester P.: b. Ghent, N.Y., 1826; s. Martin and Margaret; sta- 
tionary engineer; en. Sept. 9, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, sergt.; ft. 
Roanoke Island, and Newbern, N.C. ; dis. July 11, '63, disability. 

Lahet, Patrick: b. Ird., 1836; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
July 20, '61; 3 y. R. 20, Co. F, pri.; dis. Oct. 24, '62, Fortress Monroe, Va., 
disability. Again en. and m. Sept. 17, '64; 3 y. R. 10. Co. H. Vet. Res. Corps, 
pri. ; dis. Nov. 15, '65, Washington, D.C., close of war. 

Lahet, Michael: b. Ird., 1828; ptge., etc., not given ; en. and m. Mar. 14, 
'65; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, cavalry, pri. ; dis. July 20, '65, close of war. 

Lally, Michael: b. Co. Kings, Ird., 1843; s. Michael and Ann; bootmaker; 
en. Feb. 4, '64, and m. 26; 3 y. R. 57, Co. I, pri.; dis. July 30, '65, absent sick, 
exp. ser. 

Laxey, James: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S20; s. John and Bridget; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Mar. 14, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri. ; nothing further recorded. 

Laxergax, Albert: b. 1844; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Dec. 
22, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. K, H. Artil., pri.; dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Lapuam, James M. : b. 1827; place and ptge. not given; farmer; en. Aug. 
7, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; dis. July 8, '65, Baltimore, Md., by 
Gen. Order. 

Laport, Louts: b. 1843; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 23, 
'64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 26, '65, exp. ser. 

Larkix, Michael: b. Ird., 1843; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 26, 
'61, and in. Aug. 28; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri. ; dis. Dec. 31, '62, disability. 

Larkix, Patrick: b. Ird., 1843; s. Martin and Catherine; bootmaker; en. 



162 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

and m. June 21, *G1 ; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; k. Fair Oaks, June 1, "62; in 
all the battles of R. till k. 

Lavix, Michael: b. Ird., about 1S41; ptge. not given; bootmaker: en. and 
m. Sept. 1, '61: 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; ft. James Island, June, '62; Bull Run, 
Aug. 30, '62, and wd. by musket-ball through left wrist; dis. Oct. 31, '62, on 
acct. wd. 

Laavtox. Thomas B. : b. 1S3T; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 
25, '04; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

Legesey, Joseph: b. Montreal, Can., 1838; s. Louis and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. June 9, '62, and m. July 13; 3 y. R. 34, Co. E, pri.; dis. Dec. 20, '62, disa- 
bility. Re-en. Mar. 30, '64; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; trans. June 25, '65, to R. 56, 
infty. ; dis. June 22, '65, order War Dept. 

Legg, Edwix: b. Douglas, Mass., June 17. 1S37; s. Caleb and Lydia; boot- 
maker; en. July 22, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, 1st sergt.; dis. Jan. 
7, '63, disability. Re-en. and in. Aug. 25, '63; 3 y. R*. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., 2d 
lieut. ; dis. Sept., '64, disability. 

Leines, Dexxis: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S19; s. William and Ann; laborer; 
en. Dec. 6, 'G3, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 67, Co. B, pri.; dis. June 28, '65, 
Gen. Hospl., Phila., close of war. 

Lelaxd, Fraxcis: b. Sherborn, Mass., Dec. 26, ISIS; s. Joseph P. and Try- 
phena; physician; en. and in. Oct. 11, '61; 3 y. R. 2, surgeon; taken prisoner 
during Banks's retreat, June, '62; wd. in bat. of Cedar Mountain, over left eye, 
Aug. 9, '62; at Antietam the following Sept., after which taken sick and res.; 
honorably dis. Oct. 24, '62. 

Leoxard, Newtox: b. Woodstock, Vt., 1831; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. Nov. 27, '63, and m. Dec. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., recruit, pri. ; dis. 
July 13, '65, disability. 

Leoxard, Lawrexce: b. Ird., 1S33; s. Thomas and Catherine; bootmaker; 
en. and m. May 25, '61; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri.; d. Winchester, Va., Apl. 4, '62, 
of wds. reed, in battle. 

Leoxard, Reubex F. : b. Douglas, Mass., 1836; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. Sept. 5, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; prom, corpl. Oct. 15, '61; 
ft. in Pioneer Corps, Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Golds- 
boro', Deep Gully, and Green Swamp, N.C. ; dis. Jan. 18, '64, to re-en. 

Leoxard, Johx, jun. : b. Boston, Mass., Sept. 3. 1842; s. John and Ann; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Feb. 25, '64; 3 y. R. 59, Co. G, pri.; ft. Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, Laurel Hill, Poplar Grove, Fort Stedman; wd. in mouth by piece 
of shell; prom. March 4, '64, corpl., and to sergt., Jan. 1, '65; detailed hospl. 
guard, May, '64, and returned to R. about Sept. ; dis. May 18, '65. 

Leoxard, James B. : b. Middleborough, Mass., 1S41 ; s. Daniel F. and Har- 
riet; clerk; en. and m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, 1st sergt.; dis. 
Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Leseur, William R.: b. Mil., Mass., May 18, 1844; s. William and Clarissa; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Feb. 29, '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. A, pri.; ft. Drury's Bluff, 
Cobb's Hill, and Cold Harbor; taken prisoner at the last-named place, June 3, 
'64, and paroled at Savannah, Ga., Nov. 24, '64; dis. June, 29, '64, order War 
Dept. 

Lewis, Charles A.: b. Uxbridge, Mass., Dec. 12, 1835; s. William H. and 
Lydia; carpenter; en. Sept. 9, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. 
Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, and Green Swamp, N.C; dis. 
Jan. 18, '64, to re-en. ; which he did same day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., pri. ; 



WAR RECORD. 163 

ft. again at Pocahontas, Havefield Church, Drury's Bluff, and siege Peters- 
burg, Ya. ; dis. Charlotte, N.C., July 13, '65, close of war. 

Leyden, Johx: b. Co. Sligo, Ird., about 1S17; s. Hugh and Bridget; boot- 
maker: en. July 23, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; dis. July 8, '65, 
Baltimore, Md., order War Dept. 

Lindop, William B. : b. 1S30; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
Aug. 14, '62, and m. 15; 3 y. R. 1, Co. H, cavalry recruit, pri.; dis. June 10, 
'63, disability. 

Lindsay, Perry Allen: b. Upton, Mass., Nov. 22, 1839; s. William and 
Augusta S.; clerk; en. Mar. '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, 
capt. ; prom, maj., Aug. 12, '62, and lieut.-col., Feb. 23, '63; ft. Fair Oaks, June, 
'62, 7 ds. fight, Charles City Cross Roads, Malvern Hill, Harrison's Landing, 
Manassas Junction, Manassas Plain, Chantilly, and Fred'sburg, all in '62; 
dis. July 7, '63, disability. 

Little, Benjamin F. : b. 1S37; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 
25, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

Littlefield, Ammiel: b. Hopkinton, Mass., Apl. 7, 1826; s. Daniel and 
Lucy; stone-cutter; en. Aug. 6, '02, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, corpl. ; ft. 
Fred'sburg, Ya., and Jackson, Miss.; in hospl. Crab Orchard. Ky., about six 
mo. ; ft. again Wilderness, May 6, and then at Spottsylvania, where he was wd. 
by a ball through right ear; ft. again Poplar Grove Church, Sept. 30, '64; 
prom, sergt. May 16, '65; dis. June 8, '65, near Alexandria, Ya., close of war. 

Littlefield, Albert E. : b. Mil., Mass., Aug. 23, 1S42; s. Abel and Mary; 
farmer; en. Sept. 12, '61, and in. Oct. 15; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke 
Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green 
Swamp, N.C. ; dis. Dec. 1, '63, at Newport News, Ya., to re-en.; which he did 
same day, for 3 y. in same R and Co., pri. ; d. of wds. reed, in battle, June 6, 
'64, at Hampton, Ya. 

Littlewood, Frank A.: b. 1S42, place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
May 20, '63, and m. June 6; 3 y. R. 1, Battalion H, artil., Co. D, sergt.; retd. 
Oct. 13, '64, to R. 2, I.Y., as a deserter. 

Long, Thomas: b. Co. Sligo, Ird., Dec, 1844; s. Dominic and Honora; boot- 
maker; en. Feb. 11, '64, and m. 20; 3 y. R. 59, Co. F, pri. ; no further record. 

Looby, Michael: b. Ird., 1S37; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
July 30, '62; 3 y. R. 1, cavalry recruit, pri.; deserted Camp Cameron, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Aug., '63, and enlisted in a N.Y. R. 

Lothrop, Francis: b. 1843; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 
16, '61 ; 3 y. R. 26, Co. K, pri. ; dis. July 29, '63, disability. 

Lowe, Michael: b. Ird., 1833; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 
13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; dis. Mar. 20, '63, disability. 

Lowkry, Patrick: b. Co. Mayo, Ird., 1839; s. Patrick and Catherine; boot- 
maker; en. June, '61. and m. Dec. 13; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; ft. James Island, 
Culpeper, 2d Bull Run, Chantilly, then shot through left leg below knee; dis. 
Dec. 11, '62, Washington, D.C., disability; en. again and m. Nov. 21, '64; 
Invalid Corps, Wash., D.C., dis. June 1, '65. 

Luddy, Simon: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1841; ptge. not given; bootmaker, en. and 
m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; trans, to Invalid Corps on acct. 
wds. at Charles-City Cross Roads, and d. '65, of his wds. 

Lynes, Michael: b. Ird., 1840; s. Fergus and Mary; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Aug. 6, '61 ; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri. ; dis. Jan. 11. '64, disability. 

Lymes, Martin: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., 1S43; s. Fergus and Mary; bootmaker 
en. and m. Aug. 6, '61; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri.; nothing more. 



164 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Lyox. Johx: b. Co. Galway, Ird., Aug., 1837; s. Dennis and Catherine; boot- 
maker; en. and in. Nov. 16, '62; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. I, sergt. ; d. in hospl., Baton 
Rouge, La., Apl. 11, '63. 

McAxaxy, Johx: b. Co. Monaghan, Ird., 1836; s. Orson and Charlotte; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; ft. 1st Bull Run; dis. 
Oct. 29, '61, near Fall's Church, Va., varicose veins. 

McAxary, James: b. 1836; place, ptge., etc., not given ; en. and in. Aug. 7, 
'61 ; 3 y. R. 19, unassigned, pri. ; nothing more told. 

McArdle, Johx: b. Ird., 1S30; s. Culla and Ann; marble-cutter; en. Aug. 
7, '62, and m. 11; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; dis. Mar. 18, '63, disability. 

McCarter. Johx G. : b. Jackson, N.H., Jan. 2, 1835; s. Robert and Sophia; 
carpenter; en. Sept. 5, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, 1st sergt. ; prom. 2d 
lieut. Apl. 15, '62, 1st lieut. Nov. 4, '62; ft. Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, 
Whitehall, Goldsboro", Old Town Creek, Drury's Bluff, Cold Harbor, and Peters- 
burg; never wd. ; m. out Oct. 20, '64, exp. ser. 

McCarthy, Johx: b. Cork, Ird., Dec. 12, 1846; s. Daniel and Margaret; 
bootmaker; en. in naval ser. Feb. 23, '64, seaman, with consent of Patrick 
McGarry, his guardian; no more told. 

McCarty, Dexnis: b. 1S44; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 
24, '62, and ra. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; dis. June 8, '65, exp. ser. 

McCarty, Patrick: b. Ird., 1840; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

McCormick, Timothy: b. Co. Kilkenny, Ird., 1829; s. Timothy and Mar- 
garet; painter; en. and m. Dec. 23, '61 ; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; ft. James Island, 
2d Bull Run, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, and Petersburg; wd. Bull 
Run, through muscle right arm; m. out Dec. 19, '64. Boston, Mass. 

McCowax, James: b. Ird., 1S30; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Oct. 5, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, corpl. ; d. Oct. 5, '64, Beaufort, N\C. 

McDermott, Johx: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., July, 1815; s. Michael and Jane; 
laborer; en. Nov. 21, '63, and m. Dec. 9; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, pri. ; ft. at Plymouth, 
N.C. ; taken prisoner to Andersonville, Ga., where he d. of starvation, Aug. 
17, '64. 

McDermott, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1820; s. Francis and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Feb. 23, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. E, pri.; no more recorded. 

McDoxald, Michael: b. Ird., 1825; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Oct. 18, '62; 9 mo. R. 4S, Co. I, pri. ; never joined R. ; held by civil authority. 

McDoxald, Daxiel: b. Prince Edward's, Can., 1835; s. Charles and Sarah 
Jane; bootmaker; en. Dec. 7, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64 ; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; 
prom, corpl., and k. battle Wilderness, May 6, '64. 

McDoxald, Johx: b. Co. Queens, Ird., about 1825; s. James and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Jan. 10, '60; 5 y. R. 1, Co. H, U.S. Infty., pri.; ft. on 
the Mississippi River, at New Madrid, Island No. 10, Purdy, Farmington, and 
Corinth, all in '62; also at Black River and Vicksburg, '63; dis. Nov. 9, '63, St. 
Louis, on acct. fracture left tibia by falling from an ammunition-wagon. 

McDoxald, Johx: b. 1S34; place, ptge., etc., not given ; en. and m. Aug. 18, 
'64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

McEphraim, James: b. Co. Donegal, Ird., 1830; s. Daniel and Bridget; 
laborer; en. Dec. 3, '63, and m. 11; 3 y. R. 2, Co. I, pri. ; d. Newbern, NX., yel- 
low fever, Oct. 21, '64. 

McGahey, Patrick: b. Monaghan, Ird., 1839; s. Owen and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. in naval ser. Jan. 26, '64, landsman, on board "The Osceola;" ft. in 



WAR RECORD. 165 

battle of Fort Fisher; dis. in 1 v., exp. ser. ; he had previously served under a 
3 y. en. for Blackstone, from July 5, '61, in R. 15, Co. K, 23 mo., but was dis. 
therefrom for disability. 

McGee, Martin*: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 
13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, corpl.; deserted Aug. 22, '62. 

McGloxe, Hugh: b. Ird., 1S40; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11. '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. A, pri. ; k. battle Malvern Hill, July 1, '62. 

McGlone, Charles: b. Ird., 1835; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. A, pri. ; dis. Feb. 24, '63, disability. 

McGoxagle, Philip: b. Ird., 1842; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Sept. 30, 
and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, corpl.; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en. ; which 
he did next day, for 3 y., in same R. and Co.. corpl. ; dis. June 30, '65, exp. ser. 

McGovern, James: b. Holliston, Mass., Oct. 11, 1840; s. Edward and Sarah ; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; wd. in leg, battle 
Gaines's Mill; taken prisoner to Richmond for about 5 weeks; released and 
conveyed to hospital, Newport News, where he had leg amputated, but died in 
consequence, Aug. 7, '62. 

McGowan, James: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. II, pri.; dis. Mar. 25, '63, disability. 

McGrath, John: b. Ird., 1843; ptge. not given; laborer; en. and m. Oct. 5, 
'63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri. ; dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

McGuire, Patrick: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 15, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, corpl.; dis. Feb. 2S, '63, disability. 

McGulleon, Patrick: b. 1S41; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, corpl. ; dis. June 21, '04, exp. ser. 

McHenry, Daniel: b. Co. Derry, Ird., 1820; s. Patrick and Sarah; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Mar. 12, '64; 3 y. R. 16, no Co. named, pri.; nothing more 
told. 

McKeague, Patrick: b. Co. Cork, Ird., about 1820; 8. Francis and Bridget; 
bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 
27, '65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

McKeague, Martin: b. Ird., about 1844; s. Patrick; bootmaker; en. Nov. 
19, '64, and ra. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattacbed, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

McKenna, James: b. Ird., 1831; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. : trans, to Invalid Corps, Sept. 7, '63; m. into 
Hancock's U. S. Vet. Vol. Corps, Mar. 16, '65. 

McKenna, Owen: b. Ird., 1S39; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Aug. 11, '62; 3 y. R. 28, Co. not named, pri.; nothing more recorded. 

McMahan, Michael B. : b. Ird., 1840; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. Mar. 1, '62, disability. 

McKjm, Patrick; b. Ird., 1S40; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 
13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; deserted Oct. 29, '62. 

McNally, or Ennally, James: b. Ird., about 1836; s. Susan; bootmaker; 
en. Aug. 6, '61. and m. 2S; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri.; dis. Feb. 7, '63, disability. 

McNeil, James: b. Ird., 1842; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 11, '64, exp. ser. 

McTeague, Dominic: b. Mil., Mass., Mar. 14, 1844; s. Simon and Caroline; 
farmer; drafted, and then en. July 30, '63; 3 y. R. 19, Co. A, pri.; ft. in 17 
battles; wd. Malvern Hill in right foot; trans. Jan. 14, '64, to R. 20, Co. A; d. 
hospital, Alexandria, Va., June 27, '64. 

McTeague, James: b. Mil., Mass., 1845: s. Simon and Caroline; farmer; 
en. and m. Oct. 5, '63; 3 y. R. 2, H. Artil., Co. E, corpl. ; dis. June 24, '65, exp. ser. 



166 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Mact, Edward B. : b. Nantucket, Mass., Aug. 25, 1843; 9. Frederick C. and 
Lydia B. ; clerk; en. Aug. 9, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. B. 36, Co. F, pri. ; ft. Fred's- 
burg, Va., '62, and Jackson, Miss., '63; dis. Nov. 23, '63, disability. 

Maddex, Amos L. : b. Mil., Mass., Feb. 2, 1846; s. Africa aud Triphena; 
farmer; en. May 21. '61, and m. 25; 3 y. B. 2, Co. G, pri. ; ft. Winchester, Va., 
May 25. '62; Cedar Mountain, Aug. Oensuing; Cbancellorsville. May 3, '63; also 
same year Beverly Ford and Gettysburg; prom, corpl., July 3, '63; wd. in neck 
at Cedar Mountain, and in stomacb by a ball at Cbancellorsville; ft. again at 
Besaca, Ga., May 14, '64; m. out at Chattanooga, May 2S, '64. 

Maddex, Henry N. : b. Mina, N.Y., Nov. 29, 1839; s. Asia and Sally; farmer; 
en. Sept. 17, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. E. 25, Co. B, pri. ; ft. Boanoke Island and 
Newbern, N.C. ; dis. at Newbern, Mar. 12, '63, disability. 

Maddex, Patrick: b. 1845; place not given; s. James, farmer; en. and m. 
Oct. 5, "63; 3 y. B. 1. Co. D. H. Artil., pri.; dis. Oct. 5, '64, exp. ser. 

Magee, Michael: b. Ird., 1S34; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 26, 
'61, and m. same day; 3 y. B. 19, Co. E. pri.; dis. Dec. 24, '62, disability. En. 
again Sept. 5, '63, and m. Oct. 5; 3 y. B. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. Sept. 3, 
'65, Mnithville, X. O, close of war. 

Magrath, John: b. Ird., 1835; ptge., etc., not given; en. and in. Feb. 2, '64; 
3 y. B. 2, Cavalry, no Co. named, pri. ; notbing further given. 

Mahax, Walter: b. 1836; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. July 13, '62: 3 y. E. 34, Co. E, pri. ; d. Cumberland, Md., Aug. 24, '64. 

Mahax, Patrick: b. Co. Gahvay, Ird., 182S; 9. Patrick and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. Dec. 2S, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. E. 57, no Co. named, pri.; dig. 
June 29, '64, rejected recruit. 

Maloxy, Owex: b. Ird., 182S; ptge. not given: machinist; en. and m. Oct. 
18, '62; 9 m. E. 55, M.V.M., Co. C, pri.; trans, to E. 4S, and dis. before the E. 
went to war. En. and m. again Aug. 22, '63; 3 y. E. 2, Co. D, H. Artil., pri. ; 
dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Maxx, No yes, jun. : b. Sherborn, Mass., June 9, 1S33; s. Noyes and Louisa; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. E. 36, Co. F, pri.; prom, corpl., 
Feb. 1, '63; ft. Fred'sburg, Va., '62, and Jackson, Miss., '63; d. Knoxville, 
Tenn., April 27, '64. 

Maxx, Albert 0.: b. 1S46; place, ptge.. etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Maxly, Charles: b. Little Corapton, E. I., Oct. 20, 1S41 ; s. William and 
Abby; seaman; after a previous ser. forhis native town, en. Nov. 19, '64, here, 
and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, close 
of war. 

Markix, Thomas: b. 1S40; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 
24, '02, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. E. 30, Co. F, pri. ; dis. June S, '65, exp. ser. 

Marrs, Francis: b. 1830; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 30, 
'64; 3 y. E. 2, Co. D, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 26, '65, exp. ser. 

Marshall, George H. : b. Hopkinton, Mass., 1835; ptge. not given; boot- 
maker; en. Sept. 14, '61, aud m. Oct. 7; 3 y. E. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Boanoke 
Island and Newbern, N. C. ; dis. Newbern, Mar. 12, '63, disability. 

Marshall, Edward M. : b. Nantucket, Mass., July 27, 1827; s. Obed and 
Eunice; jeweller; en. April, '61, and m. June 21 ; 3 y. fi. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; 
prom, corpl. July 1, '01 , quartermaster's sergt. Nov. 1. '62, 1st lieut. and qr.-mr. 
Aug. 17, '63; dis. Petersburg. Va., Sept. 1, '64, disability. 

Marshall, Horatio P.: b. 1830; place and ptge. not given; mechanic; en. 
and m. Sept. 13, '62; 9 mo. E. 42, Co. F. pri. ; dis. Aug. 20, '63, exp. ser. 



WAR RECORD. 167 

Martin, William G. : b. Co. Waterford, Ird., June 20, 1840; s. Joseph and 
Man-; bootmaker; en. July 31, '62, and ra. Aug. 1 ; 3 y. R. 1 Cavalry, Co. D, 
pri. ; ft. Fred'sburg, Va., Dec, 'G2; dis. Jan. 22, '63, disability. En. again 
Mar. 11, '04, and m. April 6; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; ft. Wilderness and Spott- 
sylvania Cross Roads; wd. May 12, '05. by two balls through left hand, piece of 
shell in right side, and by a ball in right side of breast, all during same day; 
dis. July 24, '65. 

Mason, James M. : b. 1S3S; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker: en. and 
in. Aug. 1, '61; 3 y. R. 16, Co. B, capt. ; resigned and dis. July 5, '62. En. 
again Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, capt.: dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Mason, George H. : b. Mil., Mass., June 27, 1S3S; s. Noah and Cynthia; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; prom, corpl. 
Nov. 23, '62; wd. Fred'sburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; dis. June 27, '64, exp. ser. 

Mason, John Q. : b. Mendon, Mass., April 13, 1S23; s. John and Martha; 
farmer; en. Sept. 16, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25. Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke 
Island, Newbern, Whitehall, Kinston, and Goldsboro', N. C, all in '62. En. 
again Jan. 18, '64; 3 y. in same R. and Co., pri. ; ft. Cold Harbor, Cobb's Hill, 
and Drury's Bluff; dis. June 6, '65, hospital, Newbern, N. C, disability. 

Mather, Samuel A. : b. Winstead, Ct., April 2S. 1S2S; s. John and Orvillai; 
bootmaker; en. and m. May 25, '61; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri.; trans, to Invalid 
Corps July 1, '63. En. and m. Aug. 15, "64; 3 y., same R. and Co., pri.; dis. 
June 11, '65, exp. ser. 

Mather, Frederick A. : b. Canaan, Ct., Dec. 6, 1826: s. John and Orvillai; 
en. and m. Aug. 15, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri.; dis. June 11, '65, exp. ser. 

Matthews, Albert E. : b. Co. Kilkenny, Ird., Feb. 14, 1834; s. Rogerson 
and Elizabeth; bootmaker; en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 7; 3 y. R. 1 Cavalry, Co. 
H. pri.; ft. first Fred'sburg '62, and same place again '63, at Chancellorsville, 
Aldie, Kelly's Ford, Gettysburg, Meade's retreat, Oct., '63, Bristol Station, Rap- 
pahannock, and Gordonsville, Nov., '63; at the last-named place wd. in right 
arm by ball; dis. Nov. 11, '64, exp. ser. En. again Dec. 29, '64; 1 y. Battalion 1 
Frontier Cavalry, 2d lieut. ; prom. 1st lieut. April 15, '65; dis. June 30, '65, 
exp. ser. 

Matthews, William H. : b. 1S40; place and ptge. not given ; spinner; drafted 
Aug. 11, '63; 3 y. R. 28, Co. C, pri.; dis. June 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Maynard, George L. : b. Hingham, Mass., April 4, 1842; s. Lyman and 
Elizabeth; bootmaker; en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; dis. 
Nov. 23, '63. Boston, Mass., disability. 

Meade, Frank W. : b. New Bedford, Mass., Oct. 4, 1S46; s. Abraham and 
Mary; clerk; en. Nov. 19, '64, and ra. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. 
Boston Harbor, June 27, '65. close of war. 

Meagher, Francis: b. Ird., 1S40; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri. ; deserted Oct. 29, '62. 

Meekan, Bernard: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S24; s. Bernard and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en Dec. 3, '63, and m. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., recruit, pri. ; 
taken prisoner at battle Plymouth, N. C, and d. of starvation at Andersonville, 
Ga., about middle Aug., '64. 

Melia, Edward: b. Ird., about 1834; ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Oct. 18, '62; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. I, pri. ; deserted Nov. 10, '62. 

Meruill. John G. : b. 1821; place, ptge., etc., nbt given; en. and m. Aug. 
23, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artillery, pri.; dis. June 26, '05, exp. ser. 

Messenger, Daniel E. : b. Mendon, Mass., Jan. 1, 1S26; s. John and Sarah ; 



168 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

machinist; en. Aug. 14. '62, and m. 15; 3 y. R. 1, Co. H, cavalry recruit, pri. ; 
ft. Cross Roads, Md., New Hope Church, Wilderness, with Sheridan to James 
River, at Malvern Hill, Gleudale, Barnes's Station, and on Weldon Railroad; 
dis. Boston, Mass., Nov. 7, '64, exp. ser. 

MiETTE, Oliver: b. 1S38; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Feb. 11, 
'63; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 24, '65, exp. ser. 

Milan, John: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., July, 1833; s. John and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. or deserted Feb. 2, 
'62. En. again Dec. 3, '63, and m. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., recruit, pri.; 
d. in prison, Andersonville, Ga., from starvation, July, '64. 

Milan, Michael: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., 1824; s. John and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Dec. 13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K. pri. ; ft. James Island, Bull Run, Aug. 
30, '62, South Mountain, Antietam, Fred'sburg Dec. 13, '62, Chancellorsville, 
May, '63, and Gettysburg; wd. at last-named place by ball in left leg below the 
knee; dis. June 3, '64, on acct. wds. 

Milan, Thomas: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1819; s. John and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Dec. 13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; ft. in battles above named along 
with his bro. Michael; wd. 5 times in battle Fred'sburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62; in 
hospl. several months; then returned to Milford, where he d. of his wds. Sept. 
22, '65. 

Milon, James: b. 1845; place not given; s. Thomas; shoemaker; en. and 
m. Aug. 22, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. D, H. Artil., pri.; dis. Aug. 24, '65, exp. ser. 

Miller, Michael: b. Ird., 1S24; s. William and Honora; bootmaker; en. 
Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; stationed in Forts Warren 
and Winthrop, Boston Harbor; dis. June 27. '65, close of war. 

Minturn, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1833; s. Thomas and Honora; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Aug. 2S, '61; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri.; ft. Ball's Bluff, Fair 
Oaks, Yorktown, 7 ds. fight, 2d Bull Run, and Antietam; injured right leg be- 
low the knee in the conflict at Antietam; dis. Falmouth, Va., Dec. 10, '62, 
disability. 

Mitchell, Riley: b. 1817; place and ptge. not given; farmer; en. July 21, 
'62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; d. Alexandria, Va., Feb. 11, '63. 

Mitchell, Marcus M. : b. in the State of Maine, 1839; ptge. not given; 
farmer; en. Sept. 28, '62, and in. Oct. 14; 9 mo. R. 51, Co. I, pri.; d. Newbern, 
N.C., Jan. 28, '63. 

Monahan, Bernard: b. Ird., 1835; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. E, pri. ; trans. Aug. 1, '63, to R. 14, Vet. Res. Corps. 
Montague, Benjamin H. : b. Worcester, Mass., May 16, 1831; s. Eliza and 
Theodotia; bootmaker; en. Aug. 5, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, corpl. ; ft. 
1st Fred'sburg, Va., Jackson, and Vicksburg, Miss., Bine Springs, Campbell's, 
and siege of Knoxville, Teiin., Spottsylvania, North Anna, and Cold Harbor, 
Va. ; at C. Harbor, wd. in right arm above elbow, resulting in non-union of the 
bone; prom, sergt. May 31, '63; dis. Mar. 19, '65, Washington, D.C., on acct. of 
his wd. arm. 

Mooher, William: b. Co. Limerick, Ird., 183S; s. John and Bridget; farmer; 
en. Dec. 26, '63, aud m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; dis. July 30, '65, 
exp. ser. 

Mooxey. Dennis: b. Ird., 1835; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri ; dis. Oct. 31. '62, disability. 

Moore, John: b. Co. Roscommon, Ird., Aug. 15, 1845; s. Mark and Ann; 
bootmaker; en. and m. (in Boston, but counted for Mil.) Feb. 2, '64; 3 y. R. 4, 



WAR RECORD. 169 

Co. H, cavalry, pri. ; ft. before Petersburg, Ya., Cbapin's Farm, Deep Bottom, 
2d Fair Oaks, and High Bridge; dis. Nov. 14, '65, near Richmond, Ya., close of 
war. 

Moore. John, jun. : b. 1835; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
Aug. 1, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F. pri. ; dis. June 8, '65, exp. ser. 

Moore, James C. : b. Ird., 1842; ptge. not given; farmer; en. and m. Jan. 
24, '62, pri. ; deserted. 

Moore, John F. : b. Ird., 1840; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Jan. 24, '62; 3 y. R. 15, Co. H, pri. ; deserted. 

Moore, John: b. Ird., 1821; s. John and Margaret; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; ft. James Island, S.C., June 16, '62, and 
Bull Run, Aug. 30, '62, being wd. in leg below knee; dis. Gov. Island, N.Y., 
Mar. 2S, '63, disability. 

Moorehouse, Robert: b. Dublin, Ird., May 31, 1839; s. Henry and Mar- 
garet; carpenter; en. naval ser. on board "Sabine," landsman and musician in 
band; dis. Oct. 4, '62, by Com. Ringgold. 

Morris, John: b. Ird., 1S36; ptge. not given; laborer; en. Oct. 18, '62, and 
m. Nov. 15; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. I, sergt. ; m. out with R. Sept. 3, '63. 

Morris, Charles M. : b. 1841; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. Sept. 13, '62; 9 mo. R. 42, Co. B, pri.; dis. Aug. 20, '63. 

Morrissey, John: b. Ird., 1834; ptge. not {riven; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61 : 3 y. R. 9, Co. F, pri. ; d. of wds., Washington, D.C., Mar. 2, '63. 

Morse, Henry Milton: b. Mil., Mass., Apl. 2, 1843; s. John E. and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Nov. 17, '63; 3 y. R. 1, cavalry, Co. D, pri.; dis. June 
29, '65, exp. ser. This is recorded as his 2d enlistment, but I find not his 1st. 

Morse, Emerson J.: b. Wrenthain, Mass., Sept. 5, 1S39; s. John E. and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Mowry, George F. : b. 1844; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
22, '64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

Mowry, Lewellyn: b. Smithfield, R.I., Dec. 18, 1845; s. Scott S. and Sally; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Mar. 22, '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Drury's Bluff 
and Cold Harbor; at last-named place wd. by a ball over right eye; dis. Dec. 20, 
'64. for disability on acct. of wd. 

Mullen, John: b. Ird., 1S31 ; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11. '01 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; k. May S, '64. 

Mullen, James: b. Ird., 1831; ptge. not given; tailor; en. and m. Dec. 13, 
'61 ; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, sergt. ; deserted Feb. 3, '62. 

Mullen, Thomas: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S43; s. John and Julia; bootmaker; 
(after serving one enlistment for Abington, Mass.) en. for Mil., Feb. 7, '64, and 
m. 9; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; ft. Wilderness, and was wd. by musket-ball through 
left arm; trans. June 10, '64, to R. 32, infty. ; dis. June 29, '65, exp. ser. 

Murphy, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., Jan. 6, 1S30; s. Michael and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 1, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; k. battle 
Wilderness, May 6, '64. 

Murphy, Cornelius: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1845; s. William and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. Dec. 15, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R- 57, Co. A, pri.; k. Peters- 
burg, Va., June 17, '64. 

Murphy, David S. : b. Co. Cork, Ird., Aug. 1, 1845; s. Dennis and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 16, '63, and m. IS; 3 y. R. 1, Light Artil., Battery A, pri. ; 
trans. Mar. 12, '65, to Battery 9, Light Artil. ; ft. Wilderness, Spottsylvania, No. 



170 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Anna, Cold Harbor. Petersburg, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Mt. Jackson, Cedar 
Creek, and capture of Petersburg; never wd. ; dis. June 6, '65, close of war. 

ilURPUY, Jerry: b. Ird., 1S38; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '01; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; k. June 27, '62, at Gaines's Mill, Va. 

Murphy, Thomas: b. Watertown, Mass., 1842; s. Martin and Ann; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. E, pri. ; ft. in every battle of his 
R., and never sick, till k. battle Wilderness, May 5, '64. 

Murphy, Edward; b. Ird., 1S43; ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Dec. 
23, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; dis. June 23, '63, disability. 

Murphy, John: b. Watertown, Mass., June 29, 1S45; s. Martin and Ann; 
bootmaker; en. Feb. 9, '64, and m. 18; 3 y. R. 57, Co. C, pri.; slightly wd. in 
battle of Wilderness; dis. July 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Murphy, Dexxis: b. Ird., 1843; s. Dennis; bootmaker; en. and m. Oct. 5, 
'63 ; 2 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Murphy, Johx: b., time, place, ptge., etc., omitted; en. and m. Oct. 18, 
'62 R. 55, M.V.M., Co. C, pri. ; trans, to R. 48, but never left the State. 

Murphy, Patrick E. : b. Co. Cork, Ird., Nov. 25, 1840; s. Edward and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. not given, sergt. ; 
prom, qr.-mr. sergt. Feb. 26, '62, 2d lieut. Sept. 26, '62, and 1st lieut. Feb. S, '63; 
ft. Hanover Ct. House. Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, Malvern Hill, Chicka- 
hominy, 1st and 2d Fred'sburg, Shepardstown, Chantilly, Bristol Station, Antie- 
tam, and Wilderness; lost his left arm in last-named battle; dis. June 21, '64, 
exp. ser. Recommissioned 2d lieut., July 15, '64, in 1st Batt. Yet. Res. Corps. 

Murray, Johx: b. Ird., 1842; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. May 1, '61, 
and m. June 11 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Murray, Thomas: b. Co. Gahvay, Ird., 1820; s. Patrick and Bridget; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Mar. 14, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri. ; no more told. 

Murray, Fraxcis: b. Co. Galway, lid., May 5, 1825; s. Thomas and Cathe- 
rine; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 7, '63; 3 y. R. 9, Co. not specified, a recruit, 
pri. ; no more told. 

Nelsox, Johx C. : b. Montpelier, Vt., Mar. 6, 1834; s. John and Betsey; 
bootmaker; en. May, '61, and in. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; ft. 
Williamsburg, May 5, '62; dis. Convalescent Camp, Alexandria, Va., Dec. 6, 
'62, disability. En. again July 14, '63; 3 y. R. 2. Co. B, H. Artil., pri.; prom, 
sergt. July 29, '63; ft. before Kinston, N.C., Mar. S and 9, '65; dis. Sept. 3, '65, 
Smithville, N.C., close of war. 

Nelsox, Aloxzo B. : b. Montpelier, Vt., Mar. 2, 1839; s. John and Betsey; 
bootmaker; en. Apl. 19, '61 and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; ft. 
Mine Run, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 7 ds. fight, Chantilly, Fred'sburg, Gettys- 
burg, Kelly's Ford, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, and before Peters- 
burg; taken prisoner and confined in Libby Prison, Va. ; exchanged May 10, '63; 
dis. June 27, '64, exp. ser. 

Neville, William: b. Co. Waterford, Ird., 1819; s. William and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 7, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, recruit, pri.; 
ft. Wilderness, Spottsylvania, No. Anna, Cold Harbor, and in front Petersburg, 
all in '64; wd. badly in left hip before Petersburg, Aug. 9, '64; with R. again 
Apl. 25, '65; m. out July 30, '65, Washington, D.C. 

Newhall, Charles W. : b. Mil., Mass., Oct. 15, 1S44; s. Albert and 
Amanda M. ; photographer; en. Feb. 10, '05, and ra. 11; 1 y. Batt. 1, Co. A, H. 
Artil., bugler; dis. Oct. 20, '65, exp. ser. 

Newhall, Fraxcis: b. Mil., Mass., Feb. 14, 1833; s. Albert and Amanda 



WAR RECORD. 171 

M. ; occ. not given; en. and m. July 14, '64, 100 ds. R. 42, Co. C, pri. ; dis. 
Nov. 11, '04, exp. ser. 

Newton, George B. : b. Mil., Mass., Aug., 1841; s. Benjamin and Lucy A.; 
farmer; en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; dis. June S, '65, 
exp. ser. 

Newton, Levi L. : b. Mil., Mass., Jan. 19, 1835; s. Benjamin and Lucy A.; 
fanner; en. and m. Oct. 18, '62, 9 mo. R. 48, Co. I, pri.; ft. Port Hudson 
Plains, first assault; m. out Sept. 3, '63, exp. ser., Wenbam, Mass. 

Newton, David: b. Rutland, Mass., Aug. 26, 1826; s. Harlow and Betsey; 
bootmaker: en. and m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattacbed, pri.; stationed 
Fort Warren, Mass. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64. exp. ser. 

Nichols, Caleb: b. Cumberland, R.I., July 20, 1834; s. Caleb and Susan; 
bootmaker; en. June 19, '61, and m. 21; 3 y. R 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; ft. Wil- 
liamsburg; injured in back by a strain; detailed for ambulance corps; dis. Fort 
Monroe, Va., Feb. 18, '63, disability. 

Nolan, Patrick: b. Ink, 1837; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, wagoner; prom. 1st lieut. Apl. 10, '63, and capt. 
May 9, '64; k. Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 14, '64. 

Nolan, Luke: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. July 12, 
'61 ; 3 y. R. 15, Co. K, pri. ; trans, to U.S. Army. 

Norcross, Rufus Alonzo: b. 1836; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Aug. 4, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, H. Artil., corpl. ; dis. Jan. 6, '64, disa- 
bility. 

Nugent, Thomas G.; b. Co. Galway, Ird., Mar. 14, 1S32; s. Jobn and Eliza- 
beth ; tailor; en. Aug. 16, '64, and ra. IS; 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., pri.; sta- 
tioned in defence of Washington, D.C. ; dis. at Fort Richardson, Ya., Juue 17, 
'65, close of war. 

O'Brien, John: b. Co. Kilkenny, Ird., 1S41; s. William and Ellen; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. D, corpl.; ft. Georgetown, 
Carneysville, Manassas, Rappahannock, siege Yorktown, Mechanicsville, Bot- 
telier's Mills, 2d Fred'sburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wapping Heights, 
Bristol Station, Hanover Court House, and Gaines's Mill; wd. at last-named 
place in right knee, and taken prisoner; exchanged Aug. 5, '62; ft. again at 
Pope's Bull Run, and Autietam; dis. Dec. 31, '63, Bealton, Va., to re-en. in 
Vet. Vols.; re-en. and m. Dec. 31, '63, for 3 y., as aforesaid, corpl., in which he 
rendered valuable ser.; dis. July 24, '65, Washington, D.C. 

O'Brien, William: b. Ird. ; date and place not given; s. William and Ellen; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 11, '62; 3 y. R. 1, R.I. Cavalry, pri.; no more told. 

O'Connor, David: b. Co. Wexford, Ird., Feb. 12, 1S33; s. John and Ann; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 9, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri. ; ft. Spotts- 
ylvania, and mortally wd. May 11, '64; d. of his wds. next day. 

O'Connor, Patrick: b. Co. Cork, Ird., about 1S34; s. James O. and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. and m. July 21, '61; 3 y. R. 20, Co. A, pri.; ft. Ball's Bluff, 
Fair Oaks, 7 ds. fight, 2d Bull Run, Antietam, 1st Fred'sburg, Gettysburg, 
Wilderness, and Cold Harbor; wd. in last-named battle in head and right shoul- 
der; dis. Aug. 1, '64, Boston, Mass., exp. ser. 

Odleer, Willis H. : b. 1842; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 
4, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 26, '65. exp. ser. 

O'Donald, John: birth, date, place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. '62; 
9 mo. R. 4S, Co. not specified; no more told. 

O'Donnell, John: b. Co. Waterford, Ird., Feb. 10, 1S43; s. Bartholomew 



172 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

and Mary; occ. not given; en. Dec. 1, '63, and ra. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. 
A, pri.; ft. Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Petersburg, Mine Explosion, Weldon 
Railroad, and Poplar Grove Church; wd. Spottsylvania by ball in right arm 
above elbow; dis. July 30, '65, Washington, D.C. 

O'Donnell, Willi am : b. 1843; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
drafted and m. Aug. 14, '63; 3 y. R. 11, Co. G, pri. ; d. Andersonville prison, 
Ga., Oct. 26, '64. 

O'Donnell, Patrick: b. Co. Donegal, Ird., 1829; s. John and Julia; boot- 
maker; en. Feb. 4, '64, and m. 18; 3 y. R. 57, Co. C, pri.; dis. Boston, Mass., 
Dec. 13, '64, disability. 

O'Donnell, George: b. Ird., 1829; ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Mar. 
25, '65; 3 y. R. 2, Co. M, cavalry, pri.; dis. July 20, '65, close of war. 

O'Hara, Patrick: b. 1S24; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Feb. 18, 
'64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. D, pri.; dis. July 13, '65, exp. ser. 

O'Hare, Lawrence: b. Co. Lowth, Ird., Apl. 1, 1835; s. Henry and Mary; 
currier: conscripted Aug. 11, '63; 3 y. R 2S, Co. E, pri.; ft. Bristow's Station, 
Moulton's Ford, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Pamunkey, Cold Harbor, siege 
Petersburg, and Reams's Station; wd. Oct. 17, '64, in right hip by gun-stock; 
dis. July 24, '64, on acct. of his wds. 

O'Keefe, Daniel: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., Oct. 17, 1845; s. Charles and Mar- 
garet; harness-maker; en. Jan. 13, '64, and m. 25; 3 y. R. 57, Co. D, pri.; reed, 
gun-shot wd. in action, and dis. Feb. 20, '65, Fairfax, Va., disability. 

Oliver, Samuel P.: b. Mil., Mass., 1839; s. Abner F. Pond and Mary, but 
adopted s. of Samuel and Hannah [Pond] Oliver; bootmaker; en. July 25, '61, 
and ra. 26; 3 y. R. 20, Co. F, pri. ; dis. July 21, '64, exp. ser. 

O'Neil, Jeremiah: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R 9, Co. H, capt. ; k. in battle Gaines's Mill, June 27, '62. 

O'Neil, Dennis: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1843; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, corpl. ; prom, sergt., date not given; ft. 
Hanover, Mechanicsville, Gaines's Mill, Nelson's Farm, and Malvern Hill; dis. 
Sept. 17, '62, disability. 

O'Neil, John: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given: bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; k. Gaines's Mill, Va., June 27, '62. 

O'Neil, Charles: b. Co. Leitrim, Ird., Dec. 28, 1845; s. Patrick and Ellen; 
sailor; en. and m. Mar. 8, '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. A, pri.; d. in Rebel prison, Aug. 
29, '64. 

O'Shea, Daniel: b. Ird., 1834; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, corpl.; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en. ; which he did 
next day, for 3 y., same R. and Co., sergt.; d. of wd. Aug. 11, '64, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

O'Shea, Maurice: no birth-date, ptge. or occ. given; en. and m. Aug. 11, 
'62; 3 y. R. 1, R. I. Cavalry., pri. ; no more told. 

O'Sullivan, James: b. Co. Cork, Ird., 1844; s. John and Honora; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Aug. 24, '64; 3 y. R. 4, Co. H, Cavalry, pri.; dis. Nov. 14, 
'65, exp. ser. ; counted on the quota for Lawell, Mass. 

Parks, William: b. Co. Leitrim, Ird., Mar., 1837; s. Thomas and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 30, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; dis. 
July 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Parker, Robert: b. 1831; place and ptge. not given; fanner; en. June 22, 
'61, and ra. 26; 3 y. R. 12, Co. D, sergt. ; dis. July 8, '64, exp. ser. 
Parker, George W. : b. Lowell, Yt., Apl. 25, 1843; s. Nathan and Polly; 



WAR RECORD. 173 

farmer; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. Boston 
Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war. 

Parkhurst, Henry N. : b. Mil., Mass., Oct. 21, 1838; s. Oliver B. and Ma- 
ria; clerk; en. Sept. 12. '01, and m. Oct. 7: 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke 
Island and Newbern, N.C.; dis. Dec. 4, '62, disability. 

Pakkhurst, Albion W. : b. Mil., Mass.. Apl. 4, 1842; s. Nelson and Hannah; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; deserted at 
Alexandria, Va., Aug. 23, '62. 

Pakkhurst, Pardon C. : b. Mil., Mass., Mar. 8, 1836; s. Ithiel and Mary C. ; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 21. '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; acting com- 
missary sergt., Baltimore, Md. ; dis. June 27. '64, exp. ser. 

Parkhurst, George O. : b. Mil., Mass., Aug. 4, 1838; s. Oliver B. and 
Maria; bootmaker; en. and ra. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; ft. 
Fred'sburg, Chantilly, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks. Harrison Landing, 2d Bull Run, 
and Gettysburg; wd. at last-named place in forehead, by piece of shell; with 
bis Co. till m. out, July 3, '63. 

Parkhurst, Herbert: b. Mil., Mass., Dec. 2, 1S42; s. Oliver B. and Maria; 
occ. not given; en. and m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, 
'64, exp. ser. 

Pasco, William C. : b. 1846; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
18, '64: 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

Peard, Robert: b. Ird., 1S12; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. June 15, '61, 
and m. 21; 3 y. R. 9, major; prom. It. -col. Oct. 24, '61; d. in Virginia, inflam- 
mation of brain, Jan. 27, '62. 

Pedeke, Patrick: b. 1842; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. July 26, 
'61: 3 y. R. 20, Co. F, pri. ; dis. Aug. 1, '64. exp. ser. 

Penniman, Jephtha: b. (as supposed) North Bridgewater, Mass., 18-10; ptge. 
not given; bootmaker; en. and ra. July 29, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. B, H. Artil., pri.; 
supposed to have been murdered by guerrillas, while serving as wagoner, near 
Goldsboro', N.C., May, '65. 

Perham, Willis D. : b. Mil., Mass., July 7, 1846; s. Reuben F. and Izanna; 
farmer; en. Aug. 4, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R- 36, Co. F, pri. ; ft. at Jackson, Miss., 
and wd. in right shoulder; trans, to Batt. 2, Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 11, '62, at 
Camp Dennison, O. ; dis. June 28, '65, close of war. 

Perkins, Stephen G. : birth-date, place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
July 8, '61; 3 y. R. 2, infty., 2d lieut. ; prom. 1st lieut., July 11, '62; no further 
reported. 

Perrigo, James G. : b. Wrentham. Mass., 1842; s. Caleb and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Sept. 13, '62; 9 mo. R. 42, Co. B, pri. ; dis. Aug. 20, '63. En. 
and m. again, July 27. '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64. En. and 
m. again, Feb. 14, '65; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. F, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 24, '65, close 
of war. 

Perry, Enoch J. : b. 1839; ptge., etc., not given; tinsmith; en. Aug. 2, '62, 
and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; dis. Mar. 9, '64, disability. 

Perry, George L. : b. Fall River, Mass., Dec. 1, 1845; s. George W. and 
Tryphena; machinist; en. and m. Feb. 29, '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; no fur- 
ther record. 

Perry, Henry W. : b. Mil., Mass., Mar. 23, 1834; s. Waldo C. and Julia 
Ann; bootmaker; en. and m. July 29, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri.; dis. Nov. 
16, '64, exp. ser. 

Phelps, Edmund W. : b. 1822; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 
1, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 26, '65, close of war. 



174 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Phinney, Edward H. : b. Barnstable, Mass., 1827; s. Ezra J. and Eliza; 
painter: en. and m. Jan. 1. '02; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G. pri.; dis. Feb., '63, 
disability. En. and in. again, Aug. 19, '04.; 1 y. Vet. Res. Corps, pri.; no fur- 
ther reported. 

Pickering, Julius A.: b. 1829: place not given; s. Daniel W. and Eliza- 
beth; bootmaker; en. and in. Oct. 21, '61; 3 y. R. 5, Co. D, R.I. Volunteers, 
pri. ; dis., no date given. 

Pickering, Alonzo W. : brother of Julius; birth-date, place, etc., not given; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Oct. 21, '61; 3 y. R. 5, Co. D, R.I. Vols., pri.; no fur- 
ther reported. 

Pickering, Frank A. : b. Blackstone, Mass., Sept. 28, 1S45; s. Simon and 
Roxcellana; bootmaker; en. and ra. Dec. 10, '63; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. A, H. Artil., 
pri. ; stationed in forts on the coast of Mass. ; dis. June 29, '65. 

Pickford, Job: b. about 1S35; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and ra. Aug. 
23. '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. B, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 2, '65, exp. ser. 

Pierce. John A. : b. Hopkinton, Mass.. June 27, 1824; s. Harry C. and Cyn- 
thia L. ; farmer; en. Aug. 6, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; ft. Fred's- 
burg, Va., Jackson and Vicksburg, Miss.; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Mar. 2, 
'64: dis. June 29, '65, Washington, D.C., order War Dept. 

Pierce. Harrison: b. Upton, Mass., 1829; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
drafted Sept. 1, '63; 3 y. R. 22, Co. K, pri.; trans, to R. 32, Co. M, Oct. 24, '64; 
dis. June 29, '65, order War Dept. 

Pierce, Waldo: b. 1842; place, ptge., etc., not given ; en. and m. Aug. 18, 
'64: 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, Cavalry, pri.; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

Plimpton, Andrew F. : b. Medheld, Mass., Mar. 7, 1829; s. Warren and 
Mary: cabinetmaker; en. Sept. 2, '64, and m. 5; 1 y. R. 2, Batt. Light Artil., 
pri.; trans, to Batt. 6, Lt. Artil., Dec. 23, '64; dis. June 19, '65, New Orleans, 
La., exp. ser. 

Pond, Edwin F. : b. Mil., Mass., Mar. 24, 1838; s. Aaron W. and Emily; boot- 
maker; en. Sept. 6, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke 
Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green 
Swamp, N.C. Re-en. in same R. and Co., but was not accepted on acct. of disa- 
bility. D. on board steamer "Fulton," when returning home from hospl. at 
Fortress Monroe, of chronic diarrhoea, Apl. 29, '64. 

Pond, Chandler H. : b. 1S37; place, ptge., etc., not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. May 21, '61; 3 y. R. 29, Co. A, pri. ; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en. ; which he 
did next day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., pri.; appointed principal musician, 
July 1, '65; dis. July 29, '65, exp. ser. 

Pond, William A.: b. Mil., Mass., Sept. 25, 1839; s. Aaron W. and Emily; 
bootmaker; en. and m. July S, '61; 3 y. R. 7, Co. not specified, musician; dis. 
Aug. 11, '62, near Harrison's Bar. Va. En. and m. again, Aug. IS, '64; 1 y. R. 
4, Co. K, II. Artil., pri.; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

Pond, Francis G. : b. Mil., Mass., Feb. 25, 1S47; s. Gilbert and Julia C; 
bootmaker; en. Sept. 17, '62, and id. Oct. 7; 9 mo. R. 45, Co. I, musician; dis. 
July 7, '63, Readville, Mass., exp. ser. En. again Aug. 15, '64, and m. 18; 1 y. 
R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., musician; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

Pond, Henry A.: b. Norwich, Ct., Dec. 31, 1S45; s. Charles and Mary A.; 
bootmaker; en. Mar. 22, '64, and m. 24; 3 y. R. 25, Co. A, pri. ; ft. Port Wal- 
thal, Drury's Bluff, and Cold Harbor; taken prisoner at Cold Harbor, June 3, 
'64; imprisoned successively at Richmond, Andersonville, Savannah, and Mil- 
len; paroled Nov. 18, '64; dis. by order War Dept., June 17, '65. 



WAR RECORD. 175 

Pond, Bernard H. : b. Wrentham, Mass., 1834; ptge. not given; butcher; 
en. and in. June 21, '61: 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; prom. q.-m. sergt. Mar. 
26, '62, and 1st R. q. master, May 4, '62; dishonorably dis. from ser. July 14, '63. 

Pond, Frederick A.: b. 1844; place and ptge. not given; clerk; en. and m. 
July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Powers, Patrick: b. Co. Roscommon, Ird., Mar., 1822: ptge. not given; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Jan. 4. '64; 3 y. R. 25, Co. not specified, pri.; reported 
wd. battle of Cold Harbor; dis. July 13, '65, exp. ser. 

Preston, Henry A. : b. Mil., Mass., 1846; s. Elijah and Eunice; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Aug. 19, '64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June IT, '65, 
exp. ser. 

Price, Allen C. : b. Mil., Mass., May, 1845: s. Charles H. and Betsey; team- 
ster or student; en. Sept. 10. '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. 
Roanoke Island, Newberu, Kinston. Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and 
Green Swamp, N.C. ; dis. at Newport News, Va., Jan. 18, '64, to re-en.; which 
he did same day for 3 y., in same R. and Co., pri. ; supposed k. battle Cold Har- 
bor, June 3. '64. . 

Prouty, Charles D. : b. 1S43; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 
1, '64; C y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 26, '65, exp. ser. 

Prue, Peter: b. Hyacinth, Can., June 2S, 1840; s. Paul and Agatha; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Dec. 7, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. A., pri.; taken prisoner 
Plymouth, N.C., '64, and confined successively for various lengths of time at 
Ander-onville, 6a., Charleston, S.C., and Florence, S.C. ; paroled about Dec. 7, 
'64; dis. Aug. 13, '65, at Smithville, N.C., disability. 

Pye, James: b. Eiig., Feb., 1S23; s. Joseph and Nancy; mechanic; en. Nov. 
19, '64. and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Pyne, William: b. Co. Clare, Ird., June 12, 1S35 ; s. Thomas and Jane; 
bootmaker; en. Apl. 29, '61, and m. June 11; 3 y. R. 9, Co. C, pri.; ft. Hanover 
Court House, Mechanicsville, and Gaines's Mill; at last-named battle wd. 
through hips; dis. Mar. 21, '63, at Convalescent Camp, Fort Ward, disability. 

Quimby, Oramandel: b. Greene, Me., Sept., 1S32; s. Samuel and Lydia; 
bootmaker; en. and in. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 

16, '64, Fort Warren, Mass. 

Qlinlan, Michael: b. Charlestown, Mass., July 4, 1843; s. Edward and 
Roxaua; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; 
dis. June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, Mass. 

Quinn, Michael: b. Ird., 1S23; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
July 22, '62; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; no more recorded. 

Quinn, Timothy: b. Ird., 1843; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 26, 
'61, and m. Aug. 28 ; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri. ; dis. Aug. 24, '62, to en. in U. S. 
Army. 

Quinn, Patrick: b. Ird., 1834; s. Patrick and Ellen; bootmaker; en. Sept. 

17, '62; 9 mo. R. 50, Co. I, pri. ; at siege Port Hudson; m. out with his R., Aug. 
24, '63. En. again Nov. 7, '63, and m. Dec. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., a 
recruit, sergt. ; dis. Sept. 3, '65, close of war. 

Raftery, William: b. Co. Galway, Ird., July 16, 1831; s. Edward and 
Mary; shoemaker; en. May 13, '63, and m. June 6; 3 y. Batt. 1, Co. D, H. 
Artil, pri. ; dis. Boston Harbor, Fort Independence, Sept. 12, '65, exp. ser. 

Reade, John: b. Kilkenny, Ird., Dec. 1, 1824; s. Patrick and Mary; trader; 
en. Oct. IS, '62, and m. Nov. 15; 9 mo. R. 4S, Co. I, 1st lieut., resigned Mar. 1, 
'63. En. again Dec. 30, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; ft. 



176 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Wilderness, Spottsylvania, No. Anna. Cold Harbor, and siege of Petersburg; 
taken prisoner at explosion of mine, and confined successively at Danville, 
Columbia, Charlotte, and Goldsboro'; paroled about March 1. '65, at Wilming- 
ton, N.C. He had been promoted 1st lieut., Apl. 6, '04. M. out May 15, '65, 
order War Dept. 

Ready, Andrew: b. Eng., 1S23; s. John and Catherine; tailor; en. July 29, 
'62, and in. Aug. 6; 3 y. R. 9, Co. K, pri. ; dis. Oct. 30, '62, disability. En. and 
m. again July 22, '64: 3 y. in Vet. Res. Corps, pri.; dis. Nov. 17, '65, order 
War Dept. 

Reed, Thomas: b. Co. Sligo, Ird.. 1S24; s. Robert and Jane; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 21, '61: 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; prom, corpl., June 15, 
'62; one of the color guards, and ft. in all the battles of his R. till k. at Fred's- 
burg, Dec. 13, '62. 

Reed, Silas: b. Mil., Mass., July 6, 1S30; s. Joseph and Susanna; shoe- 
maker; en. and m. Sept. 22, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. C, pri., Maine Volunteers; no 
further reported. 

Reed, Alfred D. : b. Mil., Mass., July 10, 1S46; s. Joseph and Lucy; boot- 
maker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; stationed in 
Forts Warren and Winthrop, Boston Harbor; dis. June 27, '65. 

Regan, Joseph: b. Co. Limerick, Ird., Mar., 1S41; s. James and Bridget; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. June 21, '64, 
exp. ser. En. and m. again Nov. 19, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. 
June 27, '65, Boston Harbor, exp. ser. 

Regan, Joseph E. : b. 1S42; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 
25, '64: 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

Remick, Alfred P.: b. Gardner. Me., Oct., 1S30; s. Benjamin and Eliza; 
bootmaker; en and m. May 25, '61; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, wagoner; (town clerk un- 
certain whether counted on quota of Mil. or Mendon;) dis. June 26, '62, disa- 
bility. En. again Feb. 9, '65, and m. 11; 3 y. R. 1, Co. A, H. Artil., pri.; dis. 
Oct. 20, '65, exp. ser. 

Reynolds, Mcrty: b. Ird., 1S34; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
May 30, '02; 3 y. R. 32, Co. G, pri. ; dis. Oct. 4, '62, to en. in U. S. Battery. 

Reynolds, William F. : b. Smithtield, R.I., May 31, 1837; s. Samuel E. 
and Lydia A.; carpenter; en. Aug. 8, '61, and m. 13, R. I. Lt. Artil. ; 3 y. R. 1, 
Co. B, pri.; ft. Ball's Bluff. Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Savage Station, Malvern 
Hill, Antietam, and 1st Fred'sburg; dis. Feb. 16, '63, epileptic disability. 

Reynolds, John: birth-date, place, ptge., etc., not given; nor date of en.; 
3 y. R. 1, Co. G, R. I. cavalry; no more recorded. 

Reynolds, Owen: birth-date, place, ptge., etc., not given; en. 1862; 3 y. 
R. 1, Co. G, R. I. cavalry; no more told. 

Reynolds, Orval M. : no birth date or place given; s. Samuel E. and 
Lydia A. ; no date of en. En. for 5 y., U. S. Artil., R. 1, Co. E; was with Wil- 
liam Holbrook until dis. Jan. 12, '63. (See Holbrook's record.) 

Reynolds, John Q. : b. Smithfield, R.I., 1848; s. Samuel E. and Lydia A.; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Feb. 15, '65; 3 y. Batt. 1, H. Artil., Co. F, pri.; dis. 
June 24, '65, exp. ser. 

Reynolds, Samuel E. : birth date, place, etc., not given; s. Samuel and 
Lydia; en. and m. May 21, '61 ; 3 y. R. 2, Co. K, N.H., pri. ; no more told. 

Rice, Byron: b. Mendon, Mass., 1838; s. Dexter and Patience; bootmaker; 
en. and m. May 21, '61; 3 y. R. 29, Co. A, pri.; dis. July 6, '61, disability. 

Rich, Thomas G. : b. Randolph, Mass., Dec. 19, 1845; s. Thomas W. and 



WAR RECORD. 1 



< i 



Emily; bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; 
dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Richards, Edward R. : b. New Bedford, Mass., Sept. 5. 1842; s. Silas and 
Harriet; painter; ser. iirst for New Bedford a term; for Mil., en. Nov. 19, '64, 
and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Richardson, John S. : b. Providence, R.I., Aug. 1, 1S1T; s. John E. and 
Sylvia; painter; en. and m. Nov. 2, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. 
May 31, '65, hospl., Readville, Mass., disability. 

Richardson, Eli A. : b. Medway, Mass., Sept. 23, 1S20; s. Ezra and Mary; 
bootmaker. Ser. first a term for Hopkinton. For Mil. en. and m. Nov. 19, '64; 
1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; m. out July 27, '64, exp. ser. 

Riley, Charles F. : b. Braintree, Mass., Aug. 30, 1S41 ; s. John and Cathe- 
rine; bootmaker; en. Nov. 12, '63, and m. Dec. 7; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. A., pri. ; ft. 
Plymouth. N.C., taken prisoner; confined successively Andersonville. Charles- 
ton, and Florence; paroled Dec. 7, '64: dis. Sept. 3, '65, Smithville, N.C. 

Riley, Patrick: b. 1S43; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Dec. 7, 
'63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., pri. : dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

Riney, Timothy: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., Dec. 5, 1S-J5; s. Daniel and Margaret; 

bootmaker; en. Dec. 7, '63, and m. 9; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. A., pri. ; ft. and made 

prisoner, Plymouth, N.C. ; d. of starvation, Andersonville, Ga., about July, '64. 

Ring, Jeremiah: b. Ird., 1832; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 

July 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; k. Fred'sburg, Ya., Dec. 13, '62. 

Roache, Thomas K. : b. Ird., 1S36; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H. ; 1st lieut. ; prom. capt. July 8, '62; dis. Sept. 
30, '03. 

Roach, David: b. Co. Cork, Ird., about 1821; s. David and Ellen; boot- 
maker; en. Sept. 30, '61, and ra. Dec. 13; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K. pri.; ft. James 
Island and Bull Run, '62; wd. at Bull Run in breast, right arm above elbow, 
under jaw, and right shoulder; dis. Washington, D.C., May 11, '64, to re-en. in 
Yet. Res. Corps, Batt. 2, Co. 36. Dis. 1S65, Washington, D.C. 

Rockwood, Elijah: b. Mil., Mass., Nov. 15, 1S15; s. Peter and Sabra; 
farmer; en. Oct. 15, '61, and m. same day; 3 y. R 25, Co. B, pri. ; dis. Apl. 1, 
'63, Newbern, N.C, disability. 

Rockwood, Aaron W. : b. Mil., Mass., June 6, 1843; s. Elijah and Jane; 
teamster; en. and m. Sept. 9, '61; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke Island 
and Newbern, N.C; dis. May 29, '63, disability. 

Rogers, Michael: b. Ird., 1818; ptge., etc., not given; en. and ra. Aug. 7, 
'62; 3 y. R 9, Co. H, pri.; dis. Oct. 30, '62, disability. 

Rogers, James: b. Ird., 1841; s. James and Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Aug. 25, '64; 3 y. R. 29, Co. H, pri. ; dis. July 29, '65, close of war. 

Rose, John L. : b. Northbridge, Mass., 1S3S; s. Oliver and Sally; boot- 
maker: en. Aug. 2, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; dis. Jan. 25, '65, 
disability. 

Rose, Edward R. : b. Livermore, Me., 1S44; s. Charles and Rosetta; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, 
'64, exp. ser. 

Rowe, William: b. Co. Galway, Ird., July 10, 1842; s. Patrick and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 4, '63, and m. 9; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. A., pri. ; taken prisoner 
battle Plymouth, and d. starvation, An lersonville, Ga., July 15, '64. 

Rowe, Patrick: b. Co. Galway, Ird., Nov., 1S32; s. Patrick and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, corpl. ; dis. Oct. 30, '62, 
at Sharpsburg, Md., debility and chron. pleurisy. 



178 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Rowi-, James: b. Co. Gal way, Ird., July, 1839; s. Patrick and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 v. R. 9, Co. H, corpl. ; ft. Hanover Court 
House, Mechanicsville, siege Yorktown, and last battle Gaines's Mills; wd. at 
last-named place by gun-shot in left knee ; dis. Fort McHenry, Oct. 21, '62, on 
acct. wd. 

Rourke, Johx: b. Ird., 1S43: ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 26, '61, 
and m. Aug. 28; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri.; dis. Dec. 21, '63, to re-en.; which he 
did next day, for 3 y., in same R. and Co., pri.; dis. June 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Rurald, Hexry C. A. : b. about 1833; ptge.. etc., not given ; en. and m. Dec. 
14, '64; 3 y. R. 1, Co. L, H. Arti!., pri.; deserted -Mar., '64. 

Russell, Warren: b. 1S40; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 15, '61; 3 y. R. 7, musician in band; dis. Aug. 11, '62, near Harrison's 
Bar, Va., by Gen. Order from Head Qrs. Army Potomac. 

Russell, Mitchell: b. 1S34; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and 
m. Oct. 18, '62: 9 mo. R. 4S, Co. I, pri.; no more recorded. 

Rutledge, Thomas: b. Co. Galway, Ird., 1S37; s. James and Sarah; boot- 
maker; en. Feb. 9, '64, and m. IS; 3 y. R. 57, Co. C, pri. ; d. of his wds., Arling- 
ton Heights, Va., June 9, '64. 

Ryax, Johx: b. Co. Tipperary, Ird.. 1S39; s. Thomas and Ellen; bootmaker; 
en. Feb. 9, '64, and in. IS; 3 y. R. 57, Co. C, pri. : dis. July 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Ryax, Michael: b. Ird., 1S39; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 
13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en.; which he did next 
day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., pri.; dis. June 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Ryan, Johx: b. 1841; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Dec. 11, '62; 
3 y. Batt. 1, Co. B. H. Artil., pri. : deserted Jan. 24, '63. 

Sample, Joseph: b. 1830; place and ptge. not given; laborer: en. Aug. 11, 
'62, and m. Oct. 18; 9 mo. R. 4S, Co. I, corpl.; dis. Sept. 3, '(55, exp. ser. 

Saxger, Hexry: b. Hopkinton, Mass., Oct. 12, 1846; s. Gilbert D. and Mary 
M. ; bootmaker; en. and. m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. 
Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Sauxders, Joxathax B. : b. Upton. Mass., Aug. 25, 1S43; s. Samuel R. and 
Elizabeth; chandler; en. and m. June 15, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. K, N.Y. Militia, 
pri. ; Co. resolved into N.Y. Batt. 6, about Aug., '61 ; ft. Williamsburg, May 12, 
'62, Ball's Bluff, Fair Oaks, 7 ds. fight in front of Richmond, Va., Malvern Hill, 
July, '62, 2d Malvern Hill, Chancellorsville, '63, Kelly's Ford, Brandy Station, 
Gettysburg, and Shepardston. 

Sauxders, Johx Pii.lsbury: b. 1838; place not given; s. Nathaniel, laborer; 
en. and m. Aug. 4, '63; 3 y. R. 2. Co. C, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. 

St. George, Hexry W. : b. 1S43; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 23, '64; 1 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 26, '65, exp. ser. 

Sawyer, George C. : b. Shrewsbury, Mass., 1833; ptge. not given; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 21, '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; deserted his Co. 
at battle Malvern Hill, Va., July 1, '62; dis. Dec. 9, '62. 

Scammell, William H. : b. Mil., Mass., June 21, 1S33; 9. Alexander and 
Ann Augusta; clerk; en. Apl. 19, '61, and m. 21; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri.; 
ft. and was wd. in battle Fair Oaks, Va., June 1, '62; prom, qr.-mr. sergt. Aug. 
17, '63, and to qr.-mr. 1st lieut. Sept. 1, '64. Re-en. Dec. 29, '63; ft., besides 
Fair Oaks, at Yorktown and Williamsburg; dis. July 7, '65, close of war. 

S«:noFiELD, Edward: b. Canton, Mass., Nov. 20, 1S32; s. John and Mary E. ; 
machinist; en. Aug. 24, '64, and m. 29; 1 y. R. 2, Co. D, H. Artil., pri.; trans, 
to K. 17, infty., Co. G, Feb. 9, '65; dis. June 15, '65, Trenton, N.J., order War 
Dept. 



WAR RECORD. 179 

Shaxxox, Edward: b. Hartford, Ct., 1S44; s. Robert and Ellen; bootmaker; 
en. Deo. 7, '63, and m. 20; 3 y. Battery 1, Lt. Artil., pri. ; ft. Wilderness, 
Spottsylvania, No. Anna, Cold Harbor, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Mt. Jackson, 
Cedar Creek, capture Petersburg, etc. ; never wd. ; trans, to Battery 9, Mar. 12, 
'65; dis. Boston, Mass., June 6, '65, close of war. 

Shaugxessey, Michael: b. Ird., 1S3S; s. William; bootmaker; en. Dec. 8, 
'63, and in. Jan. 4, '64: 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; k. battle Wilderness, May 6, '64. 

Shay, Johx: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., 1830; s. Daniel and Bridget; farmer; en. 
Dec. 29, '63, and m. Jan. 27, '64; 3 y. R. 4, Co. E, cavalry, pri. ; dis. Nov. 14, 
'65, exp. ser. 

Shea, John: b. Ird., 1841: ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and ra. June 11, 
'61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 15, '64, Boston, Mass., exp. ser. 

Shea, Dexxis: b. 1S42; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 25, 
'61, and m. 26; 3 y. R. 20, Co. F, pri.; dis. Dec. 20, '63, to re-en.; which he did 
next day, for 3 y., in same R. and Co., 1st sergt. ; prom. 1st lieut. Mar. 24, '64, 
and capt. June 1, '65; dis. July 16, '65, close of war. 

Sheedy, Jeremiah: b. Co. Limerick. Ird., 1S38; s. Jeremiah and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Mar. 7, '64, 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; no more recorded. 

Shiieh ax, Patrick: b. Co. Cork, Ird., Mar. 27, 1S3S; s. Christopher and 
Joanna; bootmaker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. : ft. 
Yorktown, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, Fair Oaks, Robinson's Field, Glendale, 
Malvern Hill, and 2d Bull Run; dis. on. acct. wds. reed, by the falling of a tree, 
June 20, '03. En. again Aug. IS, '64, and m. same day; 3 y. R. 2, Cavalry, Co. 
not specified ; no further reported. 

Sheeuax, Timothy: b. Ird., 1844; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Oct. 20, 
'62. and m. Nov. 1 ; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. K, pri. : m. out with R., Sept. 3, '63. 

Sheldox, Arxold: b. Smithfield, R.I., Nov. 4, 1S29; s. Arnold and Rebecca; 
baker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25 ; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; stationed at 
Forts Warren and Winthrop, Boston Harbor; dis. June 27, '65. 

Shepherd, Lewis C. : b. Mansfield. Mass., Mar. 18, 1838; s. Seth and Ann 
G. ; machinist; en. and m. June 15, '61; 3 y. R. 7, baud musician; dis. Aug. 11, 
'62, camp near Harrison's Bar, Va., by orders from Head-Qrs. Army of Poto- 
mac. En. again Feb. 19, '64, and m. 29; 3 y. R. 29, Gov. Andrew's Sharp 
Shooters, pri.; dis. Boston, Mass., May 6, '65, having served for some time at 
Galloup's Island as musician in the band. 

Shepherd, George H. : b. Mansfield, Mass., July 4, 1840; s. Seth C. and Ann 
G. ; bootmaker; en. and m. June 15, '61 ; 3 y. R. 7, Co. H, pri. ; ft. Yorktown, 
Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, 7 ds. fight, Antietam, and 1st Fred'sburg; wd. in 
right arm 2d battle Fred'sburg, and then trans, to Vet. Res. Corps, Portsmouth, 
R.I. ; was with his R. till wd. ; m. out June 15, '64. 

Shepherd, Johx A. : b. Mansfield, Mass., May, 1S43; s. Seth C. and Ann G. ; 
bootmaker; en. Sept. 18, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; d. at An- 
napolis, Md., typhoid-fever, Nov. 22, '61. 

Shields, Johx: b. 1839; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. June 11, 
'61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; deserted Aug. 14, '62. 

Shine, Thomas: b. Ird., 1S34; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 
13, '61 ; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri. ; d. Dec. 8, '62. 

Simoxd, Adolph: b. 1831; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Jan. 27, 
'64; 3 y. R. 4, Co. F, cavalry, pri.; dis. Nov. 14, '65, exp. ser. 

Slattery, David: b. Ird., 1841; s. Michael and Joanna; bootmaker; en. and 
m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, corpl. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 



180 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Slattery, Thomas: b. Ird., 1840; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9. Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, '04, exp. ser. 
Smith, James C. : b. Ird., 1819; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 

13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; d. Washington, D.C., Dec. 15, '62. 

Smith, Levi L. : b. Mil., Mass., 1830; s. Levi and Fanny; bootmaker; en. 
and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K. pri. ; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en. ; which he 
did next day, for 3 y. R. 163, Co. I, Vet. Res. Corps; dis. July 20, '65, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

Smith, Aldex B. : b. 1S19: place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; drafted 
July 15, '63; 3 y. R. 22, Co. K, pri. ; k. 1st day's right, Wilderness. 

Smith, Hugh: b. Co. Cavan, Ird., Mar. 14, 1833; s. Philip and Kate; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Aug. 23, '63; 3 y. R. 29, Co. not specified, pri.; substitute 
for Charles F. Clatiin; ft. Fort Stedman, Mar. 25 and 30, '65; dis. July 29, '65, 
Delany House, D.C., close of war. 

Smith, George P. : b. 1834; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 9, 
'64: 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, musician; dis. Nov. 16, "64, exp. ser. 

Smith, John* F. : b. 1S39: place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. July 28, 
'64; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. D, pri. ; dis. June 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Smith, Victor: b. St. Simons, Can., June 15, 1845; s. Nelson and Genevieva; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 7, '63, and m. 10; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., a recruit, 
pri. ; taken prisoner battle Plymouth, N.C., '64; confined successively at Ander- 
sonville, Ga., and Florence, S.C. ; and thereupon paroled; dis. from Parole 
Camp, Aug., '65. 

Sxow, James M. : b. 1840; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Sept. 3, 
'64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, H. Artil., pri.; trans. Jan. 17, '65, to R. 17, infty., Co. E; 
dis. May 30, '65, order War Dept. 

Snow, Samuel A.: b. 1844; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Oct. 

14, '61; 3 y. R. 25, Co. I, pri.; dis. Dec. 17, '63, to re-en.; which he did next 
day, on the quota of Berlin, same R and Co. D, Oct. 20, '64, Florence, S. C. 

Southland, John W. : b. Upton. Mass., 1S37; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. Jan. 30, '02; 3 y. R. 15, Co. D, pri.; trans, to Vet. Res. Corps June 

15, '64; dis. Baltimore, Md.. Feb. 23, '64, disability. 

Spear, William R. : b. Nova Scotia, 1S24; s. Andrew and Esther; tailor; 
en. July 28, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; ft. Fred'sburg, Va. ; 
dis. May 7, '04, disability. En. again May 29, '64; 3 y. Vet. Res. Corps; d. Aug. 
19, '65, of confluent variola, and is buried Harmony Ground, grave 29S, section 
1, block 4. 

Spear, Seth A.: b., no date, place, or ptge. given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Feb. 27, '62; 3 y. R. 3, Co. M, R. I., H. Artil., pri.; d. in service. 

Spellman, Thomas: b. Ird., 1S42; s. Patrick; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 
7, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. H, H. Artil., pri.; d. Mar. 20, '65, Newbern, N.C. 

Spellman, John: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. E, pri.; dis. June 17, '63, disability. 

Spencer, Daniel Edwin: b. Northbridge, Mas9., Jan. 15, 1837; s. William 
and Catherine; bootmaker: en. July 16, '63, and ra. Aug. 4; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, 
H. Artil., pri.; appointed 1st sergt. and trans, to Co. D, R. 2, Aug. 22, '63; 
prom. 2d lieut., and assigned to Co. E, R. 2, Aug. 17, '64; dis. April 13, '65, at 
Plymouth, N. C, disability. 

Spencer, William F. : b. Providence. R. I., Feb., 1836; s. William and 
Catherine; bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 20, '04; 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., 
pri. ; dis. June 17, '65, Fort Richardson, Va., exp. ser. 



WAR RECORD. 181 

Sprague, Nathan K. : b. Shrewsbury, Mass., Sept. 11, 1S39; s. William and 
Lydia; bootmaker: en. Aug. 1, '62, and m. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; ft. at 
Fred'sburg, Va., and Jackson, Miss.; trans, to Lieut. Metzer's detachment of 
Yet. Res. Corps Feb. 2. "64; dis. Boston, Mass.. May 19, '64. disability. 

Squires, Solomon A.: b. Sutton, Can. East, April 24, 1S34; s. Solomon and 
Lovica; bootmaker; en. April 19, '61, and m. June 21; 3 y. R. 40, X. T., Co. 
G, pri.; ft. siege Yorktown. Williamsburg. Fair Oaks, 7 ds. fight, 2d Bull Run, 
Cbantilly, and Fred'sburg; dis. Jan. 31, '63, Falmouth, Ya.. disability. En. 
again Oct. 3, '64; 1 y. R. 61, Co. F, corpl. ; present siege of Petersburg, Ya. ; 
m. out July 16, '65, at Arlington Heights, close of war. 

Studler, or Steller, Jacob: b. 1S34; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. 
and m. July 15, '63; 3 y. R. 32, Co. A, pri. ; trans. Vet. Res. Corps. 

Stanley, William F. : b. Pawtucket, R. I., 1836; ptge. not given; painter; 
en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; taken prisoner at Savage 
Station, Ya., June 29, '62; dis. Dec. 15, '62, Alexandria, Ya., disability. En. 
and m. again Aug. 22, '63; 3 y. R. 2. Co. D, H. Artil., pri.; deserted Sept. 1, '65. 

Steere, Francis L. : b. 1846; place, ptge.. etc., not given ; en. and m. Aug. 
22, '64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. E, H. Artil., pri.; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 

Stevens, Eliott A. E. : b. Sutton, Mass.. 1843; ptge. not given; bleacher; 
en. Sept. 16, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B. pri. ; ft'. Roanoke Island, New- 
bern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green Swamp, N.C. ; 
k. instantly by a solid shot through his left side, Petersburg, Va., June 15, '64. 

Stewart, William: b. Boston, Mass., 1S43; s. William and Ann; boot- 
maker; en. July 26, '61, and m. Aug. 15; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, musician; in bat- 
tles Ball's Bluff, Fair Oaks, 7 ds. fight, Antietam, Williamsburg, 1st and 2d 
Fred'sburg, Gettysburg, Rapidan. and Bristol Station ; dis. Dec. 20, '63, to re-en. ; 
wbich he did same day, for 3 y. in same R. and Co., musician; dis. July 19, '65, 
Boston, Mass., order War Dept. 

Stimpson, Jesse F. : b. Frederickton, N.B., Aug. 2S, 1S39; s. Jonathan and 
Mary; blacksmith; en. May 11, '61, and m. 25; 3 y. R. 2, Co. B, pri.; ft. at 
Chancellorsville, and wd. in right leg below knee by a minie-ball; trans, to 
Batt. 2, Co. 114, V. R. C, Dec. 17, '63, at Mt. Pleasant Hospl., Washington, 
D.C. ; dis. May 2S, '64, Washington, D. C. 

Stoddard, Lorenzo: b. Calais, Vt., Feb. 8, 1S31 ; s. Jasper M. and Hannah 
T.: bootmaker; en. April 19, '61, and m. 21; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri.; ft. 
Williamsburg, and wd. in left hip by a musket-ball; ft. again at Cbantilly and 
at Fred'sburg Dec. 13, '62; wd. at last-named place by a ball in right side; prom, 
corpl. July 1, '62; dis. June 9, '63, on acct. of wds. reed, in battle. En. again 
Jan. 4, '64, and ra. 14; 1 y. R. 1, Co. M, cavalry, pri.; was with his Co. every 
day during this second en.; prom, sergt. about Mar. 1, '65; dis. June 26, '65, 
exp. ser. 

Stoddard, Warren: b. Fitzwilliam, N. H., 1836; ptge. not given; boot- 
maker; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri.; taken prisoner 
in battle Chancellorsville, May 3, '63; k. in battle Locust Grove, Ya., Nov. 
27, '63. 

Stone, Edgar V.: b. 1S47; place and occ. not given; s. Liberty W. ; en. 
Mar. 17, '65, and ra. 18; 1 y. R. 61, Co. G, pri.; dis. June 9, '65, from U. S. 
Gen. Hospl., Baltimore, Md. 

Stone, Liberty W. : b. Upton, Mass., May 22, 1825; s. Elisha J. and Lucinda ; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 22, '63, and m. 20; 3 y. R. 25, Co. A, pri. ; d. of wds. reed, 
in ser., July 5, '04. 



182 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Sullivan, Michael: b. Dublin, Ird., about 1822; s. Michael and Ann; boot- 
maker; en. July 22, '62, and m. Aug. 27: 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri. ; with his R. 
and Co. till dis. June 8, '65, exp. ser. 

Sullivan, Timothy: b. Ird., 1842; ptge. not given ; bootmaker; en. and m. 
May 25, '61 ; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri.; dis. May 28, '64, exp. ser. 

Sullivan, John: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., 1S39; s. Peter and Mary; bootmaker; 
en. Dec. 13, '61, and m. 23; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, sergt. ; prom. 2d lieut. Sept. 26, 
'62; k. Fred'sburg, Dec. 13, 62. 

Sullivan, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S34; ptge. not given; shoemaker; en. and m. 
Nov. 17, "63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. K, cavalry, pri.; dis. July 20, '65, exp. ser. 

Sullivan, Simeon : b. Co. Kerry, Ird., 1841; s. Peter and Mary; shoemaker; 
en. and in. July 12, '61; 3 y. R. 15, Co. H, pri.; wd. in battle of Antietam, and 
d. of his wounds, Frederick City Hospl. 

Sullivan, Michael: b. 1843; place not given; s. Daniel; shoemaker; en. 
and m. Dec. 10, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri. ; d. in Andersonville Prison, 
Oct. 9, '64. 

Sullivan, Daniel: b. Ird., 1833; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Aug. 7, '62 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. A, recruit, pri. ; dis. June 21, '64, exp. ser. 

Sullivan, Jeremiah J.: b. Co. Kerry, Ird., about 183s : s. Eugene and 
Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. Mar. 17, '64; 3 y. R. 15, Co. K, pri.; ft. Wilder- 
ness and Spottsylvania; there wd. in right breast in lungs by a minie-ball; 
trans, to R. 20, Co. E; ft. on Weldon Railroad, and was taken prisoner; con- 
fined two mo. at Belle Island, and then paroled; ft. again in battle of Hatchers 
Run; m. out with R. 20, July 16, '65, close of war. 

Sullivan, Timothy: b. Co. Kings, Ird., 1837; s. Peter and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. and m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, 
'64, at Fort Warren, Mass., exp. ser. 

Sullivan, Quimby: b. 1823; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
18, '64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. K, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 17, '05, at Fort Richardson, 
Va., exp. ser. 

Swan, John J. P.: birth, date, place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Dec. 23, '61; 3 y. R. 1, Co. C, R. I. Lt. Artil., pri.; d. June 26, '62, in hospl. 

Sweeney, Dalty: b. Ird., 1S42; s. Hannah; bootmaker; en. and m. June 
11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; trans. June 10, '64, to R. 5, U. S. Artil. 

Sweeney, Dennis: b. Ird., 1835; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri.; k. battle Fred'sburg, Va., Dec. 
13, '62. 

Sweet, Edwin J.: b. Hubbardston, Vt., 1839; s. George W. and Roxana; 
student; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri.; prom, sergt. 
and trans, to Co. E, Jan. 1, '63; made 2d lieut. June 5, '63, and afterwards 1st 
lieut. ; dis. July 18, '64, exp. ser. 

Sweet, George W. : b. Mendon, Mass., 1835; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 21, '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; d. from wds. reed, before 
Petersburg, Va., June 17, '64. 

Taft, Orison C. : b. Mil., Mass., Sept. 7, 1S44; s. Harvey F. and Prudence; 
farmer; en. April 17, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft. Roanoke 
Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and Green Swamp ; 
dis. Newport News, Dec. 17, '63, to re-en. ; which he did next day, for 3 y., in 
aame R. and Co. ; dis. Dec. 22, '64, disability. 

Taft, John II. : b. 1S3S; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 22, 
'64; 1 y. R. 4, Co. E, H. Artil., pri. ; dis. June 17, '65, exp. ser. 



WAR RECORD. 183 

Tatrue, Andrew: b. Montreal, Can., 1843; s. Peter and Mary; laborer; en. 
and m. Dec. 15, '63; 3 y. R. 1, Co. B, pri. ; dis. Aug. 16, '65, exp. ser., absent 
sick. 

Taylor, Jotham L. : b. Blackstone. Mass., 1827: s. Elijah and Roba; boot- 
maker; en. Aug. 6, '62, and in. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; d. Sept. 7, '63, Crab 
Orchard, Ky. 

Taylor, Orrin S. : b. 1844; place and ptge. not given; farmer; en. July 25, 
'62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; d. of wds. Petersburg, Va., June 
23, '64. 

Taylor, Henry E. : b. Blackstone, Mass., Nov. 29, 1S34; s. Elijah and 
Roba; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '04, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
dis. Boston Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war. 

Templeton, A. C. : b., place and date not given; s. Samuel and Delphia; 
ser. in R. 13, Vt. Vols. ; no more recorded. 

Thayer, Henry B. : b. Marlboro', Mass., Mar. 13, 1832; s. Sullivan and 
Ruth; salesman; en. Apl. 19, '61, and m. June 21: 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, 1st 
sergt. ; ft. Fair Oaks, May 31, '62, Fred'sburg, Dec. 13 ensuing, and wd. in 
right foot by a musket-ball; dis. Apl. 27, '63, on acct. wds. En. and m. again 
Mar. 13, '64; 3 y. R. 3, Co. H, R.I. cavalry, corpl. ; dis. Dale Hospl., Worcester, 
Mass., July 28, '65, disability. 

Thomas, Robert T. : b. 1S46; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Nov. 
25, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '65. exp. ser. 

Thompson, Edmund A.: b. Belfast, Me., Aug. 4, 1843; s. John and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis., 
Boston Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war. 

Thompson, Gilbert: b. Mendon. Mass.. Mar. 21, 1839; s. William V. and 
Harriet; printer; en. and m. Nov. 22, '61; 3 y. U. S. Topographical Corps En- 
gineers, Co. D, engineer; prom, corpl. Dec. 1, '62; with Army of Potomac in all 
its engagements on engineer ser. with his Co., and topographical duty; dis. 
before Petersburg, Va., Nov. 22, '64, exp. ser. 

Thompson, Edward H. : b. 1843; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Nov. 25, '64; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '65, exp. ser. 

Tienan, or Tynan, Thomas: b. Ird., 1S33; ptge. not given; bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 11, '61 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; d. Jan. 16, '62. 

Tiernan, Mark, 1st: b. Co. Gahvay, Ird., Aug. 24, 1834; s. Mark and 
Sarah; bootmaker; en. Aug. 7, '61, and in. 2S; 3 y. R. 19, Co. F, pri. ; ft. Ball's 
Bluff, in Peninsular Campaign, Yorktown, West Point, Fair Oaks, 7 ds. right, 
2d Bull Run, and Antietam; dis. Boston, Mass., Apl. 10, '63, disability. En. 
again Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Boston Harbor, 
June 27, '65. 

Tiernan, Mark, 2d: b. Ird., Aug. 5, 1J43; s. Martin and Margaret; boot- 
maker; en. June 11, '61, and m. 15; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; always with his R., 
well, and never wd.; dis. Boston, Mass., June 15, '64, exp. ser. En. again Nov. 
19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. Boston Harbor, June 27, 

'65. 

Tiernan, Tiiomas: b. Ird., 1819; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Nov. 1, '62; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. K, pri. ; m. out with R. Sept. 3, '63. 

Tilton, William A.: b. Hopkinton, Mass., Mar. 30, 1S3S; s. George A. and 
Catherine M. ; clerk; en. Sept. 12, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; ft 
Roanoke Island, and Newborn; wd. in chest by a spent ball; dis. Oct. 20, '64, 
exp. ser. 



184 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Tin ax, Michael: b. Co. Tipperary, Ird., 1S34; s. .Michael and Catherine; 
bootmaker; en. Aug. 23, '64, and m. 24; 3 v. R. 2, Co. G-, cavalry, pri. ; ft. 
Fisher's Hill, Oct. 9, r 64, and Cedar Creek, Oct. 19 ensuing; dis. Cloud's Mills, 
June 17, '65, close of war. 

Tobin, James W.; b. Co. Sligo, Ird., 1835; s. Thomas and Mary: bootmaker; 
en. and m. June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, sergt. ; ft. Hanover Ct. House, 7 ds. 
fight; wd. by gun-shot in left arm near elbow, June 27, '02; dis. Falmouth, 
Va., Apl. 14, '63, on acct. wd. 

Tobin, Jonx: b. Ird., 1S40; s. Thomas and Mary; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Oct. 22, '63; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; trans, to R. 32, infty., June 10, '64; no more 
recorded. 

Toomey, Jeremiah: b. Ird., 1S20; pt<re. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Mar. 17, '63: 3 y. R. 2, Co. A, cavalry, pri.; no more told. 

Tracy, Thomas: b. Ird., Aug. 21, ISIS; s. Thomas and Winneford; laborer; 
en. Oct. 9, '62, and m. IS; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. I, pri.; dis. Dec. 24, '62. 

Treyetts, Win-field: b. Frankfort, Me., May 30, 183S; s. Henry S. and 
Dolly; bootmaker; en. June 28, '61, and m. July 2; 3 y. R. 16, Co. B, pri.; 
dropped Apl. 13, '63, and nothing heard of him down to Mar. 3, '77. 

Tucker, Albert H. : b. Milford, N.H., 1843; ptge. not given: farmer; en. 
Sept. 12, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri. ; d. Hatteras Inlet, N.C., of 
bilious fever, Jan. 21, '62. 

Tucker, George Perry: b. 1S44; place not given; s. George W. ; farmer; 
en. and m. Aug. 4, '63; 3 y. R. 2, Co. C, pri.; dis. Sept. 3, '65, exp. ser. in 
Co. A. 

Tuttle. Augustus S. : b. Concord, Mass., July 18, 1824; s. Augustus and 
Almira; trader; en. and m. Aug. 27, '62; 3 y. R. 36. Co. F, 2d lieut.; Mar. 5, 
'63. detailed to take charge 3d Brigade Ambulance Corps; prom. 1st lieut. May 
16, '63; detailed July 1, '63, to take charge of Division Ambulance; ft. at Fred's- 
burg, Va., and Jackson, Miss., '03; dis. June S, '65, exp. ser. 

Twohig, Timothy: b. Ird., 1840; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. July 23, 
'62, and m. Aug. 4; 3 y. R. 9, unassigned recruit, pri.; no more told. 

Tyler, Charles H. : b. 1846; place, ptge., etc., not given ; en. and m. Aug. 
9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Underwood, Aaron C. : b. Hopkinton, Mass., 1824; s. Daniel; mechanic; 
en. Aug. 19, '62, and m. Oct. 14: 9 mo. R. 51, Co. I, pri.; in. out with R. at 
Worcester, Mass., July 27, '63. En. and m. again Sept. 15, '64; 3 y. R. 2, Co. 
B, H. Artil., pri.; trans. Jan. 27, '65, to R. 17, infantry., Co. D; dis. June 30, 
'65, order War Dept. 

Vaxt, Dexter P.: b. Mil., Mass., Oct. 3, 1842; s. Artemas B. and Izanna 
E.; bootmaker; en. Sept. 17, '61, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; prom. 
corpl. July 1, '63; ft. Newborn, Whitehall, Kinston, Goldsboro', and Green 
Swamp, N.C., also Petersburg, May, '64, Cold Harbor, and siege Petersburg, 
Ya. ; dis., Worcester, Mass., Oct. 24, '64, exp. ser. 

"Vaughn, Bartholomew: b. Co. Limerick, Ird., 1822; ptge. not given; 
bootmaker; en. Dec. 15, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; dis. 
July 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Vose, Cyrus W. : b. Wrentham. Mass., Jan. 7, 1S30; s. Stephen and Elea- 
nor; shoemaker; drafted July 15, '63; 3 y. R. 22, pri.; dis. without pay, Boston 
Harbor, Sept. 21, '63, disability. En. and m. Aug. 4, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unat- 
tached, pri.; dis., Fort Warren, Mass., Nov. 10, '64, exp. ?er. 

Walcott, Alfred W. : birth place and date not given; s. Freeman; car- 



WAR RECORD. 185 

penter; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, 2d lieut.; prom. 1st 
lieut., Nov. 28, '61; dis. July 8, '62, disability. 

Walcott, Harrison T. : b. East Cambridge, Mass.. 1841; s. Freeman; 
painter; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40, N.Y., Co. G, pri. ; prom, sergt. 
Nov. 1, '61, 2d lieut. Jan. 1, '63, 1st lieut. Feb. 1, '63, and capt. July 7, '63; k. 
battle Wilderness, Ya., May 5, '64. 

Waldron, Launcelot: b. Co. Kildare, Ird., Mar. 10, 1S20; s. Joseph and 
Ann; bootmaker; en. Sept. 23, '61, and m. Oct. T; 3 y. R. 25. Co. B, pri.; ft. 
Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and 
Green Swamp, N.C. : disabled and detailed for hospl. ser. at Hampton; dis. 
Oct. 7, '64, Fortress Monroe, exp. ser. 

Wall, JoriN, 2d: b. Ird.. about 1820; s. Henry and Man; bootmaker; en. 
Sept. 3, "64, and m. Oct. 5; 1 y. R. 17, Co. H, pri.: he en. for H. Artil., but 
was trans, to the said R. and Co. Dec. 16, '64; ft. Kinston, Mar. 8, 9, and 10, 
'65; dis. June 30, '65, Greensboro', N.C, close of war. 

Wallace, Patrick: b. Co. Tyrone, Ird., May 15, 1821; s. Patrick and 
Ann ; bootmaker; en. Jan. 4, '64, and m. 11; 3 y. R. 57, Co. B, pri. ; d. in prison, 
Andersonville. Ga., July 14, '64. 

Wallace, Robert: b. Co. Tyrone, Ird., Mar. 17, 1825; s. Patrick and A.nn ; 
bootmaker; en. Jan. 16, '64, and m. 25; 3 y. R. 57, Co. D, pri.; k. battle Wil- 
derness, Va., May 6, '64. 

Walls, Thomas: b. Ird., lS42;ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K. pri. ; deserted Dec. 20, '61. 

Walsh, Thomas: b. Dublin, Ird., about 1S46; s. Thomas and Mary; la- 
borer; en. and m. Oct. 4, '62; 9 mo. R. 48, Co. I, pri.; ft. Port Hudson, and 
Fort Donaldsonville; dis. Wenham, Mass., Sept. 3, '63, exp. ser. En. again 
Nov. 12, '63, and m. 19; 3 y. R. 15, Co. K, pri.; ft. Wilderness, and wd. iu 
muscle of right arm above elbow; sent to hospl., Washington, D.C., and thence 
in two weeks to hospl., Philadelphia; trans, to R. 20, Co. E, Mass. infty. ; dis. 
June 20, '65, disability. 

Walsh, Edward: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 28, Co. K, pri.; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en.; which he did 
next day, for 3 y., same R. and Co., pri. ; dis. Sept. 2, '65, exp. ser. 

Ward, James: b. 1842; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 13, 
'61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, drummer; dis. Jan. 1, '64, to re-en.; which he did next 
day, for 3 v., same R. and Co., musician; dis. June 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Ward, Benjamin H. : b. 1833; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 
9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Warren, George C. : b. 1S43; place, ptge., etc., not given; en. and m. 
Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Warren, Elijah: b. 1830; place, ptge.. etc., not given; en. and m. Aug. 9, 
'64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Warren, Hose a: b. Montpelier, Yt., Nov., 1S22; s. Samuel and Lucy; boot- 
maker; en. Dec. 11, '63, and m. Jan. 4, '04; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; d. Oct. 1, 
'64, Danville, Ya. 

Washburn, Edwin B. : b. Hopkinton, Mass., 183S; s. Daniel B. and Sally; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Aug. 9, '64; 100 ds. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. Nov. 
16, '64, exp. ser. 

Welch, James: b. Co. Kilkenny, Ird., Mar. 8, 1824; ptge. not given; boot- 
maker; en. Dec. 11, '63, and in. Jan. 4, '64; 3 y. R. 57, Co. A, pri.; dis. July 
30, '65, exp. ser. 



186 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Welch, James: b. Waterford, Ird., Aug. 20, 1S20: s. John and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. May 6, '61, and m. June 11 ; 3 y. R. 9, Co. E, pri. ; ft. Hanover Ct. 
House, Mechanicsville, 7 ds. fight, first and second Fred'sburg, and Antietara; 
dis. Aug. 20, 'Go, Convalescent Camp, Ya. 

Welch, Richard: b. Ird., 1842: ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 13, '01; 3 y. R. 11, Co. C. pri.; dis. June 10, '03, disability. 

Welch, Thomas: b. Ird., 1839; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en Aug. 7, '61, 
and m. 28; 3 y. R. 19, Co, F, pri. ; k. June 30, '02, at White Oak Swamp, Va. 

Welch, Patrick D. : b. Ird., 1844; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. Feb. 
10, '04, and m. 18; 3 y. R. 57, Co. C, pri. ; dis. July 30, '65, exp. ser. 

Wellington, Edwin R. : b. Northfieid, Vt., July 29, 1830; s. Lewis S. and 
Mary E. ; bootmaker; en. July 23, '64, and m. 25; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. B, pri.; 
dis. Nov. 10, '64, exp. ser. En. again Nov. 19, '04, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, 
unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, '65. Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Wellington, Samuel R. : b. Braintree, Vt., Oct. 10, 1843; s. Levi S. and. 
Mary E. ; bootmaker: after a previous enlistment of 100 ds. for Somerville, en. 
for Mil. Nov. 19, '04, and in. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. June 27, '05, 
Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Whaling, Micuael: b. State of Me., Jan. 1, 1840; s. James and Bridget; 
bootmaker; en. and in. Dec. 7, '03; 3 y. R. 2, H. Artil., a recruit, pri. ; no fur- 
ther record. 

Wheelock. Calvin: b. 1S22; place and ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
Aug. 18, '02, and m. 25; 3 y. R. 30, Co. C, pri. ; dis. June 8, '05, exp. ser. 

Whelan, Richard M. : b. Ird., Nov. 11, 1S43; s. John and Mary; boot- 
maker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; dis. June 27, 
'65, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Whipple, Willis: b. Smithfield, R. I., 1S39; ptge. not given; student; en. 
Sept. 10, '01, and in. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; proin. corpl. April 15, '02; 
ft. Roanoke Island, Newbern, Kinston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Deep Gully, and 
Green Swamp, N. C. ; dis. Aug. 10, '03, disability. 

Whitcomb, Henry F. : b. 1843; place and ptge. not given; machinist; en. 
July 20, '01, and m. Aug. 24; 3 y. R. 18, Co. D, pri.; dis. Feb. 15, '04; counted 
on second en. quota Middleboro', Mass. 

White, Patrick: b. Ird., 1S3(>; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '01; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri. ; dis. June 21, '04, exp. ser. 

White, George C. : b. Dublin, Ird., Mar. 13, 1S39; s. Charles and Mary; 
bootmaker; en. and m. Dec. 13, '61; 3 y. R. 2S, Co. K, pri.; ft. Fred'sburg, 
2d Bull Run, James Island, Antietam, Gettysburg, Kelly's Ford, Chancel- 
lorsville, Culpeper, Wanenton Junction, Wilderness, No. Anna, Cold Harbor, 
Deep Bottom, Hatcher's Run, and front of Petersburg; wd. through right foot 
at Gettysburg, July 3; taken prisoner to Richmond, Va., 85 ds., then exchanged; 
prom, corpl. on James Island, and sergt. Aug. 18, '64; dis. Boston, Mass., Dec. 
19, '04, exp. ser. 

Whiting, Horace G. : b. Franklin, Mass., 1S39; s. Jairus and Mary H. ; 
clerk; en. Sept. 7, '61, and m. Oct. 10; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri. ; prom, corpl. Oct. 
15, '01, and reduced to the ranks Oct. 9, '62; dis. July 1, 03, Cincinnati, O., by 
order Maj. Gen. Burnside, to accept promotion ; ft. Roanoke Island and New- 
bern. N. C. 

Whitney, Geokge S. : b. Mil., Mass., Aug. 26, 1847; s. Otis and Joanna W. ; 
clerk; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; stationed Forts 
Warren and Wiuthrop, Boston Harbor; dis. June 27, '65. 



WAR RECORD. 187 

Wigoix, Jacob E. : b. Franklin, Mass., Jan. 23, 1S4T; s. Stephen W. and 
Joanna; laborer; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. 
June 27, '05, Boston Harbor, close of war. 

Wilbur, Millex Taft: b. Providence, R. L, Jan. 25, 1835: s. Sayles and 
Ruth; machinist; en. Aug. 24, '64, and m. 29; 1 y. R. 2, Co. G, H. Artil., pri.; 
dis. June 20, 'G5, exp. ser. 

Wilkinson, Leoxidas J.: b. Mendon, Mass., Jan. 2S, 183S; s. Alexander 
T. and Maria; machinist; en. and m. June 21, '61; 3 y. R. 40. N. Y., Co. G, 
corpl. ; prom, sergt. Nov. 23, '62; present siege Yorktown: ft. Williamsburg, 
Fair Oaks, Robinson's Field, Glendale, Malvern Hill, 2d Bull Run, Chantilly, 
and Fred'sburg Dec. 13, '62; wd. at Fred'sburg; dis. at Boston, Mass., Feb. 
24, '63, on acct. wds. 

Wilkixsox, Edwix: b. Mendon. Mass.. Feb. 19, 1S3G; s. Alexander T. and 
Maria; blacksmith; en. and m. June 21, '61: 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; ft. 
siege of Yorktown, Williamsburg. Fair Oaks. Robinson's Field, Glendale, Mal- 
vern Hill, 2d Bull Run, and Chantilly; dis. Boston, Mass., Dec. 1. '62, on acct. 
wds. reed, battle Chantilly. 

Wilkixsox, Walter: b. Mendon, Mass., Nov. 5, 1S42: s. Alexander T. and 
Maria; bookkeeper; en. and m. June 21, '61 ; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; pres- 
ent siege Yorktown ; k. battle Williamsburg, Va., May 5, '62, being the first .sol- 
dier from Milford that was killed in battle. 

Willev, Bexjamix F. : b. Conway, N. H., July 25. 1844; s. Stephen and 
Hannah; bootmaker; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri.; 
dis. Boston Harbor. June 27, '65, close of war. 

Williams, Daxiei. : b. Marlboro', Mass., 1817; s. Joseph and Mary; var- 
nisher; en. Oct. 19, '61, and m. 30; 3 y. R. 25. Co. G. pri.; d. May 10, '02, in 
Milford. from wds. reed, in battle Roanoke Island, N. C. 

Williams, William: b. Mil., Mass., July 31, 1831: s. Harlow and Sarah; 
bootmaker; en. July 3, '61, and m. Nov. 14; 3 y. R. 29, Co. B. pri.: ft. Fair 
Oaks, 7 ds. fight, siege Vicksburg, Miss., and Jackson, Miss.; dis. July 4, '64, 
exp. ser. 

Williams, Frederick G. : b. Mil., Mass., about 1S44; s. Charles and Rox- 
ana; bootmaker; en. and m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri.; dis. Nov. 
10, '04, exp. ser. En. and m. again Dec. 31, '64; 3 y. R. 3, Co. L, Cavalry, pri. ; 
dis. Sept. 28, '65, close of war. 

Williams, Geoboe F. : b. 1836: place not given; s. George W. ; bookbinder; 
en. and in. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5, Co. G, pri.; dis. Nov. 10. "04, exp. ser. 

Willis. Cuarles: b. Ird., 1S39; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. and m. 
June 11, '61; 3 y. R. 9, Co. H, pri.; trans, to Yet. Res. Corps Dec. 29, '03. 

Willis, Reubex: b. Belchertown, Mass., 1S42; s. Jacob and Siley: student; 
en. Sept. 16, '01, and m. Oct. 7; 3 y. R. 25, Co. B, pri.; present witli his Co. 
Roanoke Island and Newbern, N.C. ; dis. Nov. 21, '63, disability. 

Wilsox, Samuel: b. Mendon, Mass., June 21, 1834: s. Samuel and Celia 
Ann; bootmaker; en. July 24, '62, and m. Aug. 27; 3 y. R. 36, Co. F, pri.; dis. 
Boston, Mass., Mar. 14, '63, disability. 

Wood, Peleg E. : b. Gloucester, R. I., Dec. 21, 1838: s. Luther and Emily; 
bootmaker; en, June 9, '61, and m. 21 ; 3 y. R. 40, N. Y., Co. G, pri. ; ft, Wil- 
liamsburg and Fair Oaks; dis. camp near Fred'sburg, Va., Dec. 9, '62, on acct. 
of wd. by accidental discharge of a musket. 

Woods, Cuarles E. : b. Barre, Mass., 1835; s. Edward and Caroline; wheel- 
wright; en. and m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. o, Co. C, corpl.; dis. Nov. 16, '64, 
exp. ser. 



188 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

Wood, Frank L. : b. New Bedford. Mass., Aug. 8, 1844; s. James and Mary; 
mechanic; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, pri. ; dis. Bos- 
ton Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war. He had previously en. for New Bedford. 

Woods, Frederick H. : b. Mil., Mass., 1S43; s. Edward and Caroline; en. 
and m. July 27, '64; 100 ds. R. 5,*Co. G, pri. ; dis. Nov. 16, '64, exp. ser. 

Wright, Alexander S. : b. New Bedford, Mass., Nov. 13, 1S4G; s. Ebenezer 
S. and Lydia; mechanic; en. Nov. 19, '64, and m. 25; 1 y. Co. 19, unattached, 
pri. ; dis. Boston Harbor, June 27, '65, close of war. He had previously en. for 
New Bedford. 

Wynn, Daniel: b. Co. Sligo, Ird., 183S; ptge. not given; bootmaker; en. 
and m. May 25, '61 ; 3 y. R. 2, Co. E, pri. ; k. in battle at Antietam, Sept. 17, *62. 

Thus ends the long story and record of Milford's martial patriot- 
ism. If her sacrifices and fruitages of -warlike devotion are not 
glorious enough to satisfy the pride of her citizens, perhaps coming 
generations will make up the deficit. But their historian must be 
permitted to pray that the future may afford fewer opportunities for 
such expenditures of human life, blood, and treasure. 



ORIGINAL SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 189 



CHAPTER IX. 
RELATING TO EDUCATION AND KINDRED MATTERS. 

School Districts and their Changes. — Originally Four. — In 1784 divided into Eight, 
and bounded. —Altered in 1799. — In 1S02 arranged into Six. — A Partial Revis- 
ion in 182-1. — The First District divided in 1S29, and a Seventh created. —New 
Boundaries without Gores. — An Eighth District set off in 183<i, called "Deer 
Brook." — In 1841 a New Division into Eleven Districts. — The Twelfth set off 
in 1847. — In 1851 the Twelve re-arranged into Eight, etc. — All abolished in 
1854. 

Sclioothouses and Expenditures. — No Schoolhouses in Town at Incorporation. — 
Schools kept in Private Houses. — Schoolhouses first mentioned in our Records 
1791. — A Few Poor Things at that Date. — One built Earliest in the Centre 
District. — The Second Generation of Houses in Several Districts. — Notices of 
all the subsequently built Schoolhouses in the Town. 

School Honeys and Manur/ement. — Moneys variously raised, derived, and distril>- 
uted. — Amount and Details. — School-Committee Members since the Town was 
incorporated. — Progressive Improvements in Educational Management, etc. 

Miscellanies of an Educational Nature. — Select Seminaries aud other Private 
Schools. — Graduates from Colleges. — The Town Library, etc. 

SCHOOL DISTRICTS AND THEIR CHANGES. 
SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 

N 1780, just previous to the incorporation of Milford, the parent 



I 



town had eleven school districts. Of these the third, fourth, 
fifth, and sixth were within our territory, and were identical with high- 
way districts. No change was immediately made in these four orc'jri- 
nal districts. But in 1784 a committee, specially appointed by the 
Town, divided them into eight, as follows : — 

" First District. Beginning at landlord Robinson's [who then kept the 
public house afterwards known as the Col. Godfrey tavern stand], including 
him; from thence to Mr. Frost's, including him; from thence to Elijah 
Thayer's, including him; from thence to Caleb Cheney's, including him; 
from thence to Nehemiali Beal's, including him; from thence to Caleb Boy n- 
ton's, including him; from thence to Jacob Hayward's, including him; from 
thence to the first Bounds. 

"Second Dist. Beginning at landlord Robinson's, excluding him; from 
thence to Saml. Albee's, including him; from thence to Daniel Hayward's, 
including him; from thence to Dea. John Chapin's, including him; from 
thence up to the Eight Rod Road; from thence to Moses Ramsdell's [now an 
old cellar-hole on John Mann's place], including him; from thence to Joseph 



190 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Jones's [Mopedale], excluding him; from thence to Aaron Merrifield's, in- 
cluding him; from thence to the first Bounds 

" Third Dist. Beginning at Daniel Hayward's, excluding him; then 
bounding on the Sec. Dist. to Mendon line; thence on Mendon line to Bel- 
lingham line; from thence to Josiah Wheelock's, including him; from thence 
to the first Bounds. 

" Fourth Dist. Beginning at landlord Robinson's; from thence bounding 
Southerly on the Sec. Dist. to Mendon line; from thence to Upton line to 
Fisk's mills; from thence to Joseph Lesure's, including him; fromt hence 
to Moses Gage's, including him; from thence to Elijah Thayer's, excluding 
him; thence on the First District to the first Bounds. 

'■'■Fifth Dist. Beginning at Jacob Hayward's, including him; thence to 
Lieut. Seth Thayer's, including him: thenceto Boyce Kimball's, thence 
to Holliston line; thence to Bellingham line to Josiah Wheelock's, exclud- 
ing him; thence to Warfield Hayward's, including him; thence to the first 
mentioned Bounds. 

" Sixth Dist. Bednnincr at Jacob Havward's; thence on the Fifth Dist. to 
Holliston line; thence on said Holliston line to Jesse Whitney's, excluding 
him; thence to Caleb Boyntou's, excluding him; thence to the first Bounds. 

" Seventh Dist. Beginning at Nehemiah Beal's, excluding him; thence to 
Mordecai Day's, including him; thence to Lieut. Jesse Whitney's, including 
him; thence to Holliston line; thence to Wales Cheney's, including him; 
thence to David Stearns's [later Ebenr. Sumner's], including him; thence 
to Azariah Newton's, including him; thence to Isaac Sheffield's, excluding 
him; thence on the Fourth Dist. to Moses Gage's, excluding him; thence 
to Caleb Cheney's, excluding him; thence to the first Bound. 

'• Eighth Dist. Beginning at Isaac Sheffield's; thence to Upton line; thence 
to Hopkinton line; thence to Wales Cheney's, excluding him; thence to 
Azariah Newton's, excluding him; thence to the first Bound. 

" Gersiiom Nelson, Joseph Cody, 

Joseph Gibijs, Elijah Thayer, 

Josiah Wheelock, Ebenr. Sumner, 

Ebenr. Read. David Stearns, 

Committee for Dividing the Town into Districts. 

" Milford, November ye 1st, 1784. 

" N.B. This is wholly for Schooling; nothing for highway work." (Town 
Records, vol. i., pp. 56-5S.) 

I have copied this report in full, not only for its intrinsic value, as 
showing how the town was districted for schooling soon after its in- 
corporation ; but as a study for such antiquarian readers as may be 
curious enough to exercise their ingenuity in ascertaining the situa- 
tion and areas of the districts when first defined b} - the town, and also 
the dwelling-places of those citizens who are recorded as on the 
frontier lines. Thus it may be learned who have been their local sue- 



REVISION OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 191 

cessors down to the present time, and some curious questions settled. 
For similar reasons, subsequent arrangements will be fully presented. 

There have always been people here, as elsewhere, desirous of 
better public accommodations, who therefore petitioned for improve- 
ments. In response to such, the Town appointed a committee to 
revise the school-district lines. This committee reported, April 8, 
1799, the following alterations; viz., "That the Seventh District 
extend as far south ou the road that leads from Milford to Hopkinton, 
as the road that leads to Boston. That the First District extend as 
far eastwardlyon the Boston road as where Lt. Whitney's road comes 
into Boston road, and as far westwardly as from Elijah Thayer's to 
the first stone bridge from Esq. Frost's to Alexander Scammell's ; 
thence to Elihu Perry's, excluding him : thence as usual. That the 
Second District extend castwardly to within 13^ rods of the bridge 
over Charles River, near Warfield Hayward's. That the Third Dis- 
trict remain as it now is, except the above alteration. That the Eighth 
District extend as far south as the north-easterl}- corner of Samuel 
Jones, Esq's., homestead land; and that there be another District 
in said Town for highway work." [Specification omitted.] . . . 
" That David Jones be set from the Fourth to the Second District; 
[and] that Daniel Carter be set from the Seventh to the Eighth Dis- 
trict." Report accepted, May 2, 1799. (Records, vol. ii., p. 29.) 

Still, man}' inhabitants were dissatisfied, and made such complaints, 
that, three j'ears later, a new arrangement was made, whereby the 
eight districts were resolved into six. This necessitated the removal 
of several schoolhouses to more convenient localities, which required 
the town to remunerate the districts for the cost of such removal. 
The committee on this subject had considerable difficulty about details 
in satisfying the town, but at length made a report which was accept- 
ed, April 5, 1802 ; viz., — 

" That the Town be divided into Six Districts. That the North District 
be bounded as follows: beginning at Ebenezer Wood's, excluding him; 
thence to Col. Ichabod Thayer's, including him; thence to Ithiel Parkhurst's, 
excluding him; thence to Wales Cheney's, including him; thence to Hopkin- 
ton line to Upton line; thence on Upton line to the road leading from 
Ebenezer Wood's to Upton; thence on said road to the first mentioned 
bounds. West District: beginning at David Jones', excluding him; thence 
to Alexander Scammell's, excluding him; thence to Richard Colburn's, in- 
cluding him; thence to Col. Ichabod Thayer's, excluding him; then bound- 
ing on the North District to Upton line, and on Upton line to the road lead- 
ing from David Jones' to Mendon; then to the first mentioned bounds. 
South-west District: beginning at Dr. Isaac Brigham's, including him; then 
to Stephen Kilburn's, including him; thence to Obadiah Wood's, including 



192 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



him; thence to Jonathan Hayward's, excluding him; thence to Cornell's & 
Aldrich's, excluding them; thence on line due west to Mendon line, and on 
Mendon line to the road leading from Jones' to Mendon; thence to David 
Jones' and widow Ruth Jones', including them; thence to Alexander Scani- 
mell's, including him; thence to the first mentioned bounds. South Dis- 
trict: beginning at Jonathan Hayward's, including him; thence to Joel 
Hayward's, including him; thence running east till it strikes the west line 
of the East District, and on said East District to Bellingham line, and on 
Bellingham line to Mendon, and on Mendon line to the boundary of the 
South-west District; thence to Cornell's & Aldrich's, including them; thence 
on the South-west District to the first mentioned bounds. East District: 
beginning at the north-westerly boundary of Bellingham; thence to Noah 
Wiswall's, including him; thence to Spruce Swamp; thence to Holliston line, 
and on Holliston line to Bellingham line, and on Bellingham line to the first 
mentioned bounds. Center District: beginning at Dr. Isaac Brigham's, 
excluding him; thence to Elijah Thayer's, including him; thence to Caleb 
Cheney's, including him; thence to Ithiel Parkhurst's, including him, 
thence to Wales Cheney's, excluding him; thence to Spruce Swamp near 
Holliston line; thence to Noah Wiswall's, excluding him ; thence to David 
Stearns', including him; thence to Stephen Kilburn's, excluding him; then 
to the first mentioned bounds. It is recommended by the Committee, that 
the District which stands highest in the Valuation be the First District. 
Also that the Town appoint a Committee to settle matters between Districts 
in respect to the cost of moving schoolhouses, and that where any school- 
house must be moved the Town pay the cost." The following vote, passed 
March 6, 1804, defines the situation and mimber of the six districts: " Voted 
to accept the Number of the Districts as follows: — 

Center District, or Middle of the Town First. 



North Purchase (so called) . 
South Center, or South-west District 
East District, or Bear Hill (so called) 
West District .... 
South District .... 

(Records, vol. ii., p. 119, also p. 122.) 



Second. 

Third. 

Fourth. 

Fifth. 

Sixth." 



Scarcel}' any changes in the lines of the above-described districts 
were made during the ensuing twenty years. Then a project was 
started to get up a peculiar composite district in the neighborhood of 
" Wild Cat," so called. It was proposed that Milford, Holliston, and 
Hopkinton, each of whom had families in that neighborhood ill accom- 
modated, should concur ; but this was found impracticable, and the 
movement abandoned till several years later, when the boundaries of 
the three towns in that quarter had been re-adjusted by act of the 
Legislature. In 1824 a committee was appointed to revise school- 
district lines. That committee reported a few important changes, as 
follows : — 



REVISION OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS. 193 

" First district: beginning at Dr. Isaac Brigham's, excluding him; thence 
to John Claflin's tavern house [the place formerly Stephen Kilburn's], ex- 
cluding that; then to the old cellar-hole near the Cobb orchard; then to 
the old cellar-hole near the road on Bear Hill; then to the house formerly- 
owned by Noah Wiswall, excluding that; then to Spruce Swamp on Hollis- 
ton line; then to Jesse Whitney's, including him; then to Ithiel Parkhurst's, 
including him; then to Caleb Cheney's, including him; then to Elijah 
Thayer's, including him; then to the first mentioned bound: the other 
School Districts bounding on the above mentioned line of the First, or Cen- 
ter District." Accepted Nov. 1, 1824. (Records, vol. ii., p. 416.) 

Jan. 5, 1829, the Town voted to divide the first district, and con- 
stitute the westerly section the seventh. This division, and the fact 
that the former boundaries left out certain gores of territory, induced 
the appointment of a committee, one from each of the now seven 
districts, to define anew the lines. That committee reported as fol- 
lows : — 

" That the limits and boundaries of the several School Districts into which 
the Town is at present divided be established as follows: viz., The First 
or Center District, bounded by a line beginning at the north dwelling-house 
of Mr. Alexander Cheney, including the same; thence running due east to 
the line which bounds the Town ; thence southerly on the Town line to a 
point near Spruce Swamp (so called) in Rocky Woods; thence to the dwell- 
iug-house of Mr. Charles Ballou, excluding the same; thence to the old 
cellar-hole on Bear Hill ; thence to the old cellar-hole near Cobb orchard (so 
called) ; thence westerly to a point due east of the north end of the build- 
ings app endedto the hotel of John Claflin, Esq., and due south from the 
extreme south-west corner of the Heater Piece (so called) ; thence due 
north to the said corner of the Heater Piece; thence northerly on the road 
to the corner of the roads just northerly of the Hearse House to the dwelling- 
house of Miss Dilla Twitchell, excluding the same; and thence north-easterly 
to the first mentioned boundary point. The Second, or Purchase District, 
bounded east, north, and west by the boundary-line of the Town, and south 
by a line beginning at the point on Upton line where the same is intersected 
by a road which passes out of Milford by Mr. Ebenr. Wood's dwelling-house; 
from said point proceeding to the said Wood's house, excluding the same; 
thence easterly to the dwelling-house of Capt. Rufus Thayer, excluding the 
same; thence to the Col. Thayer dwelling-house, including the same; thence 
southerly to the dwelling-house of Mr. Caleb Cheney, excluding the same; 
thence north-easterly to the dwelling-house of Mr. Henry Ball, excluding the 
same; thence due east until it intersects the line of the First District; and 
thence following said line to its most north-easterly point on the Town line. 
The Third, or South-west District, bounded by a line beginning at the old cel- 
lar-hole near Cobb orchard (so called) ; thence running south-westerly to the 
dwelling-house of Mr. Ezekiel White, including the same, and thence due 
west to the Town line ; thence following the said Town line northerly till it 



194 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

reaches the road which passes by the Jones place out of Milford into Mendon : 
thence to the Davenport house, excluding the same; thence easterly to the 
dwelling-house of Daniel Scammell, including the same; thence to the Brig- 
ham house, including the same; thence to the north side of the buildings 
appended to the hotel of John Claflin, Esq. ; thence due east to the line of 
the First District; and thence following said line to the first mentioned point 
near the Cobb orchard. The Fourth, or West District, bounded north by the 
Second, or Purchase District, east by a line beginning at the dwelling-house 
of Mr. Caleb Cheney, excluding the same; thence running southerly to Mr. 
Artemas Thayer's dwelling-house, excluding the same; thence due south to 
the north line of the Third, or South-west District; on the south bounded by 
said Third District, and on the west by the Town line. The Fifth, or East 
District, bounded on the east and south by the Town line, from a point begin- 
ning north near the Spruce Swamp in Rocky Woods, and ending south-west 
at a point made by the most north-westerly corner of the Town of Belling- 
ham; bounded on the west by a line proceeding northerly from the said 
north-west corner of Bellingham to the old cellar-hole near Cobb orchard; 
and thence following the easterly boundary-line of the First District to the 
first-mentioned point near Spruce Swamp. The Sixth, or South District, 
bounded on the east by the Fifth District and the Town line, north-west and 
north by the Third District. The Seventh District, bounded on the north 
by the Second, or Purchase District, east by the First or Center District, 
south by the Third or South-west District, and west by the Fourth or West 
District. 

" By the foregoing it will be seen that the new limits of the several School 
Districts are so adjusted as to leave no gores of land, as was before the case. 
It will also be seen that the following dwelling-houses have been placed 
within the limits of other Districts: viz., Mr. Alexander Cheney's two 
houses have been taken from the Second or Purchase District, and brought 
within the limits of the First District. The dwelling-houses of Lee Claflin, 
Henry Ball, and Henry Allen have also been taken off from the Second, or 
Purchase District, and brought within the limits of the Seventh District. 
Capt. Rufus Thayer has also been taken off from the Purchase District, and 
brought within the limits of the Fourth or West District. The Wiswall 
dwelling-house, formerly belonging to the East District, has been brought 
within the limits of the First District. The dwelling-house of Lieut. Isaac 
Davenport, formerly belonging to the South-west District, has been brought 
within the limits of the South District. And the Davenport dwelling-house, 
heretofore belonging to the Third District, has been brought within the 
limits of the Fourth, or West District. All which the Committee respect- 
fully submit." Accepted Jan. 19, 1829. {Records, vol. iii., pp. 48-50.) 

The next alteration worthy of mention was the creation of a new 
district in the north-east corner of the town, hereinbefore spoken of 
as the " Wild Cat" neighborhood. The lines of Holliston, Hopkin- 
ton, and Milford in that neighborhood had been rectified by the Gen. 



THE WILD CAT NEW DISTRICT, ETC. 195 

Court ; and our town gained a few families. All the families in that 
neighborhood were inconveniently distant from schoolhouses. It was 
very desirable for them to be made a separate district, and to have a 
schoolhouse. The onhy objection was, that they were too few to have 
a school of sufficient length, without drawing an overshare of school- 
money. However, in response to a petition of Alexander Cheney 
and others, the Town appointed a committee to consider the matter. 
That committee reported as follows : — 

" That a School District be set off in the north-easterly part of said Town, 
to be called the Eighth School District, and bounded by the following lines: 
to wit, southerly on a line running east and west across the First District, 
from the line of the Fifth District to the line of the Seventh District, to 
strike the northernmost part of the barn lately owned by Stephen Sweet; 
thence on the line of the Seventh District to the house of Abel Clark, exclud- 
ing said house; thence to Hopkinton line where the new line between Hop- 
kinton and Milford crosses the old line; thence on Hopkinton line, Holliston 
line, and the line of the Fifth District, to the east end of the first-mentioned 
boundary line." Accepted, on condition that the new District would receive 
their proportion of school money, as had just then been arranged, May 9, 
1836. According to the petition for this new district, it consisted of only 
eleven families when set off; whose paternal heads were Samuel Day, 
Rufus Claflin, Stephen Brown, Rufus Claflin, jun., Moses Adams, Henry 
Pearce, Aaron Hero, John Hero, Alexander Cheney, Jesse Whitney, and 
Hachaliah Whitney." {Records, vol. iii., pp. 182 and thereabouts.) 

Fresh agitations soon after arose, and better accommodations for 
school privileges were importuned for. Some demanded to be set 
over to other districts, and many more to multiply the districts. This 
latter demand was at length conceded. One large committee reported 
a plan of division which did not quite satisfy the citizens. They 
therefore referred the subject to another large committee, who, with 
a few modifications, recommended the plan of their predecessors. 
Their report was accepted in 1841. It divided the town into eleven 
districts, as follows : — 

"District No. 1. To commence at Cobb orchard (so called); thence to 
the old cellar on Bear Hill ; thence to the old post-road east of the house 
occupied by Luther Holbrook; thence to the house of Zebadiah Flagg, 
including all the buildings belonging to him and D. S. Flagg within the 
limits herein described; thence to the junction of the old Cedar Swamp Pond 
with Charles River; thence southerly by said river to a point west of said 
Cobb orchard; thence east to the place of beginning. 

" No. 2. To commence at Charles River at the south-west corner of No. 
1; thence to the house of Lewis Johnson, including that; thence east of 
the houses of Amos B. Bridges and Benjamin Brown, to the fork of the 



196 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

road near the house of Samuel A. Vant; thence east to Charles River to 
the place of beginning. 

" No. 8. To commence at Charles River, at the south-west corner of No. 
1; thence to the house of the late Col. Godfrey, including that; thence to the 
house of Sumner Pond, including that; thence to the fork of the road near 
the house of Samuel A. Vant; thence on line of No. 2 to the place of begin- 
ning. 

"No. 4- "To commence at Mendon line, at the road leading from the 
house of the late Hastings Daniels to Mendon ; thence on said line to the 
county-road leading from Milford to Mendon ; thence to the house of Lyman 
S. Clark, including that; thence to the house of Isaac Davenport, excluding 
that; thence to Charles River, at the south-west corner of No. 1; thence by 
the line of No. 3 to its western angle; thence westerly to the place of begin- 
ning. 

" No. 5. To commence at the stone monument, at the south end of the 
new Town line between Milford and Holliston; thence on the lines of Hollis- 
ton, Med way, and Bellingham, to Charles River; thence northerly to the 
aforesaid Cobb orchard; thence on line of No. 1 to the north-east corner of 
that District; thence northerly to the place of beginning. 

" No. 6. To commence at Mendon line, at the south-west corner of No. 
4; thence on said line to Charles River; thence on said River to the south- 
west corner of No. 5; thence on line of No. 5 to the south-east corner of No. 
1; thence on line of No. 1 to Charles River; thence on line of No. 4 to the 
place of beginning. 

" No. 7. To commence at the bridge over Mill River, near the house of 
Ebenezer W. Wood; thence on the lines of Upton and Mendon to the south- 
west corner of No. 4; thence on line of No. 4 to the western angle of No. 3; 
thence to the house of Artemas Thayer, excluding that; thence to the house 
of John A. Clark, excluding that; thence to the house of Wid. Leland, 
including that; thence to the place of beginning. 

"No. 8. To commence at the aforesaid bridge; thence by line of No. 7 
to the house of John A. Clark, excluding that; thence to the house of Emery 
Sumner, including that; thence to the house of Aaron Partridge, including 
that; thence northerly to Mill River east of the buildings of Lyman P. Lowe ; 
thence by said river to the place of beginning. 

"No. 9. To commence at the stone monument in North Pond, at the 
north-west corner of Milford; thence easterly on Hopkinton line to a point 
north of the house of Abel Clark; thence south to a point east of the house 
of Wid. Trial Andrews; thence west to the west side of the house of the late 
Sylvester Wales, excluding that and the house of said Andrews; thence to 
the south-east corner of No. 8, excluding the house of John A. Clark; thence 
by line of No. 8 to Mill River; thence by said river and Upton line to the 
place of beginning. 

"No. 10. To commence at the western angle of No. 3; thence by line 
of said Dist ict to its north-east corner; thence east on line of No. 2 to 
Charles River; thence by said river to north-west corner of No. 1; thence 
to the house of Abel Clark, including that; thence to the south-east corner of 



THE HOPEDALE OR TWELFTH DISTRICT. 197 

No. 9; thence by line of No. 9 to the house of John A. Clark, including 
that; thence by line of Xo. 7 to the place of beginning. 

"No. 11. To commence at north-east corner of Xo. 9; thence on Hop- 
kiuton line to the north-west corner of Holliston; thence on Holliston line to 
north-west corner of Xo. 5; thence by line of Xo. 5 to north-east corner of 
Xo. 1; thence by line of Xo. 1 to Charles River; thence by line of Xo. 10 
to the place of beginning." Accepted March 2, 1811. (Records, vol. iii., 
p. 310.) 

In 1847 another district was set off, numbered the Twelfth. The 
community at Hopedale had developed a new and considerable popu- 
lation within the limits of the Fourth District, in a portion of it where, 
in 1841, there were but two dwelling-houses. It was not only incon- 
venient for their children to attend school in the schoolhouse of No. 
4, on account of distance and lack of room there, but the community 
felt bound by their religious principles to educate their rising genera- 
tion apart from the existing public schools. For five years they sup- 
ported a school for them at their own expense ; but in the mean time, 
being fully taxed to maintain the town-schools, they deemed it just to 
receive back a part of their money for the education of their own 
children. The}' therefore asked for a territorial school district suited 
to their needs, at the same time promising to admit into their school, 
free ofcharge, the few children on their borders whose parents might 
desire it. After considerable delay, on account of objections made 
by certain citizens, their petition was almost unanimously granted by 
a vote passed Nov. 22, 1847. The boundaries of this new district 
were as follows : — 

" Beginning at the south-easterly corner of the Hopedale estate, on the 
main road leading from Milford to Mendon ; thence northerly with the fence 
which divides said estate from the lands of Sylvanus Adams, Xewton Dan- 
iels, Stephen Cook and Daniell Scammell, till it strikes the old road leading 
from said Scammell's to Hopedale; thence north-easterly up said road to the 
easterly limits of Nathan Harris's estate; thence to the southern boundary of 
District Xo. 7; thence westerly with said boundaryto Mendon line; thence 
southerly with said line to Post Lane, so called; thence easterly with said 
lane and the southern bine of the Hopedale estate, by lands of Almon 
Harris and Xathaniel Bennett, to the main road first mentioned, a little 
east of the stone bridge over Mill River; and thence easterly to the place of 
beginning." (Records of the Town, 1847.) 

All, or nearly all, these twelve districts were, first or last, legally 
organized with corporate powers, chose clerks, opened records, elected 
prudential committees, and managed their internal affairs to the 
extent allowed by the laws and votes of the Town for the time being ; 



198 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

but the rapid increase of population in Milford Centre, and the march 
of improvement in educational management, soon superinduced im- 
portant changes. The High School was established in 1850 ; gram- 
mar schools and grading soon followed wherever practicable, under 
new arrangements. At the annual March meeting in 1851, the Gen- 
eral School Committee were directed to investigate the subject of 
re-organizing the school districts, and grading the public schools. 
The article in the town-warrant, as referred to the committee, ran 
thus : — 

" To see if the Town will take the management of the public schools in 
said Town, or act on a matter or thing concerning said schools, schoolhonses, 
or school districts in said Town, proper to be then and there acted on." 

COMMITTEE'S REPORT. 

" 1st, That the present School Districts, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10, be united 
and form one District, excepting so much of No. 4 as lies westerly of a 
straight line drawn from the south-east corner of District No. 12, near the 
bottom of the hill on the Mendon road, to the boundary of District No. 6, 
and intersecting a point forty rods south-west of Mr. Newell Nelson's house. 

" 2d, That the territory of No. 4, lying westerly of said line, be joined 
to and form a part of No. 12. 

•* 3d, That the Districts be numbered as follows: The new District com- 
posed of Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 10 (as hereinbefore described), shall be No. 1; 
the present No. 9 shall be No. 2; No. 11 shall be No. 3; No. 12 shall be No. 
4; and the other Districts shall be numbered as they are. 

" 4th, That the Selectmen be authorized to rent to the new District, 
No. 1, the lower room of the High Schoolhouse, to be occupied by a gram- 
mar school of said District. 

"5th, That the School Committee be instructed to grade the schools in 
such districts as they think proper, to establish the standard of admission 
to said schools, and to decide such other questions as may arise respecting 
the same. 

"6th, That no children be allowed to attend the public schools who 
shall be under four years of age. 

" 7th, That the School Committee be authorized to expend for such 
apparatus as they may think necessary for the use of the High School, so 
much of the $1,500 raised for the support of said school as may not be 
required to defray its current expenses during the present year." 

[The eighth recommendation, relating to appropriation of money, 
is deferred to another place.] Report accepted and adopted by the 
Town, July 11, 1851. 

Finally the history of our school districts ends with their entire 
abolition as corporate bodies. So much dissatisfaction still prevailed, 
that the Town, at a meeting held May 25, 1853, appointed a special 



SCHOOL DISTRICTS ABOLISHED. 199 

committee to consider and report on the expediency of abolishing the 
districts. That committee consisted of Leander Holbrook, J. T. 
Woodbury, C. F. Chapin, Henr} - Chapin, A. J. Sumner, Nelson Park- 
hurst, and Adin Ballou. Their report culminated in the following 

RESOLUTIONS {Draughted by Me). 

" By the people of Milford, in legal town meeting assembled, April 3, 
1854: Resolved, — 

" 1. That all the school districts now existing within the limits of said 
town ought to be, and hereby are, abolished. 

44 2. That all the duties heretofore devolving on said districts, relating 
to school houses and school affairs, ought to be, and hereby are, assumed by 
the Town. 

"3. That the several schoolhouses and all other property belonging to 
the said districts respectively ought to be fairly appraised, and the certified 
valuation thereof placed on the town records, by the selectmen, within sixty 
days from the present date; and they are hereby instructed to act accord- 
ingly- 

" 4. That the taxable inhabitants residing within the territorial limits of 

the several abolished districts which have schoolhouses or other property sub- 
ject to appraisal ought, within seven years from the present date, to receive 
such a remission of their taxes as shall equitably reimburse to them the ap- 
praised value of said property; and the Town is hereby pledged to make all 
necessary provision accordingly. 

" 5. That all the corporate records and papers of the said abolished dis- 
tricts ought to be deposited in the Town Clerk's office for permanent preser- 
vation within sixty days from he present date ; and the Town Clerk is hereby 
instructed to collect and take charge of them accordingly. 

44 6. That in abolishing the school districts, and assuming for itself the 
entire management of educational affairs, the Town ought to guarantee to all 
the exterior school localities a larger amount of schooling than they have 
heretofore enjoyed under the district system, so that the very smallest of 
them shall be provided with a good school for at least twenty-four weeks, 
of five days each, in every year, and the more populous of them in reasonable 
proportion; and the General School Committee are hereby permanently 
instructed to conduct their arrangements accordingly. 

44 7. That the declared wishes of the people in each school locality, 
respecting their own school affairs, ought to be complied with by the Town 
and by the General School Committee, so far as the same can be done with- 
out violating the laws of the Commonwealth, the rights of other localities, 
and the general educational welfare. 

44 8. That the foregoing Resolves, with their guaranties and pledges, 
shall be held sacred by the Town, and shall guide the proceedings of its offi- 
cers in all matters therein specified, until the same shall have been rescinded 
or changed in a legal town meeting, acting under an article in the warrant 
for that express purpose." 



200 HISTORY OF M1LF011D. 

The committee's report was received with general favor ; and the 
foregoing Resolves unanimously passed, April 3, 1854. (See Town 
Records, vol. iv., pp. 408. 409.) The proper town authorities forth- 
with assumed control of the affairs assigned to them ; the existing 
schoolhouses were appraised ; and the new order of things became 
permanently established. And I believe that the town's management 
of our educational interests has given general satisfaction. 

SCHOOLHOUSES AND EXPENDITURES. 

I find no satisfactory evidence that there was a single schoolhousc 
on our territory at the time of the town's incorporation in 1780. My 
friend Alexander H. Allen, well versed in the records of Mendon, 
was confident that only two then existed in the whole mother-town, 
both of which were within the limits of its ancient seat. One was 
authorized to be built in the Easterly Precinct, not long after it was 
set off as such ; and in 1750 the Precinct voted to erect it. It was 
to be sixteen feet square, with seven-feet posts. But after ten years 
of fruitless endeavor, on the part of a few anxious friends of educa- 
tion, to get this vote actualized, the opposing majority rescinded it. 
So this projected grand temple of learning never graced the Precinct 
centre. It seems to be almost certain, that, previous to 1780, all our 
schools were kept in dwelling-houses, or in adjacent out-buildings 
extemporized for that purpose. Four such have been reported to me, 
and doubtless there were several others. The late Heury Chapin, of 
venerable age, just before his sudden death in 1876, mentioned two 
of them amonsr the reminiscences handed down from his father, 
Adams Chapin, Esq. The latter was, in his day, a very intelligent 
and influential townsman. While yet in his early teens, he attended 
a school kept in an ancient domicil built by his grandfather, Seth 
Chapin, jun. It stood on a gentle swell of land, some forty rods or 
more south of what is now called Hopedale Corner, on the east side 
of the street. The foundation was obliterated several years sinje. 
One term of that school was memorable for having been taught by the 
celebrated Alexander Scammell, afterwards adjutant-general of Wash- 
ington's army. Adams Chapin always spoke of that school with the 
warmest enthusiasm, as affording him the finest scholastic privilege 
of his youth. The schoolroom was a rude concern, fitted up with 
plank seats on blocks, and writing-counters supported by empty 
barrels, with ever}- thing else to match. But the teacher, oh, he was 
a paragon ! a star of the first magnitude, and almost worshipped by 
his pupils. He had been fitted for college by Parson Frost, perhaps 
had just entered Harvard U. (for this must have been between 1763 



EARLIEST SCHOOLHOUSES. 201 

and '65). He was stately, handsome, commanding, sprightly, and 
genial. His instructions, methods, and discipline were never to be 
forgotten by those who enjoyed his inspiring drill. His admiring 
panegyrist got such a start under his tuition, that he himself was 
presently sought after as a schoolmaster, serving several 3-ears ac- 
ceptablv in that vocation. At the age of fifteen he was invited to 
teach in the humble home of his uncle Moses Chapin, next dwelling- 
house north of our present asylum for the poor. The accommoda- 
tions were even ruder and poorer than where Scammell had taught. 
The house was small, low, and cramped : all its doors hung on 
wooden hinges. Some fifteen scholars had scanty room, and the 
family were squeezed into the closest quarters. But there was sun- 
shine on all faces, and the school was a pleasing success. Subse- 
quently 3'oung Chapin taught in a long, narrow abode that stood at 
the junction of what are now called Greene and Elm Sts., in its 
south-west corner. Fift}- years ago it was occupied b\- the widow 
Lawrence. It was once owned, I think, by James Sumner, Esq. 
The schoolmaster used to tell, with pride, that there he taught the 
alphabet to his }'Oung cousin, Stephen Chapin, who was then an 
unlettered boy of eight years, but who afterwards graduated at H. U., 
became a distinguished Doctor of Divinity, and closed his eminent 
career as president of Columbian College at the national capital. 
In those days, or not long afterwards, Elijah Thayer rented a portion 
of his house, on the place lately owned by Justin E. Eames, as a 
district schoolroom. This is indicated by an item in an old Mendon 
treasurer's book, which shows that he was paid for such an accommo- 
dation. 

The first mention of schoolhouses on our town records bears date 
Mar. 1, 1791; nearly eleven yrs. after the incorporation: "Voted 
to raise £240 [about $800] to build and repair schoolhouses in the 
Town of Milford, and each District to pay their own cost." This 
proves that there were some schoolhouses here in 1791 ; but how 
many, or where located, we can only guess : probably in two or three 
of the most populous districts, and those very cheap, ill-constructed 
edifices. How many were built or repaired in consequence of the 
above vote, does not appear. Subsequent entries imply that its 
results were meagre ; for, after several attempts to render it effective, 
a motion was made and carried at the May meeting of 1797: "To 
call the rate-bills out of the constable's hands, which were made for 
building and repairing schoolhouses." From this I infer that only 
a part, if any, of the money assessed was ever collected. From all I 
can learn, it is probable that the First or Middle District erected our 



202 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

earliest schoolhouse. It originally stood near the junction of Spruce 
and Congress Sts., now so called. But, some little time after the 
eight school districts were re-arranged into six, it was moved down 
to the west side of now Purchase St., a few rods north of the 
George Howe place. The re-arrangement was made, as elsewhere 
stated, in 1802. On Aug. 30 of that year it was " Voted to choose a 
Committee for the purpose of moving the schoolhouse in the Middle 
District, and to agree with Bear Hill District for their damage, or 
move their schoolhouse." In 1807 this matter was settled by paving 
the Middle District a hundred dollars, and Bear Hill fifty dollars. 
What became of the Middle District House, in the process of subse- 
quent changes, will be told in its place. As to the Bear Hill District, 
tradition says it had originalby two inferior schoolhouses, — one near 
the Timothy Wiswall place, just west of the remaining cellar-hole, 
and the other in the ancient Elias Whitney neighborhood. Just how 
this was, is a little uncertain. Doubtless the extremes of the district, 
north and south, rendered it convenient to have its school kept alter- 
nately at these places. But that there were realby two regular 
district schoolhouses, is improbable, as none of the records speak of 
more than one. It is likely, however, that two buildings were some- 
times used for greater convenience ; one of them being merely hired, 
or occupied by sufferance. Meantime North Purchase, South Milford, 
and the City districts, as also the Second, then so called, had each 
a schoolhouse of some sort, but doubtless all humble structures. 
The Second District became dissatisfied with theirs, and, having 
legally organized, April 2, 1800, "Voted to build a new schoolhouse 
in said district. Voted to build said schoolhouse twentv-four feet Ions: 
and twenty wide. Voted to raise £Gb [or about $216.46], exclusive of 
what the old schoolhouse will fetch. Then chose Lt. Ephraim Chapin, 
Majr. Saml. Nelson, and Mr. Elihu Perry, a committee to superintend 
the building of the schoolhouse. Voted to build a brick chimney, set 
it at the end, and also to have an entry like the schoolhouse in the 
1st District. Voted to leave it to the Committee to make the best 
use of the old schoolhouse, — either to sell it, or use it in building the 
new one. Voted to build a studded house. Voted not to put in 
the old windows. Voted to build a straight roof. Voted to plane the 
clapboards and color the house. Stephen Chapin to give a privilege 
of so much laud in his pasture as shall be necessary for setting the 
schoolhouse and a yard for wood, etc. ; said privilege to be only for 
the use of a schoolhouse, — not for any other use. Voted to set the 
schoolhouse in Stephen Chapin 's pasture, on or near a ledgj- knoll by 
the road." At an adjournment in the autumn, probably jiler the 



NEW SCHOOLHOUSES. 203 

house had been nearly or quite completed, "Voted to raise twenty- 
six dollars to pay for building the schoolhouse." Ephraim Chapin, 
moderator, Adams Chapin. clerk. {Town Records, vol. ii.. p. 4G.) J 
I have given these proceedings as a sample of school-district action 
respecting schoolhouses in those days and downward. This is the 
oldest record of the kind I have been able to find. Probabl}- the first 
generation of schoolhouses were built with comparatively informal 
preparations. The one above voted stood on the ledgy knoll at the 
present junction of Adin with Main St., in the northerly corner. It 
was burnt down after midnight, in the early morning of Nov. 13, 1831. 
Mr. William A. Phipps of Hopkinton had just commenced teaching the 
winter term of the school. In 1832, at the cost of over five hundred 
dollars, the District built its successor, at the junction of Prospect 
with Main St., in the southerly corner. This was somewhat larger 
than its predecessor, painted yellow, and ornamented on its easterly 
end with the picture of a clock-dial, the hands indicating nine a.m. 
precisely. Hence it was familiarly called sometimes "the yellow," 
and sometimes " the nine-o'clock," schoolhouse. Later, under a dif- 
ferent arrangement of districts, it was moved down the hill to a lot of 
land between Main and Thayer Sts: this was in 1854. Subsequently 
it was superseded by a much more commodious structure in the same 
vicinity, now in use. The " nine-o'clock house " is still standing, just 
south of Mann's Boot Manufactorv, metamorphosed into a small 
family tenement. Burnt, with said factory, May 18, 1881. 

The North Purchase District, according to tradition, had first a 
little schoolhouse that stood on the old road, now Tyler St., above 
Eben. Next, it built one that stood near the Methodist meeting- 
house, above the John Cheney place, on the east side of the road. 
I taught school in that house two winters, 1824-25 and 1828-29. It 
was of the then common fashion, perhaps thirty b}- twenty-five feet 
in dimension, posts of tolerable height, with a small porch, and a 
chimney at the north end. It had an an ample open fireplace for 
heating-purposes, which in cold weather consumed enormous sup- 
plies of wood, sometimes half roasting the nearest sitters, and leav- 
ing the most distant to shiver, except when permitted, under a 
"please, sir," request, to take their turns for a warming. That 
house would seat, in the style of those days, seventy-five or eighty 
pupils. I have tried in vain to learn the date of its erection, proba- 
bly between 1800 and 1810. It was burnt about Dec. 20, 1830. 
The District took early action for building a new house on land 

' I have been told, on good authority, that the old echoolbouse above referred to stood on 
what is now called Cortland St., In the valley towards South Main St. 



204 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

offered by Josiah Ball on the east side of the road, about twenty-five 
rods northerly of Haven St. junction. They voted to build of 
brick, thirty-one by twenty-four feet, and completed it in 1832 at a 
cost of about five hundred and twenty-four dollars. It is still in use 
for the convenience of X. Purchase Primary School. The present 
commodious grammar schoolhouse in that neighborhood was erected 
by the Town in 18G4, at a total cost of §2,607.13. 

The Bear Hill District, concerning which I have already said that 
tradition credited it with two old-time schoolhouses, is recorded to 
have built a new one in 1820. At a legal meeting May 13, 1820, 
Jacob Hayward, moderator, Arial Bragg, clerk, " Voted to build a 
schoolhouse. and to raise three hundred and forty dollars for that 
purpose, including the note of fifty dollars " given by the Town 
pursuant to the indemnit}' vote of 1807 on account of re-arranging 
the districts. That house was large enough to accommodate at least 
sixty scholars, and was located, by an outside committee chosen by 
the district, on the west side of now Beaver St., a few rods south- 
wards from the Jacob Havward place. I taught school in it during 
the winter of 1825-2G. It was superseded in 1859 by two nice houses 
in the northerlv and southerlv sections of the district ; being; itself 
sold and removed or demolished. 

The City District, so called, held on to its original schoolhouse 
rather tenaciously. It stood on the old Upton road, now Asylum 
St., about midway between the terminus of that street, near a 
famous large rock. Some of the inhabitants wanted a new house 
in 1821 ; but it was finally decided, in legal meetings, to repair the 
old one. This was done by raising the little structure fifteen inches, 
adding a porch eight feet square, and rejuvenating it thoroughly inside 
and out at a cost of a hundred and sixty-six dollars. Thus it was 
made to last, with incidental repairs, till 1845 r when the present 
house on West St. was erected by the District at a cost of five 
hundred dollars or thereabouts. 

The South Milford District had an original schoolhouse of very 
humble pretensions, which stood at the south-west corner of the 
graveyard, on the spot now occupied by the Warfield lots and 
monuments, or thereabouts. I have been unable to find an}' record 
or aged person to tell me the date of its erection. I can only guess 
at 1790, perhaps a little earlier, or a little later. But its next 
successor, ten rods farther south, was built in 1813 or 1814, probably 
in 1814. My friend Joseph Albee remembered so much distinctly ; 
also that Samuel Penniman, Saml. Warfield, sen., and Joel Howard 
were the building committee ; that Zuriel Howard took the contract 



OTHER NEW SCHOOLHOUSES. 205 

of construction for three hundred dollars ; and that Nahum Legg 
taught the first winter school therein, 1814-15. I have not found the 
proper confirmatory records, but have no doubts. 

When District No. 1 (which included most of Milford Centre, so 
called) was divided, in 1829, the easterly portion retained the 
numerical designation, and was known for mam - ensuing years as the 
First School District. The westerly portion was designated as No. 7, 
and held the ancient schoolhouse that stood a little northerly of the 
George Howe place, — the same that had been formerly moved thither 
from near the junction of Congress and Spruce Sts. No. 1 forth- 
with built a new house on Main St., on the Plain, nearly opposite 
the Amasa Parkhurst place. It cost a fraction over four hundred and 
sixty-six dollars. I taught the first school ever kept in it, during the 
winter months of 1829-30. It ultimately became too small to ac- 
commodate the increase of scholars, was superseded by more ample 
houses in the vicinity between 1859 and '71, and then sold. It was 
converted into a dwelling-house, and still stands not far from its 
former site. 

District No. 8, " Deer Brook," set off in 183G, kept its first school 
in John Hero's shop. It built its little edifice in 1837. April 17, 
1837, " Voted to build a new schoolhouse seventeen by fifteen feet, 
eight-feet posts, either brick or wood." Alexander Cheney, Moses 
Adams, and John Hero, building committee. Nine rods of land 
bought for ten dollars, of John Hero. The house was considerably 
improved a few years later. Total cost, about three hundred dollars. 

The Silver Hill Schoolhouse was erected by the district then called 
No. 8, in 1841. Rufus Thayer, AVilliam W. Legg, and Augustus 
Thayer, building committee. Land deeded by Rufus Thayer, solely 
for school purposes, Nov. 23, 1841. Total cost, five hundred and 
fifty dollars. . 

District No. 10, formerly the northern section of No. 7, inherited 
the old schoolhouse, before twice mentioned as standing a little 
northerly of the George Howe place on Purchase St. It sold 
this relic of antiquity for a small sum to Gershom Twitchell in 1841, 
who removed it to a part of the old Twitchell estate on Congress 
St., fitted it up for a domicil, and therein ended his days. The 
same year, 1841, the District built what is called the Fountain St. 
Schoolhouse, at the cost of six hundred and five dollars. This house 
is still in use. 

District No. 3, which, by the arrangement of 1841, was largely 
constituted of the former No. 7, this same year purchased the edifice 
known as the academy, for the sum of nine hundred and fifty dollars. 



206 HISTORY OF M1LFORD. 

This afforded accommodations for two schools, one in the lower and 
the other in the upper story. It served the district for several }-ears, 
till superseded by more desirable structures. Also the same year 
District No. 2, created under that year's districting arrangement, b\' 
combining portions of the former Nos. 1 and 7, erected a two-story 
schoolhouse near the Brick Church. This cost the District over fif- 
teen hundred dollars. How much over, I could not readily ascertain ; 
perhaps considerable, as it was appraised at fifteen hundred dollars 
when it passed over into town possession in 1854. 

I believe no more schoolhouses were built by the districts ; but they 
continued to keep their respective houses in repair, at greater or less 
expense, till the spring of 1854. Then, as hereinbefore stated, the 
districts were abolished as corporate bodies, and the town took pos- 
session of all their property. I herewith present a cop}' of the select- 
men's 

SCHOOLHOUSE APPRAISAL. 

" The following is the appraisal of the several Schoolhouses in the town 
of Milford, as appraised by us the subscribers, agreeable to a vote of said 
town passed on the third day of April, 1854. 

"Old No. 1, near wid. [Amasa] Parkhurst's $450 

No. 2, near Brick Church 1,500 

No. 3, Old Acadeuiy 1,500 

No. 4, near Obed Daniels's 375 

No. 5, Bear Hill 375 

No. 6, South Milford 150 

No. 7, City 400 

No 8, Silver Hill 51G 

No. 9, No. Purchase 550 

No. 10, [Fountain St.] near Crosby's 500 

No. 11, [Deer Brook] Wild Cat 275 

" A. J. SUMNER, 

OBED DANIELS, 

ZIBA THAYER, 

Selectmen of Milford. 
" Milford, May 10, 1S54." 

The total of this appraisal seems to be SO, 591. No. 12, Hopedale, 
owned no schoolhouse. It hired the old Schoolhouse Chapel, so called, 
for some }'ears. The law provided that the inhabitants of the several 
districts should receive back their equitable dues out of this appraisal 
in subsequent abatements of their taxes ; and thus matters were soon 
satisfactorily adjusted. 

Next in order comes the establishment of the High School, and the 
erection of its edifice. The town had for some time been under legal 
obligation to set up this school ; and the foremost friends of education 



THE HIGH SCHOOL ESTABLISHED, ETC. 207 

(among whom Gen. Orison Underwood deserves mention) were anx- 
ious to see it accomplished. But the dread of expense, and the diffi- 
culty of securing equitable advantages to the outlying portions of our 
population, very much embarrassed the proposition. There were many 
conflicting opinions on the subject. At length, on the 18th Sept., 
1848, the town appointed a committee to consider and report what 
was expedient to be done. This committee consisted of Adin Ballou, 
Preston Pond, J. Whitman, jun., George W. Stacy, and A. J. Sum- 
ner. We gave the matter a very careful and thorough consideration, 
agreed on all essential points, and finally made our report, Nov. 13, 
1848. The town accepted our work with much favor, passed a vote 
of thanks, and ordered six hundred copies of the report to be printed. 
The movement went forward thenceforth to its consummation, with 
only some unpleasant friction of opinion about the location. A fine 
site was ere long selected, and a respectable house erected, with a 
much more liberal outfit than its early movers had dared to anticipate. 
The establishment was finished and in running order early in Novem- 
ber, 1850. The building and appurtenances, aside from the land 
purchased for site, cost about 85,790, if I have correctly noted the 
figures of the selectmen's annual report. 

The schoolhouses erected since the abolition of corporate districts 
are the following : — 

1. In South Milford, north of the cemetery, 1855 ; wood, one stor}', 
twenty-eight feet by forty, and twelve feet posts, with chairs for fifty- 
six scholars, and ten or fifteen more if necessaiy ; work done by 
Lowell Tales. The site, about three-fourths of an acre, cost $60.12, 
and the house, underpinning and all, $1,491. All its con% T eniences 
modern and ample. The former house was sold to Joseph Albee for 
$125, and converted into a dwelling. It occupies precisely its old 
position. 

2. The Grammar Schoolhouse, near junction of Fruit and Main 
Sts. ; brick walls, voted to be thirt}--nine feet by seventy, two stories 
high, with four co-equal rooms ; built in 1858 ; a very commodious 
and substantial edifice. Cost $4,577.43 ; and its furnishings, $735.71. 

3. Primary Schoolhouse in Hoboken, so called, alias Danielsville ; 
built 1858, of one stoiy, wood. The cost of this building with its 
site, if I understand the selectmen's annual report for 1858-59, was 
$1,060.37. 

4. Primary Schoolhouse in the southerly section of Bear-Hill dis- 
trict ; built 1859, of wood, one story, in the Whitney neighborhood. 
Cost of site, building, etc., a little over $800. 

5. Primary Schoolhouse in the northerly section of Bear-Hill dis- 



208 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

m 

trict, known as Braggville ; built 1859, of wood, one story, on the 
west side of E. Main St. Cost somewhat over 81,000. 

6. North Grammar Sehoolhouse on the Plain, in the neighborhood 
atone time called Jonesville ; completed and dedicated, May, 1860; 
built of wood, about the same size as the South Grammar Sehoolhouse, 
corner of Fruit and Main Sts.. capacious and convenient. Cost of 
site, building, etc., about 86.000. 

7. Primary Sehoolhouse on West St., in the neighborhood known 
as Whistly Beer ; built 1860-61. of wood, one story high, with two 
good-sized rooms. Cost of site, building, etc., 82,000. 

8. Grammar Sehoolhouse on "Walnut St. ; erected in 1864, of 
wood, large and commodious, substantial and convenient. Exact total 
cost of site, building, fixtures, and furniture, 810,355.08. 

9. Grammar Sehoolhouse in North Milford, alias North Purchase ; 
erected also in 1864, of wood, planned with reference to a second 
story when needed ; a neat, attractive structure, of ample dimensions 
for the time being. Exact cost of site, edifice, fixtures, and furni- 
ture, 82,607.13.* 

10. Primaiy Sehoolhouse on Chapin St., sometimes called the 
Sandbank House, was completed early iu 1867. It was built of wood, 
one story, with two ample rooms for primaries ; and, with its site, 
furniture, etc.. cost in round numbers, about 85.000. 

11. The Hopedale Grammar and Primary Sehoolhouse was com- 
pleted and opened early in 1868. It is of wood, one story, with 
dimensions affording accommodations for both a grammar and a pri- 
mary school. Cost of site, construction, fixtures, etc., 85,000. 

12. Priman" Sehoolhouse on the Plain, close by the North Grammar 
edifice. It was built of wood, a two-story structure, of ample dimen- 
sions, and deemed an improvement on preceding models ; was com- 
pleted in 1870, at a total cost of about 84.550.03. 

13. The Claflin Primary Sehoolhouse, a stateby and commodious 
edifice, was mainby constructed in 1870, but not read} - for use till the 
spring term of 1871. The School Committee, in their annual report 
for 1870-71, thus speak of it: "At the April meeting [1870], the 
Town also appropriated 810,000 toward the erection of a large school- 
house on ground owned by the Town, lying near the Milford and 
Woonsocket R.R. Depot. The Building Committee contracted with 
Mr. James Bergin for an edifice as large on the ground as the Central 
Grammar Schools, to be furnished with a French roof, affording room 
for six schools, those on the upper floor to be of upper and not pri- 
mary grades. The contract was to be completed before the close of 
February. The total cost of the edifice, including the furniture and 



SCHOOL MONEYS AND MANAGEMENT. 209 

laying-out of the grounds, will be 815,137.50. It already presents 
itself to the public as a thing not only of use, but beauty, while its 
cost, in view of its capacity, is moderate indeed. At the beginning 
of the coming spring term, Primary Schools Nos. 3 and 8 will be 
removed from the old academy to the new house, and such new 
schools opened as necessity may demand." This was done in 1871, 
and the old academy-building sold to the highest bidder. The pur- 
chaser removed it from the parish common to Green St., and adapted 
it to private uses. This brings the history of our public school- 
houses down to the present time. 

SCHOOL MONEYS AND MANAGEMENT. 

Our town, at its incorporation, was entitled to its proportion of 
Mendon school-money, which was derived from the sale of common- 
lands, originally devoted to school purposes when the lots of the 
town-seat were laid out. That proportion was according to valuation 
of taxable estates ; but its exact amount I have striven in vain to 
ascertain. Either it was so mixed up in the settlements with other 
moneys as to be indistinguishable, or I overlooked it in my exami- 
nations of those documents. I am sure, however, that it was com- 
paratively small. Nor do I clearly understand from the records what 
became of it. My impression is, that most of it was dissipated in 
the fluctuations of paper money. Whatever of it was saved doubt- 
less enured to the benefit of the feeble district schools ; being inter- 
mingled with the annual appropriations made for schooling. The 
mother-town, for man}' years previous to our separation from it, had 
eleven school districts, four of which were on our territory. Com- 
paratively small annual amounts were raised for schooling, and these 
were distributed among the districts according to what they sever- 
all v paid of the school-tax. I infer that our selectmen followed this 
rule from 1780 to 1800. Oct. 20, of the last-named year, the Town 
" voted to divide the school money in said town equally unto each 
district," being then eight in number. The next year the same vote 
was repeated, with a restriction that "the scholars be confined to 
their own districts for schooling." This rule of dividing the school- 
money continued in practice till 1835 ; then it was changed so as to 
give one-half equally to the districts, and the other half pro rata to 
the scholars. At the same time the prudential committees were re- 
quired to render, in a return, the number of scholars in their several 
districts between the ages of three years and twenty-one. When it 
was found that the small new district in " Wild Cat " neighborhood, 
alias " Deer Brook," must be set off, a proviso was added to the recent 



210 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



rule ; viz., " that no district shall draw more than twent} - -three cents, 
nor none less than fourteen cents, to a scholar between said ages, on 
each hundred dollars appropriated ; and any district not having a suffi- 
cient number to entitle it to an equal share of one-half of said money 
shall draw in proportion [that] the number of persons between said 
ages bears to said extremes, and to the said persons in the other dis- 
tricts." This passed May 9, 1836, and the new district came in on 
condition of accepting its proportion of money under the proviso. 
No very important modifications of this rule followed till the more 
populous district schools began to be graded, nor, indeed, till after the 
districts were abolished, in 1854. Since then the General School Com- 
mittee have from }'ear to year endeavored to make the distribution 
of moneys as equitable as the difficult nature of the case allowed ; 
always, I believe, favoring as much as they reasonably could the 
frontier and smaller schools. 



THE MONEYS AVAILABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION 

have consisted chiefly of specific annual appropriations by the Town ; 
but in 1834 the legislature established the Massachusetts School Fund 
in permanency, never to exceed one million dollars. This fund was 
created out of revenues derived partly from the sale of public lands 
in Maine, and partly from the pa}-ment of military claims on the 
United States for Massachusetts services. A considerable portion 
of the income of this fund has been annually distributed among the 
cities and towns of the Commonwealth for the benefit of common 
schools, in the ratio of the number of their respective children from 
five to fifteen years of age ; i.e., on condition of compliance with cer- 
tain legal requirements. Milford has been drawing its due proportion 
of this income from vear to year since the State began to disburse it. 

V %■' O 

This, however, though helpful and acceptable, has constituted but a 
comparatively small portion of our school money. 

The first apportionment of the State school fund, as noted on our 
treasurer's books, was, — 

For the year ending March 5, 1836 
Ten years later 



it 


11 


ii 


It 


u 


(I 



1836 . 


$42 32 


1846 . 


95 74 


1856 . 


272 17 


1866 . 


583 75 


1876 . 


468 25 


1881 . 


303 11 



The moneys raised by the town for schooling } _ outh, since its incor- 
poration, from year to year, are as follows (in dollars and cents) : — 



SCHOOL MONEYS ANNUALLY RAISED. 



211 



i 1780 (almost worthless 

1781 (silver) . 

1782 to '89 (good currec 
1790, '91, and '92 . 


pape 

cy) 


r currency) 


1793 to '96 . 


. 




9 


1796 


^ 






1797 to 1804 . 


, 




• • • 


1805 to '11 


. 




• • • 


1811 to '24 . 


. 




■ • * 


1825 . 


• 




• • • 


1826, '27, and 


'28. 




» • • 


1829, '30, '31, 


and '32 




» • • 


1833 . 


# 




» • • 


1834 and '35 


# 




> • • 


1836 to '40 . 


■ 




» • • 


1841, '42, and 


'43 . 




» • • 


1844 and '45 


. « 




• • 


1846 . 


. , 




# . 


1847, '48, and 


'49 . 




# ^ 


1850 . 


. . 




# t 


1851 (for both 

1852 » 


district ai 
<< 


id high schools) 


1853 to '58 


<t 


(i (i 


1859 


i« 


(< << 


1800 


u 


if (< 


1861 


(« 


41 (1 


1862 


44 


«« (t 


1863 


44 


44 II 


1864 and '65 


l< 


(< l< 


1866 


14 


11 (( 


1867, '68, and ' 


69 " 


44 44 


1870 


C( 


41 (4 


1871 to 1877 


(« 


44 44 


1878 


(I 


44 44 


1879 


t« 


44 44 


1880 


(( 


14 


t( 



$3,333 33^ 
66 67| 
100 00 
133 33 
200 00 
233 33 
266 67 
300 00 
400 00 
500 00 
400 00 
500 00 
600 00 
700 00 
800 00 
1,000 00 
1,200 00 
2,000 00 
1,400 00 
1,500 00 
4,500 00 
3,700 00 
4,500 00 
6,000 00 
7,000 00 
8,500 00 
(war-time) . . 6,000 00 

8,500 00 
10,000 00 
14,000 00 
15,000 00 
16,000 00 
18,000 00 
16,000 00 
16,000 00 
16,500 00 



It should be understood that the foregoing annual appropriations 
were made exclusively to pay teachers, though formerly in part per- 
haps to keep schoolrooms suitably warmed, etc., for the comfort of 
their occupants. For building, repairing, and taking care of school- 
houses, or otherwise providing schoolrooms, and for various inci- 
dental expenses relating to the management of school affairs, specific 
appropriations have been made, either in former times by the cor- 
porate districts, or latterl}* by the Town. For the items grouped under 
the term "incidental expenses," I notice that in recent }*ears the 



212 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Town has made an annual appropriation of between two and three 
thousand dollars. I have not deemed it necessary to ascertain and 
present the annual expenditures of the Town falling under this head 
of Incidentals for Schools. They first arose in connection with the 
High School in 1S50, and grew rapidly after the Town assumed the 
responsibility of running all the schools, on the abolition of school 
districts in 1854. For some }*ears they were paid out of general 
appropriations for town charges. Afterwards specific appropriations 
for school incidentals were annually made. This sort of appropri- 
ation is now made to cover care of schoolhouses. fuel, superintendent's 
salary, and almost ever}* thing but the erection of schoolhouses and 
payment of teachers. The total school appropriations for 1880 were 
over twenty- two thousand dollars. 

In former days, the summer schools were taught by females, and 
the winter terms bv males. A gradual revolution has given female 
teachers a large predominance in the whole field of instruction. This 
demonstrates a salutary development of intellectual, moral, and social 
progress. The old-time compensation of teachers was comparatively 
meagre, and has undergone a marked improvement. Half a century 
ago, female teachers got from one to two dollars per week and board ; 
the latter being struck off in district meeting to the lowest bidder at 
a low figure, — say fifty cents and upwards per week. The com- 
pensation of male teachers, at the same date, ranged all the way from 
three to seven dollars per week, and board from one to two dollars. 
Still earlier, the principal families in a district, by agreement, boarded 
the teacher gratis to lengthen out the school, each keeping him or her 
a certain number of days. This was called " boarding round," and 
was generally well enjoyed by all parties. Meantime, firewood, the 
only fuel of those days, was either landed at the schoolhouse gratis, 
in gross condition, and worked into burning order — often a pretty 
coarse order — by the large school-lads during recess, or vendued in 
district meeting to the lowest bidder at from one to two dollars per 
cord, ready for the fire. But those antique economies have passed 
awa} r , and during the last ten years the compensation of teachers has 
been three to ten fold in advance of the old prices (perhaps none too 
large) , and most other school expenditures in proportion. 

The number of educable children in town at various periods, as 
defined by law, — i.e., children and youth between three and sixteen 
years of age, or, according to a later prescription, between five and 
fifteen years old, — is as follows. They began to be enumerated care- 
fully, I think, in 1835, or thereabouts. If we could trace them back- 
ward from that period to 1780, their number must seem fractionally 
small. 



MILFORD COMPARED WITH OTHER TOWNS. 213 



In 1835 it was 
1815 » 
1855 " 
1865 " 
1875 » 



255, or thereabouts. 

578 
1,330 
2,262 
2,219 



I find in printed reports of the school committee which have come 
under my examination some interesting statements, showing the com- 
parative expenditures of the town for schooling with those of other 
towns in the Commonwealth, and the ratio per scholar, which I will 
briefly quote. In the report for 1848-49 the committee say : " "We are 
far behind many towns in this Commonwealth. There are two hun- 
dred and ten towns which raise more for each person between four and 
sixteen years of age than this town. The town of Brookline stands 
first on the list, which raises 8852, while we raise but $211 ; and, while 
the average of schooling throughout the State is seven months nine- 
teen days for each district, it is here but five months two days." In 
their report for the year ending March 1, 1854, the committee say: 
"The facilities for public education in Milford are greater than in 
most towns of the Commonwealth, and the town has only to continue 
its present liberal policy towards the schools to make them equal to 
those of ain* town." " Six years ago, the utmost length of our pub- 
lic schools in a year was from fourteen to twenty weeks ; now it is 
from six to eleven months. For the liberality of her school appro- 
priations, as compared with her valuation, Milford stands among the 
first towns in the State ; very few, if any, surpass us. From the 
base of the pyramid she has rapidly ascended over her less enter- 
prising sisters to be the crowning stone." The report for 18G1-62 
closes thus: "In conclusion, the committee are pleased to be able 
to report that the schools of Milford are progressing with sure and 
steady course to a condition of proficiency which shall make them the 
pride of the inhabitants, and monuments of the foresight and liberal- 
ity of this generation." The report for 1862-63 opens with the fol- 
lowing : "The town appropriated for schools, at its annual meeting 
in March, 1862, §6,000. The number of children in town, between 
the ages of five and fifteen years, is 2,048 ; thus allowing the sum of 
$2,929 to each. For 1859-60 the town appropriated §4.155 to each 
child between the ages of five and fifteen years ; and even then there 
were in the State one hundred and eighty-one towns which appro- 
priated more for each child than Milford, and twenty-eight in the 
count}' of Worcester." "Two hundred and fourteen towns in the 
State appropriated, for the year 1860-61, $4.00 or upwards for each 
child between the ages of five and fifteen vears. In order to allow 



214 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

that sum in this town the coming year, it will require an appropri- 
ation of about S8,o00. This is the sum we, as a committee, feel 
bound to recommend." It was granted accordingly ; and the subse- 
quent annual appropriations grew larger for man}" ensuing years, 
whereof most of the succeeding reports spoke in congratulatory terms. 
That of 1869-70 says : " Your committee would congratulate you on 
the present prosperous condition of your schools. Throughout the 
town, almost without exception, the schools are in better condi- 
tion, with respect to modes of instruction, discipline, advancement 
in studies, in fact, in all that goes to make profitable and efficient 
schools, than those of the committee who have been longest on the 
board remember to have observed before." The more recent reports 
are generally commendator} - and cheerful. 

Our town started with four school districts, a few improvised tene- 
ment school-rooms, uncouthly furnished, and half a dozen imperfectly 
qualified and poorly-paid teachers. Behold now its amplitude of 
commodious educational edifices, its forty-odd schools of all grades, 
from the high downward, and its host of accomplished teachers, all 
reputably supported by liberal appropriations. In its infancy, it 
deemed it burdensome to raise $06.67 for schooling. In its maturit}', 
it ungrudgingly raises 822,000. 

Perhaps there are some who might be interested in a full list of our 
Milford teachers' names, from 1780 down to the present ; but, even if 
I could ascertain them all, my space would probably be better occu- 
pied. I shall therefore present only those of the high school, who 
have officiated since its establishment as principals and assistants. 

SUCCESSION FROM THE COMMENCEMENT, NOV. 12, 1850. 
PRINCIPALS. ASSISTANTS. 

Rev. Elias Nason, to 1852. S. Adelaide Scott. 
Alfred W. Pike, to 1853. " " 

Sylvester J. Sawyer. Kate K. Barker. 

" " M. J. Dyer. 

" " to 1856. Caroline M. Baker. 

Grove P. Jenks, to 1857. " " 

J. R. Draper, to 1858. A. J. Gove. 

Charles J. White, to 1860. Sarah E. Cole. 
D. B. Sanborn, to 1861. " " 

Ruel B. Clarke, to 1862. Mary E. Torrey. 

44 " 1862. Martha Cotton. 

44 44 to 1865. Lucy S. Lord. 

Frank A. Hill, 1865. 44 44 Two assistants now. 

44 44 1865. Ellen M. Patrick. 



GENERAL SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 215 

Frank A. Hill, to 1870. Carrie M. Clapp. 
Silas W. Hale, 1871. 

1871. Clara M. Howard. 

1871. Mary B. Smith. 

1871. Lucy M. Wilber. 

" 1871. Anna M. Bancroft. 

" 1871. (Re- Lydia B. Godfrey, 

signed June 24, 1880.) 

Herbert W. Lull, Sept., 1880. Frank B. Sherburne, Sub-Master. 

" " " " Anna M. Bancroft, Assistant. 

" " 1881. Mary A. Parkhurst, Assistant. 

GENERAL SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 

According to our town records, Milford chose no General School 
Committee until March 3, 1795, — nearly fifteen years after incorpora- 
tion. It then elected six, who stood till 1798. Since that date, with 
one or two exceptions, such a committee has been annually chosen, 
consisting of from three to eight members. The following is a list of 
their names, and the years for which they were elected to serve : — 

Elijah Thayer, 1795, '96, '97. 

James Mellen, Col., 1795, '96, '97. 

Dr. Elias Parkman, 1795, '96, '97, 1806. 

Ebenezer Read, 1795, '96, '97. 

James Perry, 1795, '96, '97. 

Oliver Daniell, 1795, '96, '97. 

Samuel Jones, Col. and Esq., 1795, '98, '99, 1801, '02, '03, '04, '06, '07, '08. 

Dea. Edmund Bowker, 1795, '96, '97, 1812. 

David Stearns, 1798, '99, 1811. 

Dea. Robert Sanders, jun., 1798, '99, 1802, '03, '04, '05, '06, '07, '08. 

Ichabod Thayer, Col., 1801. 

Ziba Holbrook, 1802. 

Samuel Penniman, jun., Maj., 1801, '03, '04, '08, '12, '13, '15, '24. 

Pearley Hunt, Maj. and Esq., 1803, '04, *05, '06, '07, '08, '09, '10, '12, '13, 

'14, '16, '17, '18, '21, '22, '23, '24, '35. 
Adams Chapin, Esq., 1803, '04. 
Dea. Ithiel Parkhurst, 1805, '25. 
Samuel Daniell, 1803, '04, '05, '06, '07, '08, '11, '12, '15, '21, '22, '23, '24, 

'27, '28, '30, '34. 
David Jones, 1805, '06. 
Ichabod Corbett, 1805. 

Dea. Amos Chapin, 1807, '08, '12, '15, '16, '20, '26. 
Joel Hayward, 1807. 
Newell Nelson, Esq.; 1809, '23, '24. 
Dea. Seth Nelson, jun., 1810, '11. 
John Claflin, Maj. and Esq., 1810, '21, '22. 



216 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Jonathan Thayer, Esq., 1811. 

William Godfrey, 1811, '23, '26, '31. 

Samuel Nelson, Col., 1811. 

Elijah Leg S , 1812, '13, '14, '15, '16, '18. 

Simeon Nelson, 1813. 

Dr. Gustavus D. Peck, 1813, '14, '17, '18, '25, '26, '28, '30, '31, '32, '33. 

Arial Bragg, Col., 1813. 

Arteman Hill, 1814. 

Otis Albee, 1814. 

Henry Nelson, Capt., 1814, '15, '21, '22, '24. 

Nahum Legg, 1815, '16, '17, '20, '21, '22, '23, '24, '32. 

Joel Holbrook, 1816, '20. 

Samuel Warfield, jun., 1816. 

Artemas Thayer, 1820. 

Ellis Sumner, Esq., 1820. 

Samuel Leeds, 1820, '21, '22. 

Samuel L. Scammell, Col., Esq., 1825. 

Isaac Davenport, Esq , 1823, *25, '26, '28, '29, '30, '31, '32, '33, '35, 36, '38, 

'39, '40, '48. 
Jonathan Whitney, 1825. 
Joseph Webb, 1825. 
Rev. David Long, 1826, '27, '28, '29, '30, '31, '32, '33, '34, '35, '36, '37, '38, 

'39, '40, '41, '42, '43, '44, '45, "46, '47, '48. 
Rev. Thomas W. Tucker, 1827. 
Lee Claflin, Hon., 1827, '29. 
Henry Chapin, 1827, '29, '33, '51, '52, '53. 
Rufus Thayer, Capt., 1828. 
Dr. Albert J. Bellows, 1829. 
Adin Ballou, 1830, '31. 
Charles Thurber, A.M., 1832. 
William R. Thayer, 1833, '34, '36. 
Dr. Addison S. Peck, 1S34, '35, '36. 
James M. Nelson, 1835. 
Reuel A. Cleveland, 1836. 
Dr. Allen C. Fay, 1837, '57, '58. 
Andrew J. Sumner, Esq., 1837, '38, '39, '40, '44. 
Rev. William Bell, 1842. 
John G. Gilbert, 1843. 
Rev. Benjamin H. Davis, 1845. 
Lemuel Parkhurst, 1846. 
Dr. John H. Hero, 1846. 
Rev. Henry E. Hempstead, 1847. 
Rev. Preston Pond, 1847, '48, '49. 
Rev. Joseph Whitman, 1849, '52. 
Rev. Henry A. Eaton, 1850. 
Rev. George W. Stacy, 1851. 
Rev. C. W. Ainsworth, 1851. 




c 



GENERAL SCHOOL COMMITTEE. 217 

Otis Parkhurst, jun., Esq , 1851. 

Rev. James T. Woodbury, 1853, '54, '55. 

Rev. D. H. Plumb, 1854. 

Albert A. Cook, Hon., 1855, '57, "65, '66, '67. 

Rev. Leouard Wakefield, 1855. 

Rev. Lyman Maynard, 1856. 

Winslow Battles, Hon., 1856, '59, '60, '61, '62, '63, '64. 

Rev. James R. Johnson, 1857. 

Rev. Levi A. Abbott, 1857, '58. 

Hamilton B. Staples, Esq., 1858, '59, '60, '61. 

John S. Scammell, Esq., 1859. 

Leander Holbrook, Esq., 1841, '42, '43, '44, '45, '49, '50, '51, '52, '53, '54, 

'56, '59, '60, '61, '62, '63. 
George G. Parker, Esq., 1859, '60, '61, '62, '63, '64, '65, '66, '67, '68, '69, 

'70, '79, etc. 
Herman H. Bowers, 1859, '60, '61, '62, '63, '64, '65, '67, '68, '69, '70, '71, 

'72, '73, '74, '75. 
Dea. Hiram Carpenter, 1860, '61, '62. 
Amos Holbrook, Esq , 1860, '61. 
Rev. George Hill, 1862, '63. '64. 
Rev. Joseph Ricker, 1863, '64, '65. 
James H. Putnam, 1864, '65, '66. 
John S. Mead, Esq., 1S65, '66, '67. 
George E. Stacy, 1866, '67, '73, '74, '75, '76, '77, 78. 
Edwin Battles, 1866, '67. 
William F. Draper, Gen. and Esq , 1866. 
Henry E. Fales, Esq., 1867, '68. 
Rev. George G. Jones, 1867. 
Delano Patrick, 1867, '68. 
Dr. Thomas W. Flatley, 1870, '71, '72. 
Charles J. Thomson, 1868, '69, '70, '71, '72, '73, '75, '76, '77, '78, '79, *80, 

'81, etc. 
Rev. Gerherdus L. Demarest, 1868, '69, '70, '71, '72, '73. 
Mrs. M. J. C. Russell, 1870, '71, '72, '73, '74. 
Mrs. A. A. Cook, 1872. 

Charles A. Dewey, Esq., 1871, '72, '73, '74, '75, '76, '77, '78, '79, '80. 
Rev. Men-ill Richardson, D.D.,1872, '73. 
Charles E. Whitney, 1874, '75, 76, 77. 
Rev. James T. Canavan, 1874, 75, 76, on to '80. 
Matthew Callanan, 1875, 76, 77. 
Zibeon C. Field, 1878, 79, '80, '81. 
George W. Johnson, 1878, 79, '80, '81. 
Joseph F. Hickey, 1880, '81, etc. 



218 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

IMPROVEMENTS IN EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT. 

Massachusetts ma}' be said to have led the civilized world in the 
institution and progress of free public schools. Its first distinctive 
law requiring the establishment and maintenance of such schools 
dates back to 1G47. Its population and wealth were then small 
indeed, and its methods of educational management correspondingly 
crude. The march of improvement was naturally very slow for a long 
time, — certainly for one hundred and fifty years. After emerging 
from the sufferings, losses, and impoverishment of the Revolution, 
it experienced marked acceleration. The present century opened 
auspiciously, and a series of educational advances followed. In 
1837 the State Board of Education was established, and soon there- 
after that great apostle of common-school education, Horace Mann, 
was made secretary. This was a magnificent upward stride. Thence- 
forth a salutary succession of improvements was continuous!}' de- 
veloped in respect to every thing that belonged to the management of 
our free public schools. This is not the place to specify or enumerate 
those manifold improvements. It is sufficient to say, that Milford 
has done itself honor, as well as profit, by a liberal adoption of them. 
The General School Committee has been conspicuous, for many years, 
in introducing, recommending, and promoting them ; and the town 
has generously furnished the requisite pecuniary resources. Their 
published reports bear testimony to these facts. I wish more care 
and pains had been taken to preserve those reports in a compact 
form ; for they could not fail to be both interesting and instructive to 
posteritv. Yet I am sorrv to sav that I have been unable to find a 
considerable number of the earlier ones. Probably they might be 
looked up by long and diligent search. 

The oldest printed document ever issued by any committee, to 
my knowledge, bears the following title-page: "Regulations for 
the District Schools in Milford, Mass. Ballou & Stacy, Printers, 
1830-31." It is dated Dec. 13, 1830, and bears the names of 
David Long, Adin Ballou, Gustavus D. Peck, Samuel Daniell, and 
Isaac Davenport, school committee. It was draughted, if I rightly 
remember, by Rev. Mr. Long, and unanimously adopted by his 
colleagues, with very slight modifications. The first annual report, 
according to the town records, ever ordered to be printed, was that 
'of 1840—41. Of that, four hundred copies were issued. I have been 
unable to find a copy of it. Whether all the annual reports thence- 
forth were ordered to be printed, I am not certain ; but I think nearly 
all of them have been. For a long time the duties of the general 



EDUCATIONAL MISCELLANIES. 219 

committee were much mixed up with those of the district prudential 
committees. But since the latter ceased, with the abolition of cor- 
porate school districts in 1854, the former has had the entire control. 
It soon became one of our most important boards of town officers. 
Its importance and responsibilities have augmented from that time to 
the present. I might go into many prominent particulars respecting 
its regulations, methods, and proceedings, but will content myself 
with a simple allusion to its recent appointment of a superintendent 
of public schools. With the sanction of the town, the committee 
conlided a large share of their customary duties, for 1877, etc., to 
their appointee, Mr. John W. Simonds. His two annual reports, as 
superintendent, for the year ending Feb. 20, 1878, '79, were duly 
published. They are clear, able, and suggestive documents. His 
sendees commenced Sept. 1, 1877, and continued two years. He 
was then succeeded b}* Mr. John TV". Allard. Mr. Simonds had the 
arduous responsibility of a pioneer in this superintendency, in which 
he must needs bring order out of chaos, and could hardly surmount 
all the obstacles without incurring some dissent. His successor had 
the advantage of preceding experiments, as well as large experience 
elsewhere, and seems to give unexceptionable satisfaction. Mr. 
Simonds received a salary of twelve hundred dollars. Mr. Allard 's 
is now fifteen hundred dollars. Under both administrations the office 
has proved not only educationally, but pecuniarily, economical to the 
town. 

MISCELLANIES OF AN EDUCATIONAL NATURE. 
Among these it seems proper to notice some of the select seminaries 
and private schools maintained within our town limits at various peri- 
ods since 1780. These have been numerous, in different grades, all 
the way through. Many of them were of an ordinar}- stamp, — mere 
district-schools eked out by voluntary contribution, after expenditure 
of public moneys. Others have been kept in private houses by male 
and female teachers, sometimes for primary instruction in the rudi- 
mental branches, and sometimes for the tuition of select classes in 
the higher branches. I cannot be very ample or accurate under this 
head ; for I have not made a sufficiently thorough investigation into 
details. I have been traditionally told much that warrants me to 
speak as I have in general terms. It is believed that Rev. Ama- 
riah Frost was at one period accustomed to have select students whom 
he fitted for college or the professions, or gave them at least a 
partiallv academic education. Rev. David Long also received into 
his house mam - children or youth for instruction. Rev. Jacob Frieze, 
the second Universalist minister, kept a small select school for several 



220 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

months in the ancient Ebenezer Sumner house, which he tenanted of 
Esq. Hunt. I presume be taught only the common and higher 
branches of English scholarship. I officiated in the same way, more 
or less, for several years, either in my own house or elsewhere. Miss 
Roxana Rawson, in later times the wife of Dea. Peter Rockwood, 
has been reported to me as an early private as well as district-school 
teacher of good success and repute. But one of the most distin- 
guished teachers of a select school was Miss Abigail Faxon Thayer, 
from Braintree. She taught her famous little seminarv through a series 
of terms during the years 1819, 1821, and 1822. She taught, all but 
the close of her last term, at the place now owned by Joseph L. Clark, 
having some twenty-five to thirty pupils out of the foremost families. 
From the enthusiastic admiration and affection in which those speak 
of her who shared in the privileges of her school, among whom my 
wife, Lucy Hunt Ballou. was one, she must have been, for that time, 
a very enterprising, competent, and accomplished preceptress. She 
was alike eminent for dignity, discipline, and versatility of scholar- 
ship ; teaching not only the higher English branches, and some of the 
artistic ones, but polite and graceful deportment. She made her mark, 
as an efficient educator, on her scholars, on their homes, and on the 
social circles in which she fitted them to appear to better advantage. 
She returned to her native vicinage, and taught in various places with 
success and renown. She seems to be remembered b}- her few sur- 
viving pupils in this general neighborhood with very high respect and 
love. 

Milford Acadeury was another institution, of much higher rank and 
pretensions, which must not be forgotten. It originated in the lauda- 
ble ambition of a few enterprising citizens, mostly belonging to the 
Congregational parish, who desired to institute facilities for a higher 
grade of education in their own vicinage, equal, if possible, to those 
in distant towns whither they had so long been obliged to send their 
sons and daughters for instruction. The proprietors constituted 
themselves a joint-stock association, raising their capital in shares of 
SjO. "William Godfrey, John Claflin, jun.. Nathan Wood, and then- 
associates obtained an act of incorporation from Gen. Ct., Feb. 11, 
1828, as the " Milford Academy." The whole number of shares was 
33, making a capital stock of $1,C>.">0. The institution was opened, 
1 think, in the autumn of 1828, and continued in operation some 
twelve years. Its succession of preceptors were Ira Cleveland, jun., 
Henry Mellen Chamberlain, Charles Thurber, a Mr. Morse, a Mr. 
Gorman, a Mr. Wilmarth, Daniel Perry, a Miss Clark, and Charles 
R. Train. Not proving so much of a success as hoped, the estab- 



EEUCATIONAL MISCELLANIES. 221 

lishment was sold in 1841, by its then proprietors, to school district 
No. 3, for S825 ; i.e., for half the first cost, or 825 per share. In 
1854 it was turned over to the town for SI, 500. It was superseded 
by the Claflin Schoolhouse in 1871, and. as we have seen, sold at 
auction, or at least the buildings, for private use. 

In this connection I may property' mention the Hojwdale Home 
School of later date, first under the preceptorship of Mr. Morgan L. 
Bloom and wife, and much longer under that of Rev. "William S. 
Heywood and wife. This select seminary, in its most successful 
phases, will be respectfully and pleasantly remembered by most of 
those who enjoyed the privileges of its tuition. It should be stated 
also, that the Hopedale community, from 1842 to 1848. maintained 
almost continuous common schools at their own expense, while being 
taxed to support those of the town at large. Still later, Hopedale 
sustained successive select schools of a reputable order, under excel- 
lent female instructors, besides interluding and prolonging their 
district school by private contribution for many years. A select 
private seminary has recently been instituted in Samuel "Walker's 
part of the village, taught originally by Miss Olive Twitchell, who 
has been succeeded b}' Miss Carrie X. Potter, and is prospering. In 
Milford Centre there have nearly always been private schools, of 
higher or lower grade, which have been well patronized, notwith- 
standing the seeming amplitude and rising excellence of our public 
ones. Among these three deserve special mention as now in suc- 
cessful operation: viz., Mrs. Mary J. Morgan's Kindergarten, Miss 
Ellen M. Ayres's for ordinary branches, and Miss A. C. Scammell's 
of last-named grade. Quite lately the Catholic Parochial Seminaiy 
has been instituted in the Centre. It is under the general super- 
vision of Rev. Father CuddiLn*, aims chiefly at female education, has 
competent teachers, is numerously attended, well patronized, and 
very successful. 

Nor should it be forgotten, that, during the whole century of our 
municipal existence, children and youth, in considerable numbers, 
have been sent to seminaries, academies, and colleges abroad, for tui- 
tion. This has always been comparatively expensive ; and doubtless, 
if we could arrive at the amount of moneys paid out for it, we should 
be surprised at the formidable aggregate. Many thus educated 
abroad, some of whom have won distinction, are not on record as 
college graduates, because either the} - did not complete the requisite 
prescribed course of studies, or some technicality excluded them. 
Such I must pass over, as also our numerous graduates from the State 
Normal Schools, instituted to qualify teachers. Others must be left 



222 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

to the credit of adjacent towns, though parishioners and ch. members 
here. Perhaps I may be allowed to mention one such case, that of 
Cornelius Jones, son of John Jones, jun., and grandson of our Eld. 
John Jones. His father removed to Bellingham, where Cornelius was 
born. Yet the father still remained a parishioner of our Easterly Pre- 
cinct, and Cornelius grew up a baptized child and member of Rev. 
Mr. Frost's ch. Well, he graduated at Harvard University in 1752, 
studied divinity, and became the first settled minister of a crude town- 
ship, then known as " No. 3," but which is now the principal portion 
of Sandisfield. With such cases, however, I will not further meddle ; 
confining ray list of names to persons either born or mainly nurtured 
on our territory, who have regularly graduated at some college, or 
received some honorary or scholastic degree from such an institution. 
It has required considerable pains to ascertain and collect these 
names ; and I fear that, after all, m\' list leaves out a few who have 
escaped my research. If my catalogue seems scant} - , it is not my 
fault. 



COLLEGE GRADUATES. 



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HISTORY OF MILFORD. 





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Mar. 27, 1850 
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Charles and Koxana Bateheler 
Obed and Harriet E. Chapin 
Adam and Catherine Coughlin 
Adam and Catherine Coughlin 
Peter and Mary Darmondy 
John and Mary F. Barry . 
William and Ellen Flynn . 
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George Henry Young . 
Frank Llniur us Young . 
Charles A. Daniels 
Michael Joseph Supple . 
James Nicholas Supple . 
James Edward Keating 
Daniel Webster Moriarty 
William Francis O'Callaban 
David Francis McGrath 
Michael Joseph Carroll 
Patrick Henry Gullcn . 
John Joseph Cochran . 
Herbert Henry Lyons . . 
Samuel Newell Nelson . 
Frank O. Carpenter . . 
George Henry Clark 
William Henry Judson 



TOWN LIBRARY. 225 

Our High School is entitled to the honor of having fitted a large 
number of its pupils for college, and the professional institutes, and 
so of starting them into their career of professional usefulness. It 
will be seen, too, that our Irish-Americans are largely represented in 
the closing portion of the above catalogue. These are all said to be 
doing eminently well in their chosen callings, as priests, lawyers, and 
physicians. I suspect I have failed to obtain the names of several in 
this class, but not for want of pains. I regret not having been told 
the positions which most of them occupy in societ} - , so as to specify 
it better opposite their names. If nry readers knew the amount and 
peculiarity of labor which this list of less than fifty graduates has 
cost me, they would worthily appreciate it. Yet it seems a small 
performance. 

THE TOWN LIBRARY. 

It remains that I give some account of the public libraiy, which 
veiy handsomely surmounts as a dome the structure of our educa- 
tional instrumentalities. Down to the year 1858, Milford was com- 
paratively ill supplied with any thing fit to be called a library. A 
few families had small private libraries, decent perhaps of their grade, 
but not adaptable to circulation. Whether there ever was a circu- 
lating library in town worthy of mention. I am not informed. Per- 
haps there have been a few collections of that nature, but they were 
of little account. In 1842, or thereabouts, under a law recommended 
by the State Board of Education, all, or nearly all, our school dis- 
tricts taxed themselves to establish libraries within their respective 
limits ; but these were small, and soon fell into neglect. They quite 
failed to realize the expectations of their projectors or the people. 
In 1858 several influential citizens proposed to establish a reputable 
libraiy on a "stock-company" basis. Mr. Edwin Battles, then an 
enterprising townsman, with others, urged them to change their plan, 
and use their influence for a free town library, in accordance with a 
then recent statute of the State. Nevertheless the joint-stock library 
was nominally established. 1 But Mr. Battles and his sjTnpathizers 
held a meeting in the police-court room in behalf of a public free 
librar}-, with such success that their proposition soon prevailed. A 
committee was appointed, of which Mr. Battles was chairman, to 
push the matter, petition the selectmen to call a town-meeting, and 
prepare a series of motions to be submitted to said meeting. The 
town-meeting was held Aug. 30, 1858, and the propositions moved 
(draughted by Mr. Battles) were carried with little or no opposition. 
The}' were as follows : — 

1 It was soon superseded by that of the town, and its incipient collection of books sold off. 



226 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

"1st, That the town do establish and maintain a public library under 
the statute of 1851, chapter 305. 

"2d, That the town do appropriate the full sum of money which it is 
by law authorized to grant, to establish a public library; to wit, as many 
dollars as there were ratable polls in Milford in the enumeration of 1857. 

" 3d, That the town proceed to choose a board of thirteen trustees, who 
shall have full authority to do all legal and necessary acts, to purchase a 
town library, to make by-laws, and appoint officers for the same, with power 
to fill all vacancies in their own body; and this board shall continue in 
office till the next annual March meeting, and until others are chosen in 
their stead. 

"4th, That all by-laws proposed by said trustees shall be submitted to 
the town for its ratification. 

" 5th, The following named persons were chosen said trustees : Andrew 
J. Sumner, Elias Whitney, John G. Gilbert, H. B. Staples, B. Wood, George 
W. Stacy, Francis Leland, Edwin Battles, H. H. Bowers, Daniel S. Chapin, 
J. R. Davis, Charles C. Johnson, and Dwight Russell. 

" 6th, That the treasurer of the town be authorized to borrow the sum 
of one thousand dollars for the purchase of books and for fitting up a room 
or rooms for the town library, and hold the same subject to the order of the 
selectmen. 

" 7th, That the selectmen draw the money for the town library at the 
request or order of the trustees of the same." 

The trustees immediately proceeded with the necessary steps of 
organization, and reported promptly to the town an appropriate code 
of by-laws, rules, and regulations, which were ratified at a legal 
meeting, Nov. 8, 1858, and have remained in force, with slight amend- 
ments, ever since. They were well draughted, judicious, and prac- 
tical. Mr. Battles is entitled, I believe, to the credit of having been 
their draughtsman. It is hardly necessary for me to incorporate them 
with the text of this work, as they have been printed in such en- 
during forms as never to perish or become inaccessible to interested 
inquirers. Thus the " Milford Town Library " was inaugurated, has 
been generousby sustained in succeeding years, has been admirabhy 
managed, and has proved in all respects a triumphant success. Lib- 
eral annual appropriations have generally been made to its support 
by the town, with only a few exceptions under severe pressures of 
public burden. Able boards of thirteen trustees have been regularly 
elected, whose executive officers have uniformly rendered efficient 
service, and whose annual reports to the town have been ver}' satis- 
factory. The following tabular statement, made from such printed 
reports as were at my command, exhibits creditabl}- the progress of 
the library's operations and development : — 



LIBRARY, PRESS, AND LITERATURE. 



227 



Years. 


Catalogued Vole. 


No. of Takers. 


Whole No. Loans. 


No. Vols. Lost. 


1861-62 . . . 


2,363 


1,854 


17,038 


22 


1862-63 . 




2,574 


1,839 


21,390 


55 in all. 


1863-64 . 




2,593 


1,694 


17,976 


51 


1864-65 . 




2,748 


2,046 


21,253 


55 


1865-66 . 




2,810 


1,911 


20,169 


62 


1866-67 . 




3,002 


1,821 


20,64S 


50 


1867-68 . 




3,057 


1,885 


20,701 


11 


1868-69 . 




3,270 


Not given. 


21,530 


36 


1869-70 . 




3,422 


1,880 


18,049 


5S 


1872-73 . 




3,965 


1,592 


21,599 


2 


1873-74 . 




3,765 


1,400 


20,101 


22 


1874-75 . . 




4,419 


Not given. 


27,762 


Not given. 


1875-76 . 




4,764 


(i 


34,046 


ii 


1876-77 . , 




4,961 


<« 


37,184 


u 


1S77-78 . . 




5,277 


it 


35,562 


tt 


1878-79 . , 




5,585 


«< 


36,306 


<« 



There have been ten or more successive librarians, several of whose 
names follow : George H. Young, A. C. Withington, James R. Davis, 
George B. Blake, Joseph Parker, William H. Lothrop, Frank L. Smith, 
A. H. Smith, George P. Smith, Nathaniel F. Blake. The report of 
1878-79 shows the steadily increasing amplitude, prosperity, and popu- 
lar influence of the library, with its cognate reading-room only recently 
added. 

OUR PRESS AND LITERATURE. 

Our first printing-office was opened by Ballou & Stacy, toward 
the close of 1830 ; George W. Stacy, printer. It was located in an 
apartment of William Godfrey's shed-loft, then standing on the west 
side of the parish common. Thence the writer, as editor and pro- 
prietor, issued No. 1, Vol. I., of a religious weekly paper, entitled 
" Independent Messenger." It was a fair-sized sheet of five columns, 
and was the organ of the Independent Restorationists, who were then 
separating from the Universalists of the no-future-retribution school. 
The first number bore date Saturday, Jan. 1, 1831. Early in the 
ensuing April the establishment — press, paper, printer, and editor — 
removed to Mendon. 

No other printing, to my knowledge, was done in Milford till May 
28, 1842, at Hopedale. There the same printer and editor re-appeared, 
under the auspices of the Community, then just commencing opera- 
tions. The Communit} - friends had already published Vols. I. and II. 



228 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

of a semi-monthly religious paper, entitled " The Practical Christian ; " 
but it had been dated "Mendon," and printed at such offices in dif- 
ferent places as seemed most convenient. At the above date it com- 
menced Vol. III. in Hopedale ; and there it continued to be printed 
for eighteen years, until finally suspended at the close of Vol. XX. 
The writer was its principal editor ; but it had several assistant editors, 
and most of the time an ample staff of contributors. It was several 
times enlarged ; and the printing-establishment turned out a legion of 
tracts, first and last, besides several considerable-sized books, and 
more or less job-work. Among the more important books, pamphlets, 
and tracts issued from its press, were the following named : " Practical 
Christian Socialism : a Conversational Exposition of the True System 
of Human Society," etc., pp. Goo, octavo; 1854; published by the 
author, Adin Ballou. " Memoir of Adin Augustus Ballou, written and 
compiled by his father ; " pp. 192, 18mo ; 1853. " Monitorial Guide, 
for the use of Inductive Conferences, Communities," etc. ; by A. Bal- 
lou ; pp. 336, 12mo ; 1862. " The Hopedale Collection of Hj-mns and 
Songs ; " 316 hymns, 24mo. "The True Scriptural Doctrine of the 
Second Advent ; " an octavo pamphlet of 32 pp. Also a tract, " Prac- 
tical Christianity in Relation to the Dogma of Endless Punishment ; " 
another, " Practical Christianity and its Non-Resistance in Relation to 
Human Governments ; " another, '• On the Inspiration of the Bible ; " 
another, "The Superiority of Moral over Political Power." I refrain 
from designating any more of this long series of publications from the 
writer's pen, as also other larger productions printed elsewhere. 

In 1846 George W. Stacy left Hopedale, and opened a successful 
printing-establishment in Milford Centre. The amount and variety 
of production executed in that establishment, from its start to the 
present time, I am incompetent to estimate with an}- thing like busi- 
ness accuracy. It has turned out almost every description of work 
usual with country offices, — books, pamphlets, town-reports, adver- 
tising-sheets, posters, etc. ; and I think, too, that it has issued sev- 
eral specimens of the newspaper kind, though none of long-continued 
series. 

The " Milford Journal " establishment came into existence in 1852, 
under the auspices of the "Milford News Association," which raised 
a thousand dollars among the leading citizens as an initiator}* pub- 
lishing fund. Charles Nason, as editor and proprietor, accepted the 
fund, pledged a six-column weekly for at least one year to its patrons, 
and issued No. 1, Vol. I., June 18, 1852. At the expiration of two 
years he sold out his interest to A. Dexter Sargeant, who ran the 
establishment till Dec. 27, 1856, publishing meantime our first direc- 



PRINTING ESTABLISHMENTS. 229 

tory, bearing date 1856. He transferred his proprietorship to Wood 
& Blunt, who ran it in company till January, 1858 ; then Blunt sold 
his share to his partner, Bartholomew Wood, who, some three years 
later, sold the concern to Crocker & Sons. Before the close of 1865 
they transferred it to Charles G. Easterbrook, who kept it only about 
three months, and sold out to Rev. James D. Bell. He made sale of 
it, perhaps in 1866, to James M. Stewart, who improved, profited by 
it, and at length sold it, in 1872, to Cook & Sons, the present enter- 
prising proprietors. It probably yielded little excess of income to its 
earlier proprietors, but grew gradually into importance with advancing 
years, until now, with vastly increased facilities and extended patron- 
age, it occupies a profitable as well as an influential field of usefulness. 
In its own line it has undoubtedly been an educator of the people to 
an extent not easily appreciable. It has had but one rival in town, 
" The Bay State Chronicle," which was published by Coffin & Drake, 
somewhere between 1859 and '61, several months, with such indif- 
ferent success that it proved a failure. I have tried to ascertain the 
dates of its birth and death, but did not light on competent informers. 

Michael A. Blunt has run a printing-office for various kinds of job- 
work during the last twenty-five years or more, and has done a 
prosperous business. I understand that he has been printing, for a 
considerable time, two periodical publications having a metropolitan 
imprint, besides his ordinary jobbing. 

Bryan J. Butts purchased the Hopedale printing materials in 1860, 
and has issued, for longer or shorter terms, two periodicals ; viz., 
"Modern Age" and "Spiritual Reformer," besides various chil- 
dren's books and miscellaneous effusions written by his wife and him- 
self; also, meantime, executing considerable job-work. 

Thus I have closed this elaborate chapter with these items con- 
cerning our press and literature ; being unwilling to ignore them, and 
not seeing where else I could more logically insert them. 

I heartily congratulate the town on the devotion and liberality 
which their records show them to have displa} - ed in the cause of pub- 
lic education, especially during the last forty years. 



230 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



CHAPTER X. 

OUR RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES AND CHURCHES. 

I. History of the Congregational Pariah completed. — Awkward Relation of Town 
and Parish dissolved. —The New Meeting-house built in Troublous Times 
with much Prayer. — Dedication and Rejoicings. — Rev. Mr. Long's Prosperous 
Pastorate until 1844, when he resigned, and was dismissed. — His Successors 
down to 1878. — Succession of Deacons, and Status of the Church. — Thorough 
Renovation and Enlargement of the Meeting-House, and other Particulars of 
interest. 

II. The Universalist Society. —Its Origin in 1781. — Organization in 1785, under the 
Murray " Charter of Compact." — Its Members and Ministers down to 1820. — 
New Strength from the Controversy of 1819. — Brick Meeting-House erected, 
and dedicated with Enthusiasm. —Succession of Ministers and Officers. — New 
Church Edifice built and dedicated in 1851. — Other Recent Particulars. 

III. The Methodists and their Societies. — Early Society in North Purchase in 1792, 
etc. — Meeting-House built and finally burnt. — Parsonage built and sold. — 
Succession of Ministers. — Society Officers, etc. — Changes and Final Decay. — 
The Present Prosperous Society originated in Prayer-Meetings. — Services held 
in Town House, 1836. — Organization in 1844. — Meeting-house and Parsonage 
built in 1849. —Succession of Ministers and Officers, etc. 

IV. Central Baptist Church. — Brief History of its Origin, Progress, and Standing. 

V. The Episcopalian Society. — Historical Particulars of its Origin, Progress, and 
Status. 

VI. SI. Mary's Church (Roman Catholic). — Its Origin, Growth, and Prosperity in 
Detail. 

VII. The Hopedale Community and Parish. — Exposition of the Community's Pecu- 
liarities, and its Submergence into the Hopedale Parish, etc. 

VIII. Miscellanies. 

I. HISTORY OF THE CONGREGATIONAL PARISH COMPLETED. 

CHAFrERS V. and VI. treat full}' of the original precinct and 
church, and bring down their history, after the town's incor- 
poration, to the year 1801. The town continued to act as legal suc- 
cessor to the precinct in parochial affairs till the }'ear 1819; but it 
did so in an eccentric and complicated manner, owing to the gradu- 
ally increasing numbers of dissenters from the Congregational denomi- 
nation who became exempts from parochial taxation. The town had 
to act in a double capacity, and to run two sets of financial machinery : 
one as a municipal corporation, which took in all the inhabitants ; and 
the other as a parish, which included only willing supporters of the 
Congregational order. This complex and awkward state of things 



SETTLEMENT OF REV. DAVID LONG. 231 

culminated, at length, in a dissolution of the relationship. Earh - in 
1819 the Congregationalists, having decided to erect a new meeting- 
house on the site of the old one, legally re-organized themselves as 
a parish, on such grounds as to resume their former precinct rights 
independent of the town. This raised a long and bitter controversy 
between the town and parish parties about the old meeting-house, 
etc., whereof I will speak more full} - in another place. After 1819 
the Congregational parish and church must be considered simply as 
our oldest religious society. But there were important transactions 
between 1800 and 1819 in which the town was more or less con- 
cerned, and which I must notice as preceding the subsequent events. 

From the Church Records. — "The Congregational Church of Christ in 
Milford, after having been destitute of a Pastor between eight and nine 
years, since the decease of Rev. Amariah Frost, at length so far succeeded 
in their wishes as to obtain Mr. David Long as a Candidate on probation for 
settlement, who came on the day before the third sabbath in Sept., 1800. 
Dec. 24, 1800, being appointed a day of fasting & prayer by the chh., to 
look to God for direction in the choice of a Pastor, the chh., after the public 
exercises of the day, being assembled in chh. meeting, passed the following 
votes; Rev. Caleb Alexander, Moderator. 

"1. Voted unanimously to give Mr. David Long a call to be their Pastor 
& public Teacher in piety & morality. 

" 2. To chuse Dea. Seth Nelson, Eld r John Chapin & Dea Nath 1 Rawson 
as a Committee to acquaint Mr. Long of their proceedings; also to acquaint 
& desire the Select Men to call a town meeting to see what measures s d town 
will take for the support of s d Mr. Long." 

Action of the Town, Jan. 5, 1801 : Col. Ichabod Thayer, Moderator. — " Then 
passed a previous vote to Exempt all Denominations in said Town who do not 
belong to the Congregational Society (so called) in Taxation, either for the 
cost of Settlement or Salary for Mr. David Long, should they settle him in 
said Town. 

" Then voted to join with the Church in giving Mr. David Long a Call to 
be their Pastor & Public Teacher of Piety, Religion, and Morality. 

" Then chose a Committee to See what Encouragement they would offer 
Mr. David Long for a Settlement & Salary, in order to Settle him with them. 
Dea. Seth Nelson, Eldr John Chapin, Saml. Jones, Esq , Col. Ichabod Thayer, 
Adams Chapin, Capt. Gershom Nelson, James Perry, Capt. Nath 1 Parkhurst, 
& Elijah Thayer, Committee for the purpose above mentioned. Agreed to 
Recommend to the Town that they offer Mr. David Lonf, for his Encourage- 
ment to Settle with them, 150£ Settlement, to pay one-half in one year, the 
other half in Two years after he shall settle with them; to give him annu- 
ally 80£ Salary (Including the Interest of the Ministry money) So long as he 
shall Remain their Minister. 

"The Town then voted to accept of the Report of their Committee as 



232 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Stated by them for the Support of Mr. David Long, if he should Settle 

with them. 

"Then chose Dea. Seth Nelson, Eldr John Chapin, Lt. Ephm. Chapin, a 

Committee to Lay before Mr. David Long the proceedings of said Town 

Meeting. 

"Ichabod Thayer, Moderator. 
" Adams Chapin, Clerk." 

At a town-meeting held Jan. 26, 1801, the vote exempting dis- 
senters from parochial taxation was further strengthened and ratified, 
and the following-named citizens were formall}* declared exempts : — 

" Josiah Ball, Obadiah Wood, Noah Wiswall, David Stearns, Edm d . Bow- 
ker, John Corbett, Eben 1 ". Sumner, Jr., David Madden, Wales Cheney, Eben r . 
Sumner, Daniel Carter, Darius Sumner, James Battle, Lazarus Ball, Ebenr. 
Hunt, Joseph Hunting, Jr., Caleb Cheney, Michael Madden, Levi Madden, 
Joseph Hunting, John Wales, Eben r . McFarland, Lewis Cobb, Zenas Ball, 
Joseph Hunt, Caleb Albee, Ichabod Corbett, Luther Wheelock, Caleb Al- 
drich, Elijah Albee, Elias Parkman, Cyrus Wheelock, Daniel Wedge, Nathan 
Wood, Luke Kelley. Also voted to Exempt from Ministerial Taxation George 
Kelley, Luke Kelley, & Wing Kelley, and all others of the Denomination of 
Christians called Quakers in said Town, and also all other persons in said 
Town who are now known to be of different denominations from the Congre- 
gationalists in Religion, & who have hitherto been exempted." 

Thus all difficulties were supposed to be obviated as to the settle- 
ment and support of the newly-called pastor. Mr. Long sent in his 
formal acceptance of the call tendered him, on the terms proposed ; 
aud arrangements were forthwith made, concurrently b}' church and 
town, for his ordination. The da}- first set for his ordination was the 
first Wednesday in June, but it was changed to Wednesday, May 
20, — a fortnight earlier. The church sent letters missive "to all 
the Churches in Mendon Association, also those of Hopkinton, Dun- 
barton, and Boscawen, N. H." The committee of the chh. to 
write the letters missive, and wait on the council, consisted of Dea. 
Seth Nelson, Eld. John Chapin, and Nathl. Rawson. The town's 
committee to provide for the council consisted of Dea. Seth Nelson, 
Col. Ichabod Thayer, Saml. Jones, Esq., Capt. Benjamin Godfrey, 
and Lt. Ephm. Chapin. But Dea. Seth Nelson, who seems to have 
been a generous as well as devoted man, stepped forward and pledged 
himself to provide for the council gratis. 

" Result of Council. — At an Ecclesiastical Council, convened at the house 
of Dea. Seth Nelson, in Milford, May 20, 1801, in consequence of letters 
missive from the Church of Christ in Milford, were present, — 



ORDINATION OF REV. MR. LONG. 233 

REV. PASTORS. WORTHY DELEGATES. 

David Sanford, Dea. Nathaniel Partridge, 

Nathaniel Emmons, D.D., Dea. James Metcalf, 

Isaac Stone, Capt. Caleb Whiting, 

Edmund Mills, Brother Ezekiel Morse, 

Caleb Alexander, Dea. Josiah Adams, 

John Cleaveland, Dea. Asa Ware, 

John Crane, Br. Henry Morse, 

John Robinson, Hon. Elijah Brigham, 

John Wilder, Br. Stephen Fuller, 

Timothy Dickinson, Dea. Jesse Haven, 

Nathaniel Howe, Dea. Joseph Walker, 

Walter Harris, Br. Thomas Mills, 

Samuel Judson, Dea. Nicholas Baylies, 

Benjamin Wood, Dea. Amos Bradish, 

Nathan Holman, Br. Peter Thatcher, 

Otis Thompson, Dea. John Brown, 

Hopkinton Church, N.H. Br. Enoch Long, Jr. 

" The Council, having formed, chose the Rev. David Sanford Moderator, 
and the Rev. John Crane Scribe; and, after addressing the Throne of Grace 
by prayer, proceeded to the examination of Mr. David Long relative to his 
Doctrinal and Experimental knowledge of the gospel, and, being fully satis- 
fied with his qualifications for the ministry, voted to proceed to his ordina- 
tion. And accordingly the several parts were assigned : viz. , the Rev. Walter 
Harris, Preacher on the occasion; Rev. David Sanford, to make the ordain- 
ing prayer; the Rev. Nathaniel Emmons, D.D., to give the Charge; the Rev. 
Caleb Alexander, to give the Right Hand of Fellowship; the Rev. Edmund 
Mills, the introductory prayer; and the Rev. John Cleaveland, the concluding 

prayer. 

"David Sanford, Moderator. 

"Attest: JoriN Crane, Scribe." 

" The Council then proceeded according to result, and the ordination was 
solemnized on a stage in the open air, near the Meeting-house, that not 
being sufficient. The exercises were performed to general satisfaction, and 
with great applause. The numerous auditory observed among themselves 
uncommon decency and decorum, and the whole exhibited to the people of 
God in this place a solemn, affecting, and yet pleasing scene." (From Vol. 
II. of Chh. Records, p. 56, in the handwriting of Rev. Mr. Long.) 

Mr. Long's ministry seemed to proceed with a good degree of 
prosperity, internal and external, for many years, — perhaps I ought 
to say through its whole duration, though not without some serious 
trials, crosses, and adversities. He was a man of good common- 
sense, respectable learning, much prudence, great fidelity to his re- 
ligious convictions, and eminently exemplary in all the walks of life. 



234 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

See his genealogy, and the brief biographical sketch accompanying 
the same, in Part II. of this work. 

The next event most worth\' of note in the history of this society 
and church was the erection of their new meeting-house, in 1819. It 
was high time that the old sanctuary should give place to a new and 
more commodious one. The first question that arose was, where the 
new edifice should stand. Some friends living to the north-east of the 
parish common, I am told, were urgent that the proposed new house 
should stand on the place then occupied by Abner Wight, afterwards 
by Dr. G. D. Peck, and in our time by the late Ziba Thayer and his 
widow. This was in itself a very desirable site ; but the church and 
most of the worshippers had so deep a reverence for the ancient 
sacred location, that they resolved not to abandon it. Then another 
question of much greater practical importance arose, — to whom did the 
old meeting-house belong, — to the parish, or the town? Two strong 
antagonistic parties at once divided the whole population, — the town 
party and the parish party. The town part}- insisted that the house 
was the property of the town, and, being decidedly in the majority 
at the polls, forbade the parish to meddle with it. But the parish, 
having legally re-organized so as to resume the rights of the former 
precinct, undauntedly dismantled the old edifice of its inside valu- 
ables, sold the shell, and cleared the ground for their new temple. 
Hence the case went to the courts, which at length decided the issues 
in favor of the parish. What consequences followed between the two 
contending parties will be set forth under another head. (See Chap. 
XIV., Sect. I.) 

The parish now went forward vigorously to erect their new meeting- 
house. The following, from Vol. II. of the church records, in Rev. 
Mr. Long's handwriting, describes the course of proceedings and 
events : — 

" 1819, May 9. Most of the members of the Chh., male and female, con- 
vened at the house of the Pastor, in the intermission on the sabbath, and 
took into view the low state of religion in this place, the important under- 
taking in which the Parish are engaged for building a new Meeting-house, 
and the unprovoked opposition and devices raised by many, out of the Parish, 
against the work. And in view of these things, it was thought advisable to 
set apart a season for special united prayer, ■ that we might seek of God a 
right way for us, and for our little ones, and for all our substance ' (Ezra 
viii. 21). And as the work of rebuilding is to commence the present week, 
and as the old house of worship is to be disposed of on Wednesday next, 
therefore agreed that the proposed meeting be on Monday next, 2 o'clock, 
P.M., at the house of the Pastor. 



ERECTION OF THE NEW MEETING-HOUSE, ETC. 235 

" May 10 The Chh. met according to adjournment, most of the mem- 
bers being present, and enjoyed a solemn and comforting season in seeking 
for the outpouring of the Spirit; a blessing on the work of rebuilding the 
sanctuary, that success may be given to the undertaking, that ' the glory of 
the latter house may be greater than that of the former,' and that no device 
formed against the cause and people of God here may prosper. And much 
satisfaction was enjoyed in committing the whole, as we trust, to divine 
care and direction. Also, agreed to continue our meetings for like purposes 
during the season, or as loug as duty shall appear, once in every month, in 
addition to the first Monday in the mouth, which has heretofore been observed 
as a season for special prayer. Also, appointed Tuesday, May 18, 2 o'clock, 
P.M , to be observed as a public season of prayer iu relation to the same 
objects, a discourse to be delivered on the occasion. 

" May 18. The Chh and Parish convened according to appointment. 
A very full assembly. Sermon on 1 Chron. 28: 20. The old Meeting-house 
to be broken up on Monday next. 

" May 24. The Parish collected, and took out all the inside of the house. 
25. Prepared the old house to be removed. 26. The day of the annual 
Election. The Parish collected, and removed the house, under the direction 
of Capt. Rufus Thayer, with complete success, and no injury to the hands 
or the building. Divine providence visible. 

"June 17. Began to raise the new Meeting-house, on the ground of the 
old. 19. The raising was completed to the top of the Belfry, without acci- 
dent or harm. The Spire was raised Aug. 11. The business on each day, 
except one, was beguu and closed with prayer, at the frame. The omission 
on the 18th was occasioned by a shower. Closed the business of the last day 
by singing 132d Ps., L. M., Dr. Watts, and concluded with prayer. Hitherto 
the Lord hath helped us. 

M Nov. 1. A Chh. meeting was held, by appointment, at the house of the 
Pastor. After the usual monthly concert of prayer, a subscription having 
been previously opened and filled for procuring new cups and cloths for the 
Communion table, voted that Brother Nathan Parkhurst be appointed to 
procure the cups. N.B. The cups were procured according to vote; viz., 
8 plated cups & 3.50 = 128.00. 

"Nov. 15. The Meeting-house being nearly completed, the Parish met 
and voted acceptance. Also voted, 4 That the thanks of this Parish be given 
to Mr. Elias Carter, for his able and faithful performance of his trust in 
erecting the Meeting-house this day accepted by the said Parish. 

" (Signed by) Adams Chapin, Parish Clerk. 

" The above was deservedly presented to Mr. Carter, a skilful and faith- 
ful architect, and amiable and pious man. This Meeting-house is said to 
be the 11th or 12th which he has erected. At 12 o'clock began the sale of 
pews, and during the afternoon 57 were sold at auction, amounting to more 
than $7,000, — somewhat more than the whole cost of the house, — leaving 
towards 30 unsold. The sale was opened with prayer. It had been abun- 
dantly predicted by those out of the Parish who were unfriendly, that the 



236 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

sales would not more than half equal the cost, and therefore that an enor- 
mous tax must be levied on the Parish. And thus some, through fear, had 
left the Parish, and united with other denominations. Some of these, after 
seeing that the danger was past, became purchasers. « My God, think thou 
upon Tobiah and Sanballat according to these their works.' (Neh. 6: 14.) 

" Nov. 16. After the close of a meeting for prayer, the Chh. collected 
themselves in Chh. meeting, and disposed of the old vessels among them- 
selves; viz., 4 small flaggons and 8 cups. The avails were $2.22£; and agreed 
to procure new cloths for the table. 

"Aug. 11. The Spire was raised p.m., without harm. 

"Nov. 25. The Meeting-house was dedicated. Ministers sent for on this 
occasion were, Rev. Mr. Howe of Hopkinton, Mr. Wood of Upton, Mr. Ide 
of Medway, Mr. Wheaton of Holliston, and Mr. Dogget of Mendon. 

"Exercises. — Select music; a blessing implored on the reading of the 
Word, by the Pastor; 2 Chrou., 6 chap., read by Mr. Ide; music; Ded. 
Prayer, by Mr. Howe; music; Sermon, by the pastor, 2 Chron. vii. 15, 16; 
music; Concluding Prayer by Mr. Wood. Remarkable order and decency 
prevailed. 

44 Nov. 25. A communion-table had previously been made by Mr. 
Benj. Gibbs, price $10, paid iu part by subscription by members of the 
Chh., and others, and part from the funds of 4 The Moral and Charitable 
Society in Milford.' Also, three chairs, procured at Boston, $5; expense 
paid as above. A Bible and Psalm-book were presented for the use of the 
pulpit by 4 The Female Charitable Society.' Thus the whole business is 
completed, and the parish as harmonious as at any former period, and the 
congregation, from sabbath to sabbath, increasing in numbers." (Chh. 
Records, vol. ii., pp. 103-106.) 

I have quoted thus fully from the records, because the}* relate 
to comparatively olden times, actors, and events, and because the}' 
give an interesting insight into the circumstances, experiences, 
characteristics, and spirit of a period now fading away from living 
memories into the shadowy past. It will not be expected that I 
describe subsequent kindred transactions with the same particularit}*. 
The limitations of my space forbid it. Rev. Mr. Long's ministry 
continued forty-three years, and terminated by regular dismissal, at 
his own request, in 1844. I must pass over a multitude of occur- 
rences and incidents which would be proper for a full history of his 
pastorate, and briefly notice those only which took place in connection 
with his resignation. He was advancing toward old age ; younger 
generations largely composed his congregation, and manners were 
changing with the times. Moreover, he was annually afflicted with a 
severe visitation of asthma, which lasted several weeks, and, for the 
time, seriously debilitated him. There began to be a clamor for a 
younger man, and more interesting pulpit discourses, according to 



REV. MR. LONG'S DISMISSION. 237 

the fashion of the world generally. It was not a harsh or bitter 
clamor ; but it reached his ears, and made him unhappy. He had 
served long and faithfull}-, on a meagre salan*, and was not a man to 
stay where an}" considerable number of his professed supporters were 
dissatisfied with his performances, though others might devotedly 
adhere to him. There was a proposition to settle a colleague with 
him, which, I believe, was withdrawn. An}how, he came to the 
conclusion that he must resign, which he did, in the following com- 
munication : — 

To the Congregational Church and Parish in Milford. 

Brethren and Friends, — Although it has ever been a settled principle 
with me, that the sacred relation between a pastor and church ought never 
to v e dissolved for slight causes, yet, as it appears that nothing short of this 
•will give satisfaction to those who wish for a change in the ministry in 
this place, or be likely to save this people from being rent with incurable 
divisions, I am led to the conclusion that the time has arrived for such a 
step to be taken. I have not rashly come to this conclusion, but with 
deliberate and prayerful consideration. 

I am willing to make all reasonable sacrifices to promote the peace and 
prosperity of this people. And hoping, or at least wishing, that the con- 
templated step may have the effect to secure this object, / now ask a dis- 
mission from my pastoral relation to this church and my ministerial relation to this 
parish. [The remainder omitted.] 

D. Long, Pastor. 
April 14, 1844. 

April 25 ensuing, the church, with some reluctance, accepted this 
resignation. The parish did so about the same time, passing the 
following resolution : — 



■■© 



"Resolved, That the thanks of this parish be presented to the Rev. David 
Long, for his long and faithful services with this people as their minister, 
and for his honorable and upright dealings as a neighbor and friend." 

A mutual council was convened on Wednesday, May 15, 1844, to 
advise on the case. It consisted of the pastors and delegates named 
below : — 

PASTORS. DELEGATES. 

Rev. Benjamiu Wood, Upton. Brother Joseph B. Chapin. 
Rev. Elisha Fisk, Wrentham. 

Rev. Jacob Ide, D.D., Medway. Deacon Jonathan Metcalf. 

Rev. J. D. Southworth, Franklin. Brother Matthew Metcalf. 

Rev. D. Sanford, Medway Village. Brother Nathan Bullard. 



238 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

The council reported a very deprecatory result ; but, on the whole, 
sanctioning the dismissal, with a declared expectation that Mr. Long 
should receive from his people five hundred dollars, which, however, 
I am informed, was never paid to him. Mr. Long and his wife 
asked, and received, a commendaton* dismission from the church, 
as members; and on the ensuing sabbath (May 19) he preached an 
affecting farewell discourse. Thus, with some shadows of sadness, 
ended his ministry in Milford. 

Rev. Smith Bartlett Goodenow, the next pastor, was installed 
Oct. 30, 1844, and dismissed Jan. 1, 1846. Rev. Preston Pond 
was installed May 24, 1849, and dismissed Feb. 16, 1852. Rev. 
James Trask "Woodbury was installed July 15, 1852, and died Jan. 
16, 1861. Rev. Alfred A. Ellsworth was ordained Sept. 4, 1862, 
and dismissed June 28, 1865. Rev. James B. Thornton was installed 
Nov. 22, 1865, and resigned Jan. 28, 1868, — his dismission sanc- 
tioned b}* council, Aug. 5, 1868. Rev. Sylvester C. Kendall was 
installed Aug. 5, 1868, and dismissed June 12, 1873. Rev. Merrill 
Richardson, D.D., was installed June 12, 1873, and died Dec. 12, 
1877. Rev. Oliver S. Dean was installed Sept. 20, 1877, — the 
present incumbent. The last two have held a high rank in the 
public esteem as pastors, citizens; and men, — in saying which, no 
disparagement is meant for their predecessors. 

The succession of elders and deacons was brought down, at the 
close of Chap. V., to 1785, when Dea. John Chapin was elected 
elder. He seems to have been the last of the ruling elders. Seth 
Nelson was chosen deacon in 1786; also, Ebenezer Read, about 
the same time; Robert Sanders, jun., 1802; Nathan Chapiu, also 
1802; Seth Nelson, jun., 1813; Amos Chapin, 1815; Peter Rock- 
wood, 1831 ; Nathan T. Chapin, 1844 ; Nathaniel Torrey and Martin 
Fletcher, 1845 ; Joseph W. Littlefield, 1848 ; Hiram Carpenter, S. C. 
Brownell, and A. L. Kendall, Nov. 3, 1853 ; Samuel W. Walker, 
Feb. 26, 1857 ; David B. Rockwood, Dec. 15, 1859 ; Amos Holbrook 
and Levi P. Bradish, April 23, 1863 ; Benjamin Franklin, March 20, 
1866 ; Charles N. Morse, June 5, 1868 ; and Asa A. Westcott, Jan. 
3, 1879. Some of these served till death, and others till resignation 
or discharge. The total number of members in this church, as 
reported Jan. 1, 1879, was 289, of whom 79 were males, and 210 
females. Their creed and covenant have undergone several revisions 
since 1741, with considerable omissional and verbal modifications, 
but retaining what are deemed their essential evangelical features. 
It is hardly necessary for me to present a cop}' of the latest revision, 
as its contents are substantially accordant with those of sister Orthodox 





FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 



RENOVATION OF THE MEETING-HOUSE. 239 

Congregational churches in New England generally. I shall venture 
to remark, however, that all the modifications referred to have been 
on the line of moderate Calvinism towards a milder theology. The 
congregation — of which this church is the core — is large, wealthy, 
and popular. In all these respects it is our strongest religious 
society, excepting the Catholic in point of numbers. It has a 
vigorous internal organization for the promotion of the various 
auxiliary benevolences common in its denomination. Its social 
activities of all kinds are auspicious of permanency and prosperity. 
In our town Director}-, designed to cover the year 1878, its com- 
municants were stated to number 293, its Sunday school 325, and 
its Sunday-school library* 810 volumes. This must be nearly their 
present status. The average Sunday audiences are estimated at 
450, — ranging from 300 to 800. 

I will close this account with a brief statement concerning the 
renovation of their church edifice. It began to be felt, in 1858, that 
the Second Meeting-house, built in 1819, needed enlargement and 
thorough renewal. Early in 1859 the parish initiated measures to 
this end. But its accomplishment was retarded by man} - difficulties. 
The building must be raised up high enough for ample basement- 
rooms, in the modern style. It must be lengthened some thirty feet, 
and the inside work entirel}- remodelled. It must be set much farther 
back, so as to have a decent front on the street ; and neighboring 
buildings, especially the Academ}*, must also be moved back west- 
ward, so as to stand in range with it. To effect all this, more 
land must be bought in the rear, at a high price, and sundry horse- 
stable rights cancelled. Meantime, the ancient bounds of the original 
precinct common were so ill-defined and obscured by changes that 
it was hard to ascertain them. Plan after plan was proposed for 
the attainment of the main object. One of these was to purchase 
a new site between Main and South-Main Sts., near their junction, 
and either build anew, or move, enlarge, and rejuvenate the old sanc- 
tuary. This went so far, that the proposed new site was actual^ 
bought by the parish. But the cost had to be considered and pro- 
vided for, — some twenty-five thousand dollars or more. At length, 
after dubious agitation for years, the parish unanimously decided as 
is set forth in the following record : — 

" Oct. 15, 1866. The committee chosen at a legal meeting of the parish, 
holden Sept. 17, A.D. 1866, to report upon moving, enlarging, and the 
repair of the church, made the following report, which was accepted; and, 
after duly considering the same, it was unanimously adopted, as follows: to 
wit, ' That the building should be removed to the lot recently purchased of 



240 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

Moses Harris; that it be enlarged by the addition of thirty feet in length; 
that a vestry, and such rooms as may be required for church purposes, be 
finished under it; the church to be raised sufficiently for the purpose ; that 
new pews and windows be put into the church; that the organ be placed in 
the rear of the speaker's desk; that the galleries be remodelled, and the 
building put in complete repair, and painted, inside and out, in an ap- 
propriate manner. 

" ' The committee are of the opinion that the aforesaid improvements, in- 
cluding the furnishing of the church, can be made at an expense not exceed- 
ing the sum of twenty-five thousand dollars. 

1 C. F. Claflin, Chairman of Committee.' 

" Chose Charles F. Claflin, Lewis Fales, and Lowell Fales, a building 
committee, with authority to carry out the recommendations of the above 
report. 

"Voted, To choose a committee of three, by ballot, to appraise the pews 
in the church previous to any alteration or repair. Chose William Batch- 
elder of Holliston, Clark Patridge of Medway, and N. P. Coburn of Newton, 
for said committee." 

The work went forward with due preparation ; but the dismantling 
of the sanctuary did not commence till the spring of 1868, when the 
parish provided Washington Hall as their place of worship during 
the process of renovation. The undertaking was handsomely com- 
pleted before Aug. 5, 1868, on the evening of which day, after Rev. 
Mr. Kendall's installation, the new temple was solemnly dedicated, 
with the customary formalities. Somewhat later the building com- 
mittee made their final report, and were honorably discharged. The 
improvements, accommodations, and beautifications made, speak 
for themselves, and reflect honor on the parish. The total of im- 
provements cost about twenty-five thousand dollars, to which must 
be added an excellent organ, costing twelve hundred dollars. After 
Rev. Mr. Long's dismissal, the salaries of his successors were six 
hundred dollars, seven hundred dollars, and one thousand dollars per 
annum, till the settlement of Rev. Mr. Kendall, who received two 
thousand dollars. Rev. Dr. Richardson received three thousand five 
hundred dollars ; and the present incumbent, in these later times, 
receives two thousand five hundred dollars. I have omitted the 
names of annually elected parish officers, since those of the precinct 
era, as perhaps uncalled for, considering the particularity of other 
historic matter. I will, however, add, in closing, a specification 
of those chosen for 1879: viz., Parish Committee, Samuel Walker, 
Aaron C. May hew, Thomas B. Thayer ; Committee on Music, 
George W. Johnson, Chas. F. Claflin, Joel W. Harris ; Clerk and 
Treasurer, Orlando Avery. 



FIRST UNIVERSALISTS IN MILFORD. 241 



II. THE UNIVERSALIST SOCIETY. 

Precisely when Universalism was first preached in Milford, and by 
whom, I have been unable to ascertain. I incline, however, to believe 
that Elder Adams Streeter was probably its first preacher here, and 
that he commenced his ministn- in the 3-ear 1781. It is recorded in 
the first volume of our Town Records, p. 202, that " Elder Adams 
Streeter, Dinah his wife, and seven children [giving their names], 
came to reside in Milford, Nov. 16, 1781. They came from Douglas, 
taken in by Noah Wiswall." Mr. Wiswall was one of the earliest 
and most zealous of our Milford Universalists. Elder Streeter 
was an early and devoted Universalist preacher, itinerating much in 
the southerly towns of Worcester Co., and in portions of Rhode 
Island. He had several stations where he ministered regularly on 
the sabbath once a month. This town afforded him one of those 
stations, meetings being held at private houses, — often at Mr. 
Wiswall's. It is presumable that he commenced ministering here 
occasionally several months before moving his family hither in 
Nov., 1781, and that about that time arrangements had been made 
for him to preach regularly to the people here once a month. It 
is hardly supposable, on other grounds, that he would have taken 
up his family residence here. Mr. Wiswall himself — though not 
without the sad fault of intemperance (not uncommon in those days 
among even orthodox church-members and respectably good men) — 
was a generous-hearted, enterprising, public-spirited, and charitable 
citizen. This accounts for his opening bis house, and making a home 
for Elder Streeter's familv. Doubtless he had a high and warm regard 
for his minister, who, in that unpopular stage of Universalism, must 
have stood sorely in need of friends. 

We now come to our earliest Universalist records, which commence 
thus : " The Records of the Independent Christian Society, commonly 
called Universalist, before incorporated and afterwards. Samuel 
French, Clerk." Then follows: "Milford, August, 1785. The 
persons belonging to the society [previous to and down to that time] 
were, Elder Adams Streeter, Noah Wiswall, Ebenezer Sumner, 
Samuel French, John Claflin, Caleb Boj-nton, Saml. Bowker, Eben- 
ezer Wheelock, Ebenezer Sumner, jun., Nahum Clark, David French 
[11]." This little society was invited to represent itself by three 
delegates in the first General Convention of the denomination, which 
was held in Oxford, Sept. 14, 1785. It sent, as its delegates, Eben- 
ezer Sumner, Noah Wiswall, and Samuel French. The Convention 
recommended "its few infant societies to organize and affiliate." 



242 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

This was agreed to by Milford society, Dec. 5, 1785. At the same 
time it was agreed (perhaps renewedly) to sustain a regular monthly 
meeting, under the ministrations of Elder Adams Streeter, who 
was to be supported by contribution. Feb. 22, 1786, they again 
agreed with Elder Streeter to preach monthly for them through the 
3'ear, on the same terms. But they were soon bereaved of their first 
minister, as appears from the following entry: "Sept. 22, 1786. 
Then departed this life our Beloved Elder and Brother, Adams 
Streeter, to the great lamentation of all his hearers." Their arrange- 
ment was to have him preach in each of their several houses. He 
was taken suddenly aud fatally sick on one of his preaching ex- 
cursions (I think) to Providence, R.I., or vicinit}*, and died at the 
hospitable house of Ca'pt. Stephen Whipple, in Smithfield, near 
Blackstone River, on territory now included in the town of Lincoln. 

Dec. 28, 1787, the society formally adopted and subscribed the 
organic religious compact which had been recommended by the 
newly organized General Convention to its several constituent socie- 
ties. It is presumed to have been draughted by Rev. John Murray, 
one of the principal patriarchs of Universalism in America. The 
following is a copy : — 

"CHARTER OF COMPACT. 

" As it is of the greatest importance, and conduces to the safety and hap- 
piness of a Society, to form themselves in a way which is most happifying 
and secure in the great matters of Religion and Morality, and to take all 
such salutary measures as are pointed out in the Constitution; we, therefore, 
who have set our names hereunto, convinced by reason and truth, do, by our 
own inclination, mutually engage and pledge ourselves, each to the other, and 
enter into the following Charter of Compact: — 

'* 1. That there be a stated annual meeting of the Society, on the second 
Wednesday in April, every year, for the purpose of choosing a select com- 
mittee, whose power shall be as hereafter denned, and that there be, at the 
same time, a Clerk chosen to this Society. 

"2. That there be funds provided, by voluntary subscription, for the pur- 
pose of supporting a teacher, or teachers, of Piety, Religion, and Morality, 
and for the purpose of assisting poor and distressed brethren. 

11 3. The powers of the compact are to extend to the calling of a meeting, 
or meetings, of the Society, when they shall think proper, or on request of 
five of the Society. 

"4. They have power to admit new subscribers: they shall likewise ac- 
quaint the Clerk of their proceedings, in order that he may keep a regular 
record. 

u 5. The Clerk shall record the transactions, both of the Society and 
Committee, in a book open to the inspection of any one. 



UNIVERSALIST COMPACT. 243 

"6. The Clerk shall be Treasurer of the Society, and shall regularly 
report, both of the reception and distribution of moneys to the Compact, 
at every annual meeting. 

•• 7. All who shall subscribe, and not punctually pay, shall be exempt 
from the privileges of the Charter of Compact; and the Compact have 
discretionary power to remit subscriptions, on reasonable representations 
made to them. 

"8. The subscriptions shall be paid to the Clerk, which will render useless 
the office of a Collector. 

" 9. Subscriptions shall be opened at the annual meeting, and continue at 
those periods, unless any circumstances shall require them more frequently. 

" 10. All subscribers shall have an equal vote. 

" 11. All questions shall be determined by two-thirds of the present 
members, and seven shall constitute a meeting. 

"12. Every member or subscriber shall have a free liberty to withdraw 
his name from this Charter whenever he shall see fit. 

" 13. Whereas, the privilege of choosing one's own religion is inestimable, 
in order to maintain that privilege unimpaired, in case any person associating 
with us shall suffer persecution from an unlawful exercise of power, we do 
agree and resolve to afford all legal measures of extricating him from diffi- 
culty, and of enabling him to enjoy that freedom which is held forth in the 
Constitution. 

44 14. And be it universally known, that we who have set our names to 
this Charter of Compact, for the purposes heretofore named, are composed 
of, and belong to, the Independent Christian Society in Milford, commonly 
called Universalists. As Christians, we acknowledge no Master but Christ 
Jesus, and, as disciples, we profess to follow no guide in spiritual matters 
but his word and spirit; as dwellers in this world, we hold ourselves bound 
to yield obedience to every ordinance of man for God's sake, and we will be 
obedient subjects to the powers that are ordained of God in all civil cases ; 
but, as subjects of that King whose kingdom is not of this world, we caunot 
acknowledge the right of any human authority to make laws for the regula- 
tion of our consciences in spiritual matters. Thus, as a true, independent 
Church of Christ, looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith, we 
mutually agree to walk together in Christian fellowship, building up each 
other in our most holy faith, rejoicing in the liberty wherewith Christ hath 
made us free, and determining, by his grace, no more to be entangled by 
any yoke of bondage. As disciples of the meek and lowly Jesus, we resolve, 
so far as in us lieth, to live peaceably with all men; yet, as believers, living 
godly in Christ Jesus, we expect to suffer as much persecution as the laws 
of the country we live in will admit of. But we resolve, by the grace of 
God, none of these things shall move us to act inconsistently with our 
character as Christians. 

" We will, as much as possible, avoid vain jangling and unnecessary dis- 
putation, and, should we be reviled, endeavor in patience to possess our 
souls. As an Independent Church of Christ, thus bound together by the 
cords of love, and uniting together in his name, we mutually agree to meet 



244 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



together to worship our divine Lord and Master, as circumstances shall or 
may require; [and] that we may the more effectually show forth his praise 
who hath called us out of darkness into his marvellous light, we resolve to 
pay a serious regard to all the exhortations, admonitions, and instructions 
given to us by the Spirit of God in the epistles dictated to our holy apostles. 
We will, as far as in us lieth, do good unto all men, especially unto them 
who are of the household of faith. We will, by the grace of God, in word 
and in deed, endeavor to adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour, as children 
of one Father, and members of one head, who are united together in church 
fellowship, bound by the love of our dear Saviour." 

. Subscribed, at the date aforesaid, by " Ebenezer Sumner, Ebenezer 
Hill, Samuel Bowker, Benjamin Bass, Noah Wiswall, Nathaniel 
Butterworth, Aaron Pond, Japheth Daniels, Amos Ellis, Darius 
Sumner, Luther Wheelock, Jairus Boyden, Nathaniel Corbett, Moses 
Pond, Ichabod Corbett, Nahum Clark, Calvin Cutler, Ebenezer 
Sumner, jun., Caleb Cheney, juu., Edward Brewer, Obadiah Wood, 
Seth Allen, Joseph Sumner" [23]. A few of these appear to have 
been of neighboring towns, residents near the borders of Milford. 

The records do not show that the society had another regular 
monthly preacher till May 31, 1790. It is probable, however, that 
the}' had more or less occasional preaching during the intervening 
years. At the last-mentioned date they engaged Rev. Zephaniah Lathe 
to preach for them, once a month, through the .year, salary $20 ; 
again, for 1791, they engaged him, salarj' §25. Thenceforward he 
ministered to them regularly, once a month, for the same annual sti- 
pend, till the autumn of 1797. He may be called their second pastor 
or minister. Much of the time, during those j^cars, the meetings were 
held at the house of Mr. Noah Wiswall, who was allowed $10 per 
annum for the trouble occasioned. That old Wiswall house is still 
standing on the Plain, north side of the Holliston road, now Main 
Street, a little east of Cedar Street, owned by Irish-Americans. 

Jan. 24, 1791, the society obtained a vote of the town in the fol- 
lowing words : " Voted to let the people of the Denomination called 
Universalers have libert} 1 to meet in the Town's Meeting-house on 
week days, when not otherwise wanted." (Vol. I. p. 127.) How 
many times this privilege was used, I do not find recorded. I have 
been told that Rev. John Murraj - preached there at least once, and 
it is probable that he and others did so several times. On the 20th 
Sept., 1797, the Universalist General Convention met in Milford, and 
perhaps in the town's meeting-house, so called. The society's records 
make it pretty certain that Rev. Z. Lathe officiated as its minister 
quite regularly, once a month, from 1790 to 1804. Rev. Joshua Flagg 



BRICK UNIVERSALIST CHURCH BUILT. 245 

preached more or less frequent!}' during 1805 ; then Rev. Mr. Lathe 
again during 1806 ; Rev. Mr. Flagg again, 1807 and '08. During 
1809, '10, and '11, Rev. Nathaniel Smith ministered. From 1811 
to '21, the society had more or less frequent preaching from Rev. 
Messrs. Bigelow, Richard Carrique, Joshua Flagg, Caleb Rich, and 
others. 

When the excitement of 1819 arose about the ownership of the old 
Precinct Meeting-house, in which the town and parish parties origi- 
nated, and which developed into a hot rivalrous controversy of several 
years' continuance, the Universalist society received important acces- 
sions. Among these, Pearley Hunt, Esq., with his handsome mercan- 
tile wealth, was conspicuous. A new town-common had been obtained, 
and the town-house built in the Sumner locality ; and it was sturdily 
resolved that the new municipal metropolis should be graced by a 
church edifice adjacent to it, as respectable as the one that had just 
replaced the old Town's Meeting-house, so called, on the ancient 
common. The result was the Brick Church, now a rear appendage of 
Church Block. The responsibility of its erection was assumed by 
twelve Universalist proprietors, who associated themselves for that 
purpose. The}- were Pearley Hunt, Esq., Col. Arial Bragg, Capt. 
Henry Nelson, Darius Sumner, John Corbett, sen., Ebenezer Hunt, 
Alexander Cheney, Caleb Cheney, Ellis Sumner, Clark Sumner, Zebe- 
diah Flagg, and Otis Parkhurst. Esq. Hunt took one-fourth or more 
of the pecuniary responsibility, but his associates their due propor- 
tion according to their respective ability, and perhaps some of them 
beyond their ability. They went into the undertaking with a will 
and a zeal which insured speedy success. They were determined to 
produce a meeting-house not inferior to that which the Congregational 
parish had just completed, though of a different style : so they de- 
signedly built one of brick, a fraction larger on the ground than that 
of the parish, with a tower sixty feet high instead of a spire, but 
furnished with an imposing clock, and a bell five hundred weight 
heavier than its rival ; all which was completed during the year 1820, 
and was deemed glory enough for one performance. Their opposers 
did not scruple to give them more credit for will and pluck than piety ; 
which, if judged by omission of public prayers, so demonstrative in 
the erection of the Congregational edifice, might seem just. But will 
and pluck distinguished both parties in those days, whilst piety and 
town thrift enjoyed the harvest. The Universalist sanctuar}' was 
dedicated, with much demonstration and rejoicing, Jan. 10, 1821 ; 
and the celebrated Rev. Hosea Ballou, of Boston, preached the ser- 
mon, which was forthwith published. 



246 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



The succession of ministers from that dedication downward has 
been as follows : — 



Rev. Thomas Whittemore, one year 

to 1822. 
Rev. Jacob Frieze, two years to April, 

1824. 
Rev. Adin Bahou, over six years, to 

1831. 
Rev. Elbridge Trull, 1833. 
Rev. Rufus S. Pope, 1835. 
Rev. H. W. Morse, 1837. 
Rev. Z. Baker, 1838. 
Rev. William Bell, 1841, '42. 
Rev. William R. G. Mellen, 1843. 



Rev. Benjamin H. Davis, 1844, '46. 
Rev. William Coe, 1847. 
Rev. Willard Spaulding, 1848. 
Rev. Henry A. Eaton, 1849 to '53. 
Rev. David H. Plumb, 1853, '54. 
Rev. James R. Johnson, 1855 to '60. 
Rev. George Hill, 1860 to '65. 
Rev. Russell P. Ambler, 1865, '66. 
Rev. Gerherdus L. Demarest, 1867 to 

'73. 
Rev. Edward A. Perry, 1873 to '78. 
Rev. Royal T. Sawyer, 1879, etc. 



The society was not legally incorporated until Dec. 6, 1824, and 
then under a warrant issued on petition by Warren Rawson, Esq., 
of Mendon, justice of the peace. After that the members were fre- 
quently taxed for the support of public worship, whenever the society 
preferred that method to subscription. From 1821, for man}- years, 
the successive pastors received an annual salary of $330. Between 
1831 and 1842 the society passed through a fluctuating series of less 
favorable experiences, during which there were several intermissions 
of regular preaching. On the 31st Oct., 1841, a new constitution 
was adopted, consisting often good articles, which revived the cause, 
and gathered to its support a respectable recruit of adherents. The 
preamble and declared objects were highly commendable, and were 
followed by an article adopting the common published creed of the 
denomination; viz., — 

" We believe that the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments 
contain a revelation of the character of God, and of the duty, interest, and 
final destination of mankind. 

44 We believe there is one God, whose nature is love, revealed in one Lord 
Jesus Christ, by one Holy Spirit of grace, who will finally restore the whole 
family of mankind to holiness and happiness. 

44 We believe that holiness and true happiness are inseparably connected, 
and that believers ought to maintain order and practise good works; for 
these things are good and profitable unto men." 

The entire constitution is unobjectionable in substance and form, 
considered in its kind and designed use. Under it the affairs of the 
society went on with improving success. Thenceforth the salaries 
paid to pastors gradually rose, till, in the case of Rev. G. L. Demarest, 
they reached the maximum of $1,600 per annum. The present salary 
is $1,200. 



PEARL-STREET CHURCH ERECTED, ETC. 247 

Under the pastorate of Rev. Henry A. Eaton, which commenced in 
1849, and appears to have been very popular and effective, a church 
organization of considerable strength was instituted, and the hand- 
some new church on Pearl Street erected. There had never before 
been any such organization within the society, nor an} - observance of 
sacramental ordinances. This church held its first meeting for the 
choice of officers, etc., Oct. 2, 1850. It adopted an excellent consti- 
tution, with declarations of objects, faith, duties, and discipline, and 
all necessary provisions for official and practical operations. About 
the same time the new church edifice was planned, and soon erected. 
The plan was drawn by Thomas W. Sillowa}- of Boston, and the house 
built by Orrin Whipple of Newton, for $7,000 ; the land and all other 
items of expenditure amounted to §2,400 more: total, $9,400. The 
new sanctuary was dedicated Ma}' 1, 1851 : sermon by the venerable 
Hosea Ballou, then eighty-one years of age, who, as before stated, 
preached the former dedicatory discourse. The same day, the pastor, 
Rev. Mr. Eaton, having alread}- ministered two j'ears, was formally 
installed ; sermon b}' Rev. Thomas "Whittemore. In the evening the 
church was solemnly recognized according to the forms of the denomi- 
nation. There was a great gathering of clergy and laity, and much 
rejoicing. 

The deacons of the church have been Elijah P. Brigham, Amory B. 
Cook, Adam Hunt, and Elbridge M. Jones. Deas. Cook and Jones 
are now in service. Present number of communicants, 28. A valu- 
able organ was purchased for the choir in 1875, at the cost of $1,800. 
The usual Sunday audiences average not far from 300 persons. 

The Sunda}- school numbers about 125. Superintendents of recent 
date, C. M. Sumner, E. A. Pern - , G. M. Billings. Its library con- 
tains 425 vols. Recent librarians, Ellis Fisher, John Carpenter, S. P. 
Carpenter, 2d. 

The present pastor is Rev. Royal T. Sawyer, whose regular ser- 
vices as such commenced March 9, 1879 ; salary, $1,200. The soci- 
ety's officers for 1878 were as follows : Standing Committee, Rufus 
C. Eldridge, Grinfill B. Knight, and Benjamin H. Spaulding ; Treas- 
urer, Henry C. Skinner ; Clerk, Gilbert M.'Billings ; Collector, Asaph 
Withington ; Assessors, Andrew J. Sumner and Leander Holbrook. 
For 1879-80, same as last year excepting Collector I. N. Davis. The 
Universalists, under their new pastor, seem to be prosperous and 
hopeful. 



248 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



in. THE METHODIST SOCIETIES. 

The Methodists are our next oldest religionists. I speak of soci- 
eties, because, though there is but one Methodist society now, there 
was one of a much earlier date, that became defunct not long after the 
present society was organized. The old society was located in the 
North Purchase, and for many years had a small house of worship 
there. It was originally in regular connection with the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, but at a later period became Methodist Protectant 
in its ecclesiastical affiliation ; at least, such is my best understand- 
ing of the matter. 

Methodist circuit-preachers came occasionally into the North Pur- 
chase as early as 1792, and also into Harden Row, Hopkinton. They 
are said to have held their first meetings in summer under large shady 
trees, some of which are traditionally mentioned as sturdy chestnuts, 
standing not far from where their meeting-house was afterwards built. 
In colder weather the}' gathered in private dwellings, or perhaps in 
the schoolhouse. The earliest reliable information I have found con- 
cerning Methodist religious services and preachers in town is afforded 
b}' certificates recorded in our Assessors' Book, which exempted cer- 
tain persons from Congregational taxation. The following are inter- 
esting : — 

This is to certify, that Wm. Andrews, James Battle, Josiah Ball, David 
Stearns, Edmund Bowker, Ebenr. McFarland, Joshua Andrews, John Dew- 
ing, Uri Day, John Corbett, and Caleb Albee attend public worship with 
the Methodists in Milford, and contribute for their support. 
Signed, in behalf of the Society, 

Geo. Cannon. 
Apkil 22, 1795. 

This is to certify, that the Bearer, Mr. Daniel Carter, attends Methodist 
preaching in North Purchase in the Town of Milford, and contributes to its 
support. 

Signed, in behalf of the Methodist Society, 

John Harper, Elder. 
Milford, May 21, 1795. 

A similar certificate was given to Ithiel Parkhurst, signed b}' George 
Pickering, dated May 22, 1797; also another to Asa Snell, by the 
same preacher, bearing the same date ; another was given to Jesse 
Chene} - , Dec. 11, 1802, signed by Joshua Soule, Methodist preacher; 
another was given to Alexander Cheney, Nov. 10, 1804, signed by 
" Nehemiah C03-, Methodist Teacher." I found in a class-leader's 
list, handed down among the papers of Dea. Edmund Bowker, under 



METHODISTS IN NORTH PURCHASE. 249 

date of Nov. 2, 1801, that the said Bowker and Ebenr. McFarland 
were then class-leaders ; that the class numbered twent}--three per- 
sons (names specified) ; that " ever}' Friday before quarterly meet- 
ing was appointed as a day of fasting and prayer," and that Joseph 
Snelling was their preacher in charge. Here all extant records fail 
me till 1811 ; but from the foregoing evidence it is certain that a 
Methodist societj* existed in the North Purchase previous to April 
22, 1795. And it is also certain, that, in the succession of their minis- 
ters, Revs. George Cannon, John Harper, George Pickering, Joseph 
Snelling, Joshua Soule, and Nehemiah C03- officiated between April 
22, 1795, and Nov. 10, 1804. Who else may have done so before, 
or meantime, we know not. It seems, therefore, hardly doubtful that 
Methodist preaching commenced occasionally as early, at least, as 
the date I first named, — i. e., 1792. Who ministered between Nov., 
1804, and 1811, I am unable to state ; but my friend Isaac C. Haven 
has furnished, from records in his keeping, the following facts of a 
subsequent period. 

It was deemed necessary to organize the society in legal form. A 
meeting was therefore called according to law. It was held in the 
North schoolhouse, Aug. 28, 1811. David Stearns was chosen mod- 
erator, and Pearley Hunt clerk. Elder Isaac Bonney, who seems to 
have been eminently popular, was then the regular preacher. Esq. 
Hunt served as clerk ten years. Wm. Bailey succeeded him in 1821, 
and continued for five years. Dea. Ithiel Parkhurst was chosen in 
1826 ; then Henry Ball, in 1828 ; then followed another legal organ- 
ization of the society in 1829, and Wm. Baile}' served as clerk one 
year. He was succeeded b}* Isaac C. Haven for thirteen years. A 
new organization was effected, in legal form, March 16, 1840, with 
the title "First Methodist Society in Milford," I. C. Haven again 
clerk. Its last meeting was held March 5, 1843. 

Jan. 18, 1815, the society as then organized raised, probably by 
subscription, $254.57, and voted to build a meeting-house thirty-four 
b}' thirty feet, with posts twelve feet high. That house was soon 
erected, on the east side of the road, above the John Chene}- place, 
near the then North Purchase schoolhouse. Quite regular preaching 
was held there, in connection with a twin chapel in Ha}den Row, 
Hop. (the two together constituting one station), for many years. In 
process of time the meeting-house passed, by vote, into the hands of 
proprietors for repair. These were John Cheney, Zenas Ball, Levi 
Bicknell, Lyman P. Lowe, Isaac C. Haven, Willard Haven, John 
Goldsmith, James Fletcher, and George Hancock. Finally, the re- 
ligious interest of the locality so dwindled awaj' that no regular meet- 



250 HrSTORY OF MILFORD. 

ings were held in the house ; and at length it was burnt by a parcel of 
rowdy lads out on a spree, Oct. 23, 1860. While the society was 
somewhat prosperous, Aug. 25, 1828, it voted to build a parsonage, 
$254: being subscribed for that purpose. One was soon built ; but in 
1851 it was sold to George Hancock. 

The succession of clergymen, from Rev. Isaac Bonne} - in 1811, 
the last above mentioned, must be necessarily imperfect for lack of 
authentic information. I have been told that Rev. Mr. Hedding;, 
afterwards distinguished as Bishop Hedding, preceded Elder Bonne} - , 
or at least was at one time on the station ; but I have found no means 
of verifying this. I find on the town's record of marriage-returns the 
names of the following officiators : Rev. I. Bonne)-, down to 1818 
Rev. Erastus Otis, 1820, '22 ; Rev. Hezekiah Thatcher, 1823, etc. 
Rev. Herman Perry, 1825, etc. ; Rev. Thomas W. Tucker, 1826, etc. 
and Rev. 0. Robbins, 1833. A little later there came in a succession 
of Protestant and Reformed Methodist ministers, whose names I give 
as reported to me, and their terms of service : Rev. Alexander T. 
Temple, 1835 ; Rev. Nathaniel Spindel, 1836 ; Rev. John Dale, 1837, 
'38 ; Rev. Lorenzo Johnson, and his brother Rev. Thomas Johnson, 
1839 ; Rev. Thos. F. Morris supplied a while ; Rev. Wm. Tozer, 1840 
to '43 ; miscellaneous supplies by Rev. Mr. Rice and students, Epis- 
copal Methodists, from Holliston ; Rev. Leonard Wakefield (Epis- 
copal Methodist), for several closing years of the society's existence. 

THE PRESENT METHODIST SOCIETY. 

The present flourishing Methodist Episcopal Church and Society 
derived most of their seedling members from the North Purchase 
Society, ahead} - treated of. Several of them, 1 am sure, were con- 
stituents of that organization in some of its phases. Those surviving 
its decadence were glad to join their few immigrating brethren from 
other places in raising the standard of their denomination amid the 
thrift of Milford Centre. The attempt was successful. Commencing 
with prayer and conference meetings in private dwellings, they soon 
obtained leave to occupy the old Town Hall. A vote on our clerk's 
records shows permission granted to this effect in 1836, the Meth- 
odists to make such compensation as the selectmen should think 
equitable. At length, appealing to their wealthy and liberal brother, 
Hon. Lee Claflin of Hop., formerly of Milford, he assisted them to 
get regular sabbath services established, and, later, to erect their house 
of worship on Exchange St., corner of Fayette. The society was 
legally organized in 1844. The church and parsonage were built in 
184'J ; the latter being wholly the gift of Hon. L. Claflin. The church 





r ( 



/ 



METHODIST SOCIETY, MILFORD CENTRE. 251 

was enlarged in 1864, and much improved. The site, church, and 
parsonage were entirely free of debt before I860. The whole prop- 
erty is now valued at 814,000. The society has been served by the 
following named pastors : — 



Rev. Henry E. Hempstead, 1846, '47. 
Rev. Joseph Whitman, 1848, '49. 
Rev. C W. Ainsworth, 1850, '51. 
Rev. Albert A. Cooke, pt. of 1851. 
Rev. Isaac Smith, 1852, '53. 



Rev. Edward S. Best, 1861, '62. 
Rev. Joseph Scott, 1863, '64, '65. 
Rev. William G. Leonard, 1866. 
Rev. Loranus Crowell, 1867, '68. 
Rev. William H. Hatch, 1869, '71. 



Rev. Aaron D. Sargeant, 1854, '55. Rev. Rodney H. Howard, 1872, '75. 



Rev. Daniel Richards, 1856, etc. 
Rev. J. M. Bailey, 1857, '58. 
Rev. George G. Jones, 1859, '60. 



Rev. Porter M. Vinton, 1875, '77. 
Rev. George F. Eaton, 1877, etc. 
Rev. Charles Young, 1880, etc. 



There may be slight errors of date. 

Trustees of the Society, as reported in the Milford Directory of 
18G9, were : R. Cummings, George Beatty, D. C. Mowry, D. Adams, 
George L. Cooke, R. C. Hussey, John S. Mead. In 1872 John S. 
Mead is omitted, and John P. Rankin, J. W. Annette, Adin Ball, 
and D. P. Eldredge are added as trustees. In 1875 the list is the 
same, omitting R. Cummings and D. Adams. In 1878 the list of 
1875 is repeated. Later, M. Greene, A. W. Keen, T. Lilley. 

Stewards in 1869 : D. Adams, D. C. Mowry, G. L. Cooke, Geo. 
Beatty, John W. Annette, Adin Ball, D. P. Eldredge, C. P. Nelson, 
Royal Cummings. In 1872, D. Adams, D. C. Mowry, C. P. Nelson, 
and R. Cummings disappear from the list ; and their places are filled 
by Geo. H. Clarke, Frank Dewing, and Samuel Knight. In 1875 
we have the same, excepting that C. N. Packard takes the place of 
George Beatty, and Calvin J. Fisk that of Samuel Knight. In 1878 
the list stands as reported in 1875. Later, H. H. V. Lilley, R. S. 
Ruggles. 

Treasurer: George L. Cooke, uniformly reported 18G9 and down- 
ward. 

Class Leaders: George Beatty, R. C. Hussey, Gforge S. Adams, 
J. Elwin Cummings, lthiel P. Farnum. Later, G. F. Eaton, H. H. 
V. Lilley, T. McCanna. (Several probable omissions in the above.) 

Sunday-school Superintendent: from 1854 to the present time, 
George L. Cooke, faithfully, for twenty-five years. Assistant Super- 
intendent, Terrance McCanna. The school numbers over two hun- 
dred, and has a library of seven hundred and fifty volumes. Its 
succession of librarians has been : Adin Ball, John Adams, Willis 
Rankin, Lemuel L. W T heelock. 

The present number of church-members is about two hundred and 



252 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

forty, and that of the average Sunday audiences not far from two 
hundred and fifty. 

The Methodists of Milford, like the people of their denomination 
generally, are zealous religionists and conscientious devotees to their 
convictions of truth and duty. They have their full share of pious, 
upright, and trustworthy adherents. Their faith, discipline, and 
ecclesiasticism are too well known, or available by honest inquirers in 
published documents, to need any exposition from me. 

IV. THE CENTRAL BAPTIST CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 

The Baptists have been slow to gain an organized foothold in 
Milford, though long established in Bellingham and other neighboring 
towns. There has been a slight sprinkling of them within our terri- 
torial limits from certainly as early a date as 1792, and probably 
much earlier. I find on our old records the following certificates of 
exemption from taxation to the Congregational order here : — 

These may certify that Ens". Michael Madden is of and belongs to the 
Baptist Society in Upton, and attends the public worship there, and assists 
in supporting the preaching the Gospel in said Society. 

Simon Snow [Pastor.] 
David Kelly, Clerk of said Society. 
Upton, April ye 2nd 1792. 

Another of precisely the same tenor, date, and signature was given 
to Daniel Hunt, and lodged with our town-clerk. Three years later 
we find the following on record : — 

April 24, 1795. — These lines may Certify that Joseph Ward and 
Joseph Hunting of Milford are Members of a Branch of our Communion. 

Noah Alden, Pastor. 

This may Certify to whom it may concern, that the following persons 
belonging to the Town of Milford have subscribed for the support of the 
Baptist Minister in the Town of Bellingham; viz., Dea* Eben r Holbrook, 
Ziba Holbrook, Calvin Holbrook, Timothy Wiswall, George Alverson, 
Daniel Wedge. 

Attest: Eliab Wight, Clerk of said Society. 

Bellingham, May 6, 1795. 

It may safely be presumed that there has been more or less occa- 
sional Baptist preaching in Milford all the way down from, perhaps, 
1785, or even 1750 (though mostly in private dwellings, schoolhouses, 
and halls), to the organization of the present church. The Rev. 
Julius B. Robinson having favored me with an interesting sketch of 
the history of this church, I take pleasure in copying the same into 
these pages. 



HISTORY OF THE BAPTIST CHURCH. 253 

" The Pine St. Baptist Church was organized Feb. 15, 1853, and publicly 
recognized by an ecclesiastical council ou the 10th of March ; at which time 
the membership was twenty-nine. The number of constituent members was 
twenty-three. The services of recognition were held in the ' Brick Church,' 
which is now a part of ' Church Block,' and included a sermon by Rev. N. 
Colver, address to the church by Rev. Wm. C. Child, fellowship of the 
council by Rev. H. Fittz, and prayer by Rev. Joseph Smith. Rev. J. W. 
Russell was the first pastor. His labors began before the formal organiza- 
tion of the church, and he was on the field ready to assume the pastorate. 
He remained until Oct. 22, 1854. Up to that time fifty-two persons had 
been members of the church. On the 29th of August, 1855, Mr. Levi A. 
Abbott was ordained in Washington Hall: sermon by Rev. Bradford H. 
Lincoln; prayer by Rev. W. C. Child; hand of fellowship by Rev. J. W. 
Russell; charge to the candidate by Rev. J. T. Massey. He continued to 
labor with great acceptance until the last sabbath in April, 1858. During 
his three-years pastorate, which was terminated by ill health, 33 members 
were added, — 16 by letter and experience, and 17 by baptism. Sept. 22, 
1858, Mr. Horace G. Hubbard from Hamilton Theological Seminary was 
ordained: sermon by Rev. D. C. Eddy; prayer by Rev. E. C. Messenger; 
charge by Rev. J. M. Rock wood; hand of fellowship by Rev. K. Holt; 
address to the church by Rev. L. A. Abbott. His pastorate terminated 
July 16, 1859. Nearly a year later Rev. K. Holt labored a few months as 
resident supply, and agent to procure funds for the erection of a church 
edifice, but was unsuccessful. The church had worshipped in various halls, 
and about this time were occupying their fourth one; being without a 
pastor, or ability to provide support for one. Removals prevented the 
increase that would have resulted from additions. By the close of the year 
1860, the society had purchased a lot worth $800, and had nearly paid for it. 
Mr. Holt had obtained subscriptions for several hundred dollars from other 
churches, and from wealthy persons in Boston and vicinity; and about 
$1,000 had been promised by residents of Mill'ord who were not Baptists. 
Dea. A. H. Fisher had made himself responsible for the contractor's claim 
of $4,000 under a forfeiture of $800, and many expenses beyond this would 
be necessary in order to finish and fully furnish the building. At the same 
time a depression in business occurred, and for a time the condition of the 
society was discouraging, or at least critical. Rev. Joseph Ricker was 
called to the pastorate Dec. 25, 1860, and commenced his labors Jan. 1, 1861. 
The church was completed in July of the same year, and on the eighteenth 
day of that month was dedicated. Prayer was offered by Rev. H. Fittz, and 
the sermon was preached by the pastor. In the afternoon a sermon was 
preached by Rev. Dr. Stowe of Boston. In a historical sermon, preached 
Dec. 3, 1865, Mr. Ricker said, ' The entire additions to the church during 
the five years of my pastorate have been forty-six. Of this number twenty- 
nine have been received by letter, fourteen by baptism, and three by expe- 
rience. Twenly have beeu received within the last year. The whole number 
connected with the church from the first is 132. Subtracting those who by 
death, dismission, and exclusion have ceased to be members, we find our 
numerical strength to be 92.' 



254 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

" During his pastorate the debt of the church was entirely cancelled. 
The whole amount given by all parties to secure the erection of the build- 
ing, and payment of other expenses connected therewith, was $7,000. Mr. 
Ricker remained with the church six years, and was followed by Rev. Mr. 
Paige, who was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Carr, who died about three months 
after his arrival. The next pastor was Rev. C. W. Reding, who resigned in 
1871. On the second day of July, 1873, the church ordained Julius B. Rob- 
inson, who had graduated from Newton Theological Institution in June. In 
the following winter his health failed during a revival; and, although the 
church continued his nominal pastorate and his salary until the expiration 
of one year, he had been able to devote only about half that time to actual 
work on the field. He was re-settled in June, 1875, and, March 2, 1879, 
tendered his resignation, to take effect the first of June. At this time his 
term of labor had included, in all, about four and a quarter years. When 
he was ordained, the nominal membership of the church was between 90 
and 100, and the resident membership considerably less: at the last asso- 
ciational report of statistics, the nominal membership was 120, and the resi- 
dent membership 113. Meanwhile about 70 members, have been added. An 
organ of twenty-two stops was purchased in 1877. The deacons are George 
Whiitemore and Charles L. Clark." 

To the foregoing from Rev. Mr. Robinson, I will add from other 
sources the names of three former Deacons, J. G. Lowe, Win. P. 
Burbank, and Wm. G. Wilmot ; Standing Committee-men of the soci- 
et}', C. F. Cushman, Jarvis "White, F. L. Smith, Geo. Whittemore, 
Wm. II. Gile, G. W. Blake, W. P. Miller, and J. Stimpson ; Treas- 
urers, Wm. G. Wilmot, Wm. P. Burbank, and Randall B. Green ; 
Clerks, Franklin L. Smith and Edson R. White. Present number 
of Sunda}' school, about 117; Superintendent, W. H. Gile; num- 
ber of vols, in library, 270 ; Librarian, Jarvis White. Average 
number of Sunday audiences, about 100 to 125. 

The Baptist church and society sustain a highly respectable moral 
and social standing among us. The peculiarities of their faith and 
order are well known, or readih* ascertainable by all interested in- 
quirers. 

Since the foregoing was written, a new pastor has been settled. On 
the afternoon of Sept. 19, 1879, — 

" Mr. E. A. Woodsura was duly ordained to the pastoral office. The 
Council met at ten o'clock to examine the candidate. At 1.30 the ordina- 
tion services proper commenced, and were as follows : — 

" Selection by choir; invocation, G. E. Leeson, Framingham ; reading 
scripture, H. S. Gay, Woodville ; prayer, Dr. Bronson, Putnam, Conn. ; 
sermon, O. S. Stearns, D.D., Newton Theological Institution ; ordaining 
prayer, Rev. A. E. Reynolds, Natick ; hand of fellowship, Rev. J. E. Burr, 
W. Medway; charge to candidate, A. K. P. Small, D.D., Fall River ; charge 



THE EPISCOPALIANS. 255 

to church, Rev. H. G. Safford, So. Framingham ; doxology ; benediction by 
the pastor. 

44 There was a large attendance." (MUford Journal.) 

V. THE EPISCOPALIAN SOCIETr. 

Though the Protestant Episcopal Church is comparatively ancient, 
its representative parish in this town is of recent date. Religious 
services of the denomination were first held here in Irving Hall, on 
Sunday, May 17, 1863, commencing at 4.30 p.m., conducted by Rev. 
Reese F. Alsop, of St. John's Church, Framingham. Trinity parish 
was organized in April, 1864, and was incorporated b}' act of the 
Legislature, in May the same year. Its membership consisted of 
about twenty persons, who signed the parish constitution. Its officers, 
past and present, without material change, are : Wardens, Charles 
Dove and George G. Parker; Vestrymen, William H. Chamberlain, 
Charles A. Dewey, James I. C. Cook, William Kelley, Charles J. 
Thompson, William Nichols, William J. Ferguson, Thomas J. Wales, 
and Thomas J. Bostock ; Treasurer and Collector, Charles Dove ; 
Clerk, C. J. Thompson. Its present number of communicants is 
about 80. Its Sunday-school numbers about 55 teachers and schol- 
ars, under the superintendenc}' of Charles Dove, with a librar}- of 
300 vols. 

After organization the church maintained regular religious services 
in Washington Hall until the erection of its sanctuary, situated on 
Congress Street, corner of Exchange. The land and edifice were 
paid for by subscription from members of the parish and congrega- 
tion and outside friends, in sums of from $5 to $300, — costing about 
$9,000. It was consecrated, with the customary solemnities, March 
21, 1871. The services on that occasion were as follows : — 

•' Entrance of the Bishop [Rev. Manton Eastburn, D.D.] and clergy, 
repeating the 24th Psalm, — 4 The earth is the Lord's, and all that therein 
is,' etc.; reading of the Instrument of Donation; exhortation; prayer; 
sentence of consecration; morning service; proper Psalms 84, 122, 132, — 
4 Oh, how amiable are thy dwellings, thou Lord of hosts,' etc.; proper les- 
sons, — first, 1 Kings, chap. 8, v. 22 to v. 63; second, Hebrews, chap. 10, 
v. 10 to v. 26; singing of Psalm 21 in metre, vs. 2 and 3; ante-communion 
service; the hundredth Psalm; sermon by the Bishop; prayer; benediction." 

More recentl}* a new tower has been erected, and various interior 
improvements made, at a further cost of $1,500. Still more recently, 
the parish has provided itself with an admirable organ, costing com- 
plete about $1,400. The average Sundaj- audience numbers 100 or 
more. 



256 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



The public have long been accustomed to regard the Episcopalians 
as an eminently respectable Christian denomination, even though ques- 
tioning some of their ecclesiastical claims to apostolical descent ; and 
the members of our Trinit} - Church take honorable rank among the 
religious people of Milford in all the relations of life. I suppose there 
is no need of my presenting an}' statement of their doctrinal or cere- 
monial peculiarities ; all inquirers having ample access to their pub- 
lished expositions of faith, order, and observances. I am indebted 
to their first warden, Mr. Charles Dove, for most of the foregoing par- 
ticulars, and also for the following succession of their rectors : — 



Rev. Henry Adams, commencing Jan. 

1, 1864. 
Rev. George G. Jones, commencing 

May, 1865, and continuing to '68. 
Rev. E. B. Allen, till June, 1870. 
Rev. Reginald H. Howe, till Jan., 

1872. 



Rev. John M. Benedict, till June, 

1874. 
Rev. William F. Lloyd, till April, 

1877. 
Rev. George R. Wheelock, till 1879. 
Rev. Wm. James Alger, commencing 

Jan. 1, 1881. 



Should I be fortunate enough to obtain any genealogical and bio- 
graphical knowledge of these Rev. gentlemen, it shall appear in Part 
II. of this work. 



VI. ST. MARY'S CHURCH (ROMAN CATHOLIC). 

Although this is now numerically our largest religious organization, 
with an average attendance on its Sunday services probably equalling 
that of all our other congregations together, it is of comparatively 
recent date. Down to 1840 Roman Catholics were "strangers and 
pilgrims " in Milford. Now and then an Irishman strayed into town 
after its incorporation, previous to 1830 ; but they were few and far 
between, and, if Catholics at all, said nothing of their religion. In 
1834 Dominic McDevitt, one of the earliest forerunners of St. Mary's 
Church, came into town as a sub-contractor and builder of the then 
new Upton road (West Street). He brought his family with him, 
and perhaps a few hired laborers of Irish nativity. Not long after- 
wards came Edward McGovern, a currier by occupation, with his 
family ; then two or three other families. Soon after the Milford 
branch of the Boston and Worcester Railroad was let out to build, 
the contractors hired large numbers of Irish laborers ; so that before 
the road was opened to travel, in 1848, swarms of Catholic people 
had come to dwell among us. The great Irish famine, which soon 
after followed, sent hither numerous additional immigrants. While 
Mr. McDevitt was at work on the new road to Medway, in 1835, two 



THE ROMAN CATHOLICS. 257 

of his emplo}-6s, being dangerously sick, received consolation from 
Rev. James Fitton, since of East Boston. Soon after this, Rev. Mr. 
Fitton said the first mass ever solemnized in Milford. He did so in 
the humble home of Edward McGovern, now some }-ears deceased. 
Rev. Father Fitton has become venerable in his priesthood, having 
been ordained over half a century ago. How mam- times he min- 
istered in this town, is not remembered. The aforesaid mass was 
probably administered during the year 1836. Thenceforth occasional 
sacred services were held with more or less frequenc}- in the dwelling- 
houses of McDevitt, McGovern, and others, all the way down to 1846. 

As early as 1847 Rev. John B-03-ce, of Worcester, commenced 
holding regular priestly ministrations here, and to gather the people 
into church order. He was assisted by Rev. Henry Gibson in gather- 
ing funds for a church edifice. A site was purchased in the neighbor- 
hood sometimes called "The Plains," on the south side of the road 
to Holliston, now East Main Street, in what used to be the Noah 
Wiswall pasture ; there the first St. Mary's sanctuary was soon erected. 
It stood on the rising rocky ground, and covered the very spot for- 
merly occupied by Wiswall's tomb. That tomb was a small stone 
structure, built on a flat ledge wholly above ground. When I came 
into town, in 1824, it was still standing in a dilapidated condition, ex- 
posing the patriarch's dried bones to view in a forlorn state. Pearley 
Hunt, Esq., who had become owner of the Wiswall farm, soon after 
removed the remains to his own family tomb ; and the stones of the 
crumbling mausoleum were also presently taken away. On that spot 
stood the first Catholic church edifice. It was built of wood, and of 
unpretentious architectural display. It was dedicated in 1848 by 
Rt. Rev. Bishop Fitzpatrick ; and the celebrated Father Mathew, of 
temperance fame, preached a sermon on the occasion. 

Rev. George A. Hamilton became the first regular pastor of St. 
Mary's, March 1, 18.50; he was succeeded by Rev. Michael Caroher, 
in 1853 ; he by Rev. Edward Farrelly, in 1854. who died of con- 
sumption, Aug. 13, 1857; and he immediately by the present able • 
incumbent, Rev. Father Patrick Cudditry. He is a man of command- 
ing talents, learning, energ}-, and pastoral authority. He projected, 
and triumphantly prosecuted to completion (excepting an intended 
massive lateral stone tower) , the second statel}' and capacious edifice 
in which St. Mary's people now worship. Its first stone was laid by 
the Rt. Rev. J. J. Williams, with due prelatical solemnities, June 1, 
1866 ; and it was opened for public worship Dec. 25, 1870. It stands 
on Granite Street, corner of Sumner, one hundred and sixty-five feet 
long b}- seventy-two in width, besides the porches and provisional 



258 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

foundation for lateral tower. It was built of granite, found in the 
. Rocky Woods, a mile from the village, on the property of Rev. Father 
Cuddihy. It is iu the Early English style of architecture, and seats 
over fourteen hundred persons. It has a rich plenitude of Catholic 
symbols, paintings, and statuary. Attached to it is a tract, com- 
prising two acres of land, for priest's house and garden ; also under 
three-fourths of it is a commodious chapel for daily service, and mass 
for the children on Sundays. More recently a wooden bell-tower 
(somewhat temporary, of course) has been constructed, and a charm- 
ing toned bell from Ireland mounted, weighing four thousand pounds ; 
and during 1878, the organ of the " Old South " Church in Boston 
was purchased, to give majesty to the music of the choir. The entire 
cost of this really splendid sanctuary and its furnishings is stated to 
be $100,000, and the pastoral residence $25,000. 

The hours of regular Sunday services are, 8 a.m., mass ; 9 a.m., 
mass and Sunday school; 10:30 a.m., high mass and preaching; 
3.30 p.m., vespers. The other stated services and ceremonials 
through the year are legion. The pastor has always at least one 
assistant, and both are laden with official duties. The}' also hold 
services on Sundays, 10.30 a.m., alternately at North Purchase and 
in Mendon. Among the assistant pastors have been Rev. Jeremiah 
Toome} - , some years ago ; and now, for several years, Rev. James T. 
Canavan, — a man much respected for talent, worth, and usefulness, 
— not only by his own people, but by our citizens generall}*. There 
have been others, more temporar}" and transient, concerning whom I 
am not sufficiently informed to write intelligently. 

The first house of worship was disposed of soon after the consecra- 
tion of the present one, and the site thereof resumed its old-time 
nakedness. The number of present Catholic parishioners is three 
thousand five hundred. These are nearly all of Irish extraction, 
with a few of Canadian-French origin and other national descent. 
Probabh* there is a small sprinkling of Protestant-born proselytes, but 
it must be quite small. The whole number of baptisms in this church, 
since its organization, has not been ascertained, but must exceed four 
thousand. The Sunday audiences are estimated to average, at first 
mass, four hundred ; second, eight hundred ; high, one thousand. 
The Sunday school was reported, in 1878, to number nearly one 
thousand. It now counts about eight hundred. Its Superintendent, 
for many years, has been Stephen Bergin ; Assistant Superintendent, 
Mrs. George Brown. No other officers of the congregation, except- 
ing Sexton, appear in our published Directories. Michael J. Burke 
has long held this office. 



THE ROMAN CATHOLICS. 259 

Those who wish to make themselves intelligently acquainted with 
the faith, order, and ecclesiasticism of the Roman-Catholic Church 
will consult the published works which contain expositions of the 
same. These are explicit and abundant. The Catholics of Milford, 
as elsewhere, seem to have an auspicious future before them. They 
are already numerous, and waxing respectable in temporal as well as 
spiritual affairs. They multiply rapidly in their families. They are 
industrious and frugal, and so increasing in property. They are 
gradually becoming sensible of the evils of intemperance, and in 
considerable numbers pledgiug themselves against it. They are 
becoming educated in our public schools, better and better. They 
are growing more Americanized continually in civil, political, and 
social relationships. They are gaining prominence, year after year, 
at the polls, and as municipal office-holders. Meantime, the}* are 
generally persistent adherents to their own mother Church, devoted 
attendants on its time-hallowed ritual services, and free-handed con- 
tributors, in the way of money, to its support. Almost all of them 
are liberal tributaries to its treasury. And, above all, they are under 
the most reverent control of the most effective clerical organization in 
Christendom. The world has no great standing army better officered 
and disciplined than the Roman-Catholic Church in its ecclesiasticism. 
Some Protestants have flattered themselves that education, free 
institutions, and the progress of science, would break down this 
ecclesiasticism. But these influences are not strong enough for that. 
They may multiply free-thinkers and sceptics in the external bosom 
of the Catholic Church, as they have done in Europe ; but these 
unbelievers nearly all find it politic, for many reasons, to remain 
nominal adherents to their hoi}* Mother, and generous pecuniary 
contributors to its revenues. Nothing will ever greatly affect its 
character and stability but the development of a far higher Christian 
Church than Christendom has yet seen, founded on the practical 
exemplification of that Christ-like truth and righteousness which far 
transcends the long-established standard, so long fatally compromised 
with mammonism, worldly power, and war. Above this compromising 
standard of righteousness neither the Catholic nor Protestant Churches 
are likely to rise. They must, therefore, accomplish and enjoy the 
good that lies within their constitutional sphere, which, happily, 
notwithstanding all chronic limitations, is vast and manifold. If 
nothing higher comes, they have the field of the world to share and 
improve among themselves, according to their respective zeal, skill, 
and perseverance. And in this division, the prospective, as well as 
the retrospective, share of the Catholics will be the double portion of 



260 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

the eldest son. If the Christ-like church above hinted at shall ever 
be inaugurated, it will undoubtedly vindicate itself, and in its fulness 
triumph over all competitors. Let us be just to what is, and hope 
for something as much better as God may have purposed in his 
immutable counsels. 

VII. THE HOPED ALE COMMUNITY. 

This is among the younger religious societies of our town. It 
was organized in Mendon, Jan. 28, 1841, and originally entitled 
"Fraternal Community, No. 1." It was then expected to be the 
first of a confederated series, and hence designated as "No. 1." 
borne years later the title was changed to the more local one, — The 
Hopedale Community. The Community purchased, during 1841, the 
Jones farm, in what had long been called "The Dale," and, in high 
hope of a prosperous future, named their chosen locality Hopedale. 
About the first of April, 1842, the}* commenced their settlement and 
operations there, as a joint-stock, practical Christian association, with 
a united industrial arrangement. The}' did so with very insufficient 
means, and under extreme disadvantages. But, by self-sacrificing 
zeal and perseverance, they succeeded in building up a village of 
fifty dwellings, beside mills, shops, and other conveniences ; multi- 
plied their population to three hundred, and enlarged their domain to 
an area of about six hundred acres. This was accomplished in the 
space of fourteen years. Notwithstanding this external success, such 
a deficiency of spiritual and moral stamina had developed itself in the 
too hastily gathered membership, that the leading joint-stockholders 
became dissatisfied, and declared their unwillingness to allow their 
invested capital to remain longer under Community control. As the 
minor proprietors, though a large numerical majority, would be utterly 
unable to sustain operations, for want of capital to surmount the 
exigency, a crisis was precipitated. In the spring of 1856 it was 
decided, by common consent, to dissolve the joint-stock proprietor- 
ship, disband the industrial organization, settle up all pecuniar}' 
matters, and resolve the Community into a mere religious society, 
with only a few social guaranties against ignorance, poverty, and vice. 
All this was done with my consent and advice, under the pressure of 
necessity, but to my profound disappointment, mortification, and 
grief. There was no serious pecuniary failure, but a sad moral one, 
in view of solemnly declared objects, principles, and professions. 
Yet, considering all the causes and circumstances, the result was 
inevitable, and, providentially, for the best. There were sufficient 
reasons why any other was really undesirable. 



THE HOP ED ALE COMMUNITY. 261 

Propert}' and business now returned to the customarj' channels of 
general society, subject to the popular laws of trade, "supply and 
demand," and the inhabitancy of the village changed accordingly. 
The Community organization, in its emasculated form, still continued ; 
and their meeting-house was built, by general concurrence, in 1860. 
Its membership naturally dwindled from year to year, till a mere 
handful now remain resident in Hopedale. These no longer deem it 
expedient to hold even an annual meeting. In 18G7 the Hopedale 
Liberal Christian Parish was organized, and the Communitv was 
virtuall}- merged therein. Meantime the property, corporations, and 
business enterprise of the village became remarkably prosperous, till 
now it is one of the neatest in New England, still retaining some 
desirable vestiges of its original moral and social character. 

I have written a full history of the Hopedale Community , from its in- 
ception to its submergence in the Hopedale Parish, which I hope will, 
at no ver} - distant day, be published. But, as its publication must be 
deferred for some }'ears, it may gratify the laudable curiosity of many 
readers of this volume to have a statement, under my hand, setting 
forth the distinguishing peculiarities of that community, its origin, 
and the reasons of its failure. I feel abundanth' competent to present 
such a statement ; having been its principal projector, constitution- 
maker, and executive director. Perhaps it is also due to my own 
reputation, to make such a statement ; and I am reluctant only through 
fear of seeming to obtrude matters unsuitable for this work, and of 
not writing clearly without prolixit}*. I will, however, venture the 
attempt. What, then, were the peculiar 

OBJECTS OF THE COMMUNITY? 

These were thus proclaimed in the preamble to their original con- 
stitution : — 

" Know all Men, That, in order more effectually to illustrate the virtues 
and promote the ends of pure religion, morality, and philanthropy; to with- 
stand the vices and reform the disorders of the present social state; to 
secure to our posterity the blessings of a more salutary physical, intellectual, 
and moral education ; to establish a more attractive, economical, and pro- 
ductive system of industry; and to facilitate the honest acquisition of 
property for laudable purposes: We, whose names are hereunto annexed, 
do unite in a voluntary association, to be called," etc. 

DECLARATION OF FAITH, PRINCIPLES, AND DUTIES. 

" No person shall be a member of this Community who does not deliber- 
ately and cordially assent to the annexed Declaration, viz.: — 



262 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

" I believe in the religion of Jesus Christ, as he taught and exemplified 
it, according to the Scriptures of the New Testament. I acknowledge my- 
self a bounden subject of all its moral obligations. Especially do I hold 
myself bound by all its holy requirements, never, under any pretext what- 
soever, to kill, assault, beat, torture, enslave, rob, oppress, persecute, defraud, 
corrupt, slander, revile, injure, euvy, or hate any human being — even my 
worst enemy ; never, in any manner, to violate the dictates of pure chastity; 
never to take or administer an oath ; never to manufacture, buy, sell, deal 
out, or use any intoxicating liquor as a beverage ; never to serve in the army, 
navy, or militia of any nation, state, or chieftain; never to bring an 
action at law, hold office, vote, join a legal posse, petition a legislature, or 
ask governmental interposition, in any case involving a Jinal authorized resort 
to physical violence; never to indulge self-will, bigotry, love of pre-eminence, 
covetousness, deceit, profanity, idleness, or an unruly tongue; never to par- 
ticipate in lotteries, games of chance, betting, or pernicious amusements; 
never to resent reproof, or justify myself in a known wrong; never to aid, 
abet, or approve others in any thing sinful ; but, through divine assistance, 
always to recommend and promote, with my entire influence, the holiness 
and happiness of all mankind." 

REMAKES ON THE PREAMBLE, ETC. 

The chief peculiarities noticeable in this preamble are the follow- 
ing:— 

1. Dissatisfaction with the righteousness of so-called Christian 
civilization, in respect to the virtues and ends of pure religion, 
morality, and philanthropy, and an aim to illustrate a much higher 
righteousness. 

2. Deprecation of prevalent vices and disorders in the present 
social state, or order of general society, and a desire to withstand and 
reform them. 

3. Aspiration to secure the blessings of a more salutary physical, 
intellectual, and moral education for their posterity. 

4. The aim to establish a more attractive, economical, and produc- 
tive sj'stem of industry. 

5. A conviction, that, in the established order of society, property 
is often dishonestl}- acquired and perniciously used, and a purpose to 
facilitate its honest acquisition and laudable use. 

6. All these objects were to be sought and promoted by voluntary 
association; not by political action, legislative enactments, legal 
penalties, and military compulsion. The supreme intention was, not 
to get possession of civil government, and compel the multitude to 
accept their proposed reforms, but by hearty, voluntary, practical, 
Christian efforts on their own social platform to snow " a more ex- 
cellent way " for general adoption. Their mission was not to destroy 



PECULIARITIES OF THE COMMUNITY. 263 

or impair the good already extant in civilized society of tL- 1 estab- 
lished order, but peaceably to transcend and correct its radical 
defects. It was the very opposite of red revolutionism, governmental 
socialism, and compulsory communism. — a strictly beneficent move- 
ment, to be prosecuted by strictly beneficent means, and in a strictly 
Christ-like spirit. This more fully appears in their declaration of 
faith, principles, and duties. What are the prominent peculiarities 
of that declaration ? 

1. Ever)' member must deliberately and cordially profess to believe 
in the religion of Jesus Christ, as he taught and exemplified it, ac- 
cording to the Scriptures of the New Testament. 

2. Ever}' member must deliberate^ and cordially acknowledge him 
or her self bound by the holy requirements of that religion, never, 
under any pretext whatsoever, to kill, enslave, oppress, injure, harm, 
or hate any human being, even the worst of enemies ; 

Never to violate the dictates of pure chastity ; 

Never to take or administer an oath ; 

Never to use, or aid others in using, any intoxicating liquor as a 
beverage ; 

Never to serve, aid in, or encourage war, or preparations for war ; 

Never to bring an action at law, hold office, vote, join a legal 
posse, petition a legislature, or ask governmental interposition, in 
any case involving a final authorized resort to physical violence; 

But, through divine assistance, always to recommend and promote 
the holiness and happiness of all mankind. 

I refrain from further specification, because many of the duties 
acknowledged would not be questioned by religionists and moralists 
generally. Perhaps one or two duties that I have specified may be 
considered too common to be called distinguishing peculiarities. The 
others must be recognized as such; i.e., with respect to what is 
held justifiable by the masses of people in Church and State. Primi- 
tive Christians, of the first and second centuries, held substantially 
the same views of duty. And so have some individuals, classes, and 
sects in succeeding ages. I except all such from the vast majority. 
The multitude of thinkers, both common and professional, must 
naturally regard the code of righteousness embodied in the above 
declaration, especially the obligation to love even the worst of 
enemies, and to abstain from all dernier-ressorts to physical violence 
even in self-defence, not only as utterly impracticable, but radically 
false and absurd. And those who feel some respect for me, as a man 
of decent common-sense and intelligence, may perhaps inquire : How 
could }*ou arrive at such conclusions, and propose such a moral code 
for subscription ? I will try to explain. 



264 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

In the first place, it must be understood what sort of a man I am, 
by constitution and mental discipline ; for thereby only can an out- 
sider judge me justly. I have a very strong desire to find out what 
is absolutel}' true and right in all departments of human concern, 
especially in religion and morals. I am very strongly disposed to 
inquire into the abstract causes and principles of things. I am 
extvemeby inclined to cany out premises logically to their legitimate 
conclusions, and have an invincible aversion to inconsistency. Also, 
I have an intense longing to see abstract theories and principles, if 
good, reduced to practice. Thus constituted and mentally disciplined, 
I spent the earlier years of my manhood in rectifying and perfecting 
m}' theology ; troubling myself less about the prevailing system of 
ethics. After much investigation and reflection, I settled down in 
the firm theological persuasion : — 

1. That there is one supreme, self-existent, all-perfect God, who is 
the loving and wise Father of all moral intelligences. 

2. That Jesus Christ is the truest, highest, and most trustworthy 
exponent of God's moral perfections, of his will and law, and of 
human duty ; not as a mere man, speaking and acting on his own 
personal authority, but as fore-chosen, ordained of the Father, and 
plenarily endowed with his Holy Spirit, to teach and exemplify 
absolute religious truth and righteousness, and thus to be the spiritual 
head and discipliner of the human race for their salvation from all 
sin. 

3. That all human beings are by nature free moral agents within a 
limited sphere, always subject to divine over-rulement and corrective 
discipline, and alwa}'s required, according to their ability as creatures 
of progress, to co-operate in their own perfectation. 

4. That all human moral agents and all other moral agents are 
brothers and sisters of a common famiby, whose individual, social, and 
collective good is the same eternally, and they all bound, by the 
divine moral law, to love their common Father and one another with 
that perfect love which worketh no ill to its object. 

5. That all moral agents are spirits destined to final immortal 
blessedness, through a long process of divine discipline administered 
in perfect love and wisdom, whereby evil will sooner or later be over- 
come b}* triumphant good. 

6. That this grand result ought to be earnestly prayed and labored 
for. 

"Without argument pro et con as to the truth of this theology, it 
suffices to say, that it was sublimely true to me, and influenced me 
according!} - . And now came up a general agitation of ethics and 



THE LOGIC OF PRINCIPLES. 265 

practical reform. "Was chattel slavery sinful? Was war. even for 
good objects or in self-defence, Christian? Was capital punishment, 
or any kind of vindictive punishment, right? Was it right for indi- 
viduals to do any thing through governmental agencies, which it 
would be morally wrong for them to do directly themselves ? Was 
there an}* moral law that should govern the acquisition and use of 
property, requiring them to be strictly fraternal? Was civil society 
itself, on the existing plane of so-called Christian civilization, con- 
formable to the Sermon on the Mount? And was it ri^ht for the 
professed Christian Church to be amalgamated with civil society in 
upholding slaver}-, war, deadly penalism, and the unfraternal acquisi- 
tions and uses of wealth? These questions, with other kindred ones, 
all demanded profound consideration. My theology had been forced 
out of the old ruts. Must my ethics also undergo a revision? I 
shrank from it, and contented myself as long as I could with the 
general views in which I had grown up, and which permeated the 
almost universal public sentiment of the world. That public senti- 
ment held that chattel-slaver}* was a great evil ; not per se, but by 
reason of its abuses, and certainly could not be abolished in our 
country without violating sacred political guaranties, and perhaps 
causing a dissolution of the Federal Union. It held that war also 
was a great evil ; but often a lesser one than peace, and at worst an 
unavoidable necessity, so long as there are men in the world bad 
enough to outrage justice and the natural rights of their fellow-men. 
Deadly force must be repelled by deadly force. Self-defence was the 
natural right and duty of individuals, communities, and nations. Just 
wars and righteous inflictions of death were indispensable to the very 
existence of society, law, and order. Abuses of these rightful 
resorts to deadly force ought to be condemned, but not the resorts 
themselves. So the property and class inequalities of existing civili- 
zation were natural and unavoidable in the very constitution of 
humanity. There were manifold abuses of them which ought to be 
corrected, cheeked, or mitigated ; but the things themselves were right. 
Thus far I could only doubt, demur, and investigate. But there 
was one very important and undeniable conclusion : ^p 3 The vast 
majority of mankind are firmly wedded to all these customs of war, 
dernier-ressorts to deadly force, class distinctions, etc. ; they are prone 
to them by nature ; general society, civil and religious, is thoroughly 
saturated, cemented, and identified with them ; and therefore, until 
radically converted to opposite principles, customs, and habits, the 
world will persist in substantially its old course. I had no doubt of 
this. Yet there was one alternative. Individuals and voluntary 



266 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

associations might rise to a higher moral plane, if so disposed by 
their convictions of truth and duty. They might, on that higher 
plane, show kt a more excellent way," and thus gradually convert 
mankind to that way. They might do this by carefully abstaining, 
first, from all complicity with the objectionable laws, customs, and 
practices of the world's general society, even at the hazard of 
martyrdom ; and second, from all acts in any wise detrimental to the 
good order more or less conserved by existing human governments. 
And was not this precisely Christ's moral plane, and his ideal of the 
true Church? This was a new standpoint from which to prosecute 
nry ethical investigations ; and I prosecuted them accordingly. I was 
no longer tied down to the necessity of maintaining a code of ethics 
practicable for individuals and society unconverted to the principles 
of heavenly righteousness ; but might choose one suitable and practi- 
cable for converts professing to be governed bj' such righteousness. 
Neither was I bound to assume that these converts were obliged to 
work out their higher righteousness in the harness of politicians, 
statesmen, patriots, and governmentalists of the world, but only in a 
meek and peaceable spirit on their own higher moral plane as indi- 
viduals and voluntar}' associations. Nor did I feel under any ne- 
cessity to wait for the multitude ; for it was certain, that, if the 
Christ-like went with the world in practice, their theoretical higher 
righteousness would amount to nothing. Their foundation would 
then be virtually abandoned. To sail in the old ship was to sail with 
it whithersoever it went. From such a standpoint, how must I now 
proceed to ascertain what absolute individual and social righteousness 
was? Obviously I must not reason from existing popular institu- 
tions, laws, customs, and fashions, as to what ought to be ; for this 
would only be to stand still, or go backwards, and thus confirm myself 
against progress. I must reason from the highest known divine 
revelations of fundamental laws and principles. Here my theology 
at once took precedence. Was Jesus Christ what I believed him to 
be? and, if so, what did a fair interpretation of the Scripture record 
show was the righteousness he taught and exemplified? I knew it 
was not a fair interpretation of that record, to lay stress on mere 
literal verbalism, figurative language, and intensive phrases ; but I 
must honestly accept the general tenor of meaning and spirit pervad- 
ing the main body of connected Scriptures. I followed this rule, and 
asked, Does the record show that Jesus Christ ever was or at- 
tempted to be a civil ruler, statesman, patriot, warrior, or politician? 
The record answered unequivocally, No. Did he ever teach his 
disciples to take such positions in governmental society ? No. Did 



THE ARGUMENT CONTINUED. 267 

he not purposely avoid such positions, and distinctly declare that his 
kingdom was of a higher nature ? Yes. Did his chosen apostles and 
primitive disciples ever teach, practise, or imply, that it was a Chris- 
tian duty to take part in the civil and military affairs of the world ? 
Never. Did Christ and his apostles ever teach or practise any other 
duty in respect to the governmental powers of the world, than to 
transcend their righteousness, and scrupulously abstain from all un- 
peaceable resistance of their temporal authority? No. Did Christ 
or his apostles ever teach or practise the rightfulness of inflicting 
death on an}' human being, or any lesser harm, or any retaliation of 
injury, under any pretext whatsoever? No. Did not the Master 
and his apostles often solemnly enjoin the sublime duty of loving 
enemies and offenders with the love that seeks to overcome all evil 
with good? Yes. Did he or the}' ever speak of caste distinctions, 
whereby superiors assumed to aggrandize themselves over inferiors, 
as justifiable, commendable, or innocent? No, but the contrary. 
Did they uot emphatically deprecate the accumulation of riches by 
individuals as morally harmful and dangerous? and did they not 
always inculcate the duty of using property in a fraternal spirit for 
the general good ? The record is unmistakably plain on this point. 
The same is true of oath-taking, chastity, and nearly all the speci- 
fications of our declaration. 

In further confirmation of the same ethical conclusions, every arti- 
cle of my theology logically forced me to the same ultimate convic- 
tion of duty. The all- perfect Fatherhood of God ; the pre-eminent 
Christhood of Jesus ; the brotherhood of all human and other moral 
intelligences ; the moral agency, responsibility, and progressive per- 
fectibility of mankind under divine discipline ; the destined final tri- 
umph of good over evil in our universe, and the duty to pray and 
labor for universal blessedness, — all ran in one ethical direction, en- 
throning the obligations of perfect love throughout the whole realm of 
moral being. It was thus that my mind reached the acme of its ethical 
superstructure. Nor can I now recede from them without reversing 
my premises. Reverse either of them, and my moral fabric would be 
fatally weakened. Convince me that God is not the all-perfect Father 
of the whole moral universe, so that there are more or less moral 
agents to whose highest good he is, or for any reason ever will be, 
hostile or indifferent, and then I shall logically set a corresponding 
limit to ray ethics. For whom God reprobates, destroys, or aban- 
dons to hopeless ruin, I may rightfully treat accordingly. A main 
pillar in my edifice of perfect righteousness would then come down 
with a crash. Shall a man be better than God? Convince me that 



268 HISTORY OF MIL FORD. 

Jesus Christ is not to be reverenced and trusted, as invested with 
plenary divine authority, above his own human selfhood, to teach 
and exemplify perfect righteousness, and I must of course cease to 
consider the ethics of the New Testament of an}' superhuman value 
or extraordinary importance. Thus another of rny main pillars would 
crumble into dust. My declaration of faith, principles, and duties, 
would be a mere human contrivance. Convince me that the universal 
brotherhood of man and other moral intelligences is not an absolute 
reality, in any such sense as that one brother or sister of the family 
may, under some circumstances, rightfully kill, injure, harm, or hate 
another, and my declaration must be both false and absurd. For that 
brotherhood which could be exemplified by treating an acknowledged 
brother or sister like a ferocious beast, venomous reptile, or con- 
temptible thing, would be at best but a rhetorical fiction. Convince 
me that mankind are not by nature disciplinable and progressibly 
perfectible moral agents under the divine government, so that some 
of them are mere automata and others liable to become incurable 
reprobates, and I will treat them accordingly, and abandon my declara- 
tion forever. Its foundation would then have been destroyed. So, 
if I can be convinced that God has not. destined the complete final 
triumph of good over evil in our moral universe, but wills or con- 
sents that a portion of the human race shall be endlessly sinful and 
miserable, or shall be stricken out of existence as hopeless incura- 
bles, I will cease to aim at overcoming evil with good in all extreme 
cases. Or, finally, if it is wrong to pray and labor for universal holi- 
ness and happiness, then I have built my house on sand. Convinced 
of this, I will cease to work for the abolition of war, capital punish- 
ment, self-defensive homicide, or any so-called justifiable resort to 
deadly force. I will sorrowfully return, logically and squarely, back 
to the popular civil and military standard of righteousness ; for it 
would then be conclusively settled in my mind that good and evil are 
both ineradicably grounded in the very nature and destiny of our 
universe, beyond all possibility of doing an}- thing better for hardened 
sinners than to crush them out of existence, or imprison them in dun- 
geons of irresistible repression. But, so long as I hold on to my the- 
ology, I must hold on to my ethics. Therefore whoever is ambitious 
to convert me from my ethics must begin at the beginning, and con- 
vince me that my articles of theological faith are unsound. If any 
one of them can be rendered untenable to my highest convictions, 1 
shall be cured of all my extra benevolence and hope. Fraternal com- 
munities will then no longer seem to me possible or desirable. 

Still, however, I shall be asked, How could you expect to succeed 



EXPOSITION CONCLUDED. 269 

in such an undertaking, under such immense disadvantages? Because 
I had unbounded confidence in my objects and principles, in human 
capabilities, and in divine favor. I believed firml}- in the two old 
axioms, " What ought to be done can be done," and " Where there 
is a will there is a way." I was extremely sanguine in m}- aspira- 
tions and hopes. I can now honestly confess that I expected too 
much, too soon; that I had more zeal than knowledge of indispensable 
conditions ; that I did not fully couut the cost ; that I very insuffi- 
ciently understood several indispensable requisites to success ; that I 
was too much in haste to wait for necessary preparations ; and that 
I overrated the fitness of myself and associates for such an enter- 
prise. Hence our failure. What then ? Is it necessarily a final 
failure ? Would it have been better, on the whole, not to make the 
attempt? Or, more probably, was the attempt providentially neces- 
sary in the order of progress, to enable successors to understand and 
secure the requisite conditions of accomplishment? There will cer- 
tainly be successors on the same general platform, who doubtless 
will profit by the mistakes of their predecessors, and who will finally 
achieve the desired results. This is the light in which I now view 
the subject. If my failure, such as it was, is deemed disgraceful, I 
willingly accept all the reproach and shame that may be laid upon me. 
I shall never deem halting prudence and contentment in mere theory 
more honorable than earnest endeavors to actualize worthy schemes. 
I did not expect the perfect exemplification of our community ethics 
and plan by its adherents ; but I did expect much more than I real- 
ized, notwithstanding our obvious imperfections and disadvantages. 
Yet I have learned not to regret the undertaking; for, after all, I do 
not conceive how I could have put myself to a better use. I, at least, 
have gained wisdom. 

As to forewarnings and predictions of failure, I had no lack of 
them from the outside. Opposers and well-wishing friends did not 
conceal their opinions as to the result. The former knew, and the 
latter feared, I was doomed to disappointment. I neither wondered 
at this, nor complained of it. Nothing less was to have been ex- 
pected of them. But, on the whole, all classes treated me generously 
from the beginning to the end. For toleration by opposers, and many 
kindnesses on the part of unbelieving well-wishers, I have abundant 
reasons for thankfulness. The failure arose from within, and among 
ourselves. The stones of our social edifice were too imperfectly hewn, 
our mortar needed a better temper, and too much of our timber was 
unseasoned. We ought to have had beforehand a well-disciplined, 
practical Christian church, schooled prospectively for the ultimate 



270 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

establishment of such communities ; then we could have made a 
suitable selection of building materials ; and then, also, we could 
have started with ample consecrated funds, buildings, and pecuniary 
resources. These we had not. May our successors make better 
preparations ! Finally, when I consider the imperfection of our outfit, 
our crude personal discipline, and the innumerable powerful tempta- 
tions within and around us. constantly seducing us back into the old 
ruts of general society, I cannot wonder at our failure. I therefore 
acquiesce, in " hope of a better resurrection." Such is my explana- 
tion of how and why I projected the Hopedale Community on the 
platform prescribed, why the enterprise failed, and how I now regard 
the whole subject. I have spoken perhaps too much in the first per- 
son singular. I have done so partly because I know mj'self to have 
been mainl}' responsible for the commune's existence ; partly be- 
cause I fully understood my own motives and reasons for the under- 
taking ; and partly because, in speaking for myself, I could fairly 
indicate the principal sentiments of my colleagues without assuming 
that they were in all respects identical with my own. I submit what 
I have written to the generous consideration of those who have inter- 
est enough in the movement to inquire into its merits, and candor 
enough to do justice to the motives of its responsible promoters. I 
subjoin only the number of the community's members, at successive 
stages, and the names of its principal officers. 

The number of members at organization, in 1841, was just thirty- 
two, which gradually arose to about one hundred, and declined to the 
present remnant of less than forty, mostly scattered abroad over the 
country. Probationers and dependents were not accounted members. 
The organization still nominally exists, but is wholly inert. It had 
officers of various grades and functions. Its Presidents were, suc- 
cessively, Adin Ballou, Ebenezer D. Draper, William S. He}'wood, and 
William H. Humphrey ; Secretaries, or Recorders, William W. Cook, 
Abby H. Price, Lemuel Munyan, Edmund Soward, Daniel S. Whitney, 
William S. Hej-wood, Catherine G. Munyan, Mary A. Walden, Abbie 
B Heywood, Abbie J. Spalding, Cjtus Bradbur}-, and John L. Hej*- 
wood ; Treasitrers, Ebenr. D. Draper, Lemuel Munyan, and Cjtus 
Bradbury ; Executive Council, Business Trustees, or Directors, Lemuel 
Munyan, E. D. Draper, David R. Lamson, Henr}- Lillie, Daniel S. 
Whitney, Butler Wilmarth, William H. Fish, Amos J. Ballou, George 
W. Stacy, Clement O. Read, Horatio Edsou, Almon Thwing, Wil- 
liam H. Humphrey, William W. Cook, Dudley B. Chapman, William 
S. Heywood, Alonzo A. Cook, Joseph B. Bancroft, Stephen Albee, 
Cyrus Bradbury, George Draper, and perhaps one or two overlooked 



THE HOPE DALE PARISH. 271 

in scanning the records. At one period Vice-Presidents were chosen, 
of whom I find three recorded: viz., "William S. Heywood, Wm. H. 
Humphrey, and Wm. W. Cook. After 1850 there was a permanent 
board of real-estate Trustees, kept full to the constitutional number 
of five, until a few years ago. Such were Adin Ballou, Ebenr. D. 
Draper, Wm. H. Humphrey, Butler "Wilmarth, Almon Thwing, Ste- 
phen Albee, John L. Heywood, and Jerome Wilmarth. The three 
first named still stand, and act when occasion requires. There was a 
Board of Education, a Council of Religion, a Promulgation Commit- 
tee, a Relief Committee, and other minor officers, regularly chosen ; 
but I refrain from adding their names to the foresroins:. I now close 
with the single remark, that, though the Hopedale Community failed, 
it has experienced a no worse fate than has fallen to many a benefi- 
cent and noble undertaking on the long march of human progress. 

THE HOPEDALE PARISH. 

This religious organization, which, as assign and successor of the 
Hopedale Community, accepted its remaining resident members, its 
meeting-house, minister, Sunday-school, cemeter}*, and disposable 
funds, deserves at least a brief record in this part of the town's his- 
tory. It was formed, after due preliminary consideration, Oct. 27, 
1867, under the following 

CONSTITUTION. 

" Whereas, in the year 1856, the Hopedale Community so altered their 
Constitution as to admit settlers among them friendly to their declared 
fundamental principles, though not required to become members of the 
Community organization ; and 

" Whereas all homesteads and other real estate have been conveyed to 
such admitted settlers on expressed conditions which in honor bind them to 
maintain respectful and friendly relations toward said Community; and 

44 Whereas, in consequence of the constitutional alteration aforesaid, many 
persons have become inhabitants of Hopedale who are not members of the 
Community organization, nor likely to become such, but who are willing to 
co-operate with it, to a greater or less extent, in supporting public worship, 
religious meetings, the Sunday school, sacred music, and other instrumen- 
talities for the promotion of moral order in the neighborhood ; 

44 Therefore, in general harmony with said Community, a Liberal Chris- 
tian Society is hereby formed, to be called the Hopedale Parish.; which shall 
be organized and governed in accordance with the following Articles of Com- 
pact : to wit, — 

44 Article I. This Parish shall exercise all its powers, rights, and privi- 
leges, in friendly concurrence and co-operation with the Hopedale Community, 
so far as respects the particulars set forth in the foregoing preamble. 



272 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

" Art. H. Any person sixteen years of age, residing in Hopedale or its 
vicinity, may become a voting member of this Parish, by subscribing this 
Constitution, and contributing annually to its funds. 

" Art. III. This Parish shall hold an annual meeting, during the first 
week of December in each year, for the choice of officers and the transaction 
of other legitimate business ; also such special meetings from time to time 
as occasion may require. All meetings shall be duly notified in accordance 
with a prescriptive standing rule, enacted by the Parish for that purpose ; 
and nine members shall constitute a quorum. 

" Art. IV. The officers of this Parish shall be an Executive Committee, 
consisting of three or more members, a Clerk, a Treasurer, and a Collector ; 
also, more permanently, a board of three Trustees, who shall hold in trust 
such property of the Parish as may be deemed expedient, and serve for a 
term of three years. They shall be competent to receive and convey titles 
to real estate, and to exercise all the powers vested by the laws of Massachu- 
setts in trustees of religious societies. Any other officers, of whatever title or 
function, may be chosen from time to time as necessity or expediency shall 
be deemed to require. All Parish officers shall perform the duties indicated 
by their titles, subject always to the rules, regulations, and instructions of 
the Parish. They shall keep reliable records of their doings, and continue 
to exercise their respective functions till relieved by duly elected successors. 

44 Art. V. This Parish may enact any rules, regulations, or by-laws, not 
inconsistent with their Constitution for the time being. And this Constitu- 
tion may be altered or amended, in any respect not unfriendly to the Hope- 
dale Community, by a two-thirds vote of the members present and acting in 
any regular meeting notified for that purpose. 

44 In testimony and full ratification whereof, we have hereunto subscribed 
our respective names, at the dates specified opposite thereto. 

STANDING RULE. 

44 All annual and other meetings of this Parish for the transaction of 
important business shall be notified by a written call from the Executive 
Committee, or the Clerk, specifying the time, place, and principal purposes 
of the meeting ; which call shall be posted in the entry of the Hopedale 
chapel, at least seven days prior to the time appointed, and be read from 
the desk at least once. Meetings for the transaction of comparatively unim- 
portant business shall be deemed regular, if notified by a written call from 
said Committee, or Clerk, once read from the desk ; provided no member 
shall object to action under such notification." 

This constitution sufficiently explains the origin and character of 
the parish. It was formally sanctioned by the community at a regu- 
lar meeting, held Jan. 8, 1868, by the following recorded vote : — 

44 Whereas the inhabitants of Hopedale have recently formed a Liberal 
Christian Society, entitled the Hopedale Parish, under a constitution which 



THE COMMUNITY SANCTIONS THE PARISH. 273 

declares the same to be in general harmony with this Community, particu- 
larly in respect to supporting public worship, religious meetings, the Sunday 
school, sacred music, and other instrumentalities for the promotion of moral 
order in the neighborhood ; and whereas said constitution pledges it to 
exercise all its powers, rights, and privileges in friendly concurrence and 
co-operation with this Community, in the respects aforesaid, and never to 
make any constitutional changes unfriendly to our organization ; and whereas, 
with the general consent of our resident members, who are also members 
of said parish, it has accepted the responsibility of managing the principal 
parochial affairs heretofore managed by this Community, — all of which fully 
appears on the parish records: now, therefore, be it 

" Resolved and declared by the Hopedale Community, in regular meeting 
assembled, that we fully assent to, approve of, and sanction the formation, 
organization, proceedings, and measures thus far, of said Hopedale Parish. 

"And be it further resolved and declared, that, so long as the Hopedale 
Parish shall discharge the parochial responsibilities it has accepted, in gen- 
eral harmony with the fundamental principles of this Community, and 
according to its pledges, this Community will not interfere with its man- 
agement of parochial affairs, but quietly acquiesce in the same: provided, 
nevertheless, that nothing herein contained shall in any wise debar this Com- 
munity from exercising its right to advise or remonstrate, as a co-ordinate 
body, with said parish in respect to any future measure which may be deemed 
to require Community interference." 

No occasion arose for remonstrauce against parish proceedings ; 
and on the fifteenth day of Dec, 1873, the community trustees trans- 
ferred, by legal conveyance, all their right, title, interest, and con- 
trol in, unto, and over Community Square, the meeting-house thereon 
standing, and the Hopedale Cemetery, to the parish. On the seventh 
day of Dec, 1875, the said trustees formally transferred to the parish 
the bulk of the Soward Fund, so called, which was donated to them 
in trust several years before to promote the mental and moral im- 
provement of the young in the community. The sum thus transferred 
was $800, and on the specific condition that only the annual income 
thereof should be expended in aid of the Hopedale Sunday-school 
library. 

Immediately after the organization of the parish, the writer was 
called to officiate as its regular minister and pastor, with the tender 
of $800 per annum, payable quarterly. He accepted ; and the rela- 
tionship continued, by mutual consent, on the same terms, to the time 
of this writing, — April, 1879. 

The circumstances of both parties have been somewhat peculiar. 
The parish has had no definite creed, declaration of principles, or 
church covenant. As a parish it professes nothing but what is said 



274 HISTORY OF M1LF0RD. 

or implied in its constitution. It has always hitherto been compara- 
tively small, — never numbering over one hundred and twenty voting 
members, and these entertaining a variety of divergent opinions on 
religious and ethical subjects. At the same time the village became 
populated with man}* strangers to the old community, whose predi- 
lections were for the religious institutions in Milford Centre, or averse, 
for other reasons, to uniting with the parish in its Sunday meetings. 
Dissent or indifference has thrown the burden of sustaining parish 
maintenance mainly on a few members. These, however, have been 
able, willing, and determined supporters ; though they have never 
attempted to proselyte, or persuade the reluctant to join them. On 
my part, I was a sort of minister-at-large to a wide-spread, unorgan- 
ized parish, to whom I ministered at funerals and on divers occa- 
sions. My creed and ethics had long been definitely proclaimed, 
and I was inflexibly attached to my platform of doctrines and duties. 
I had failed to hold the Hopedale Community together around my 
standard, and was half spoiled for devotedly working on a lower 
plane. It would have been useless to ask me to change my preach- 
ing or practice in any essential respect. Meantime I was growing 
older every day, and must be made the best of as I was. Happily 
ray supporters were as willing to let me preach and practise nry honest 
convictions as the}- were determined to follow their own, however they 
might differ from mine. There was no hostility on account of our dif- 
ferences. There were important points of agreement, as well as dis- 
agreement ; and both parties maintained their rights under a mutual 
good understanding. I never had cause to complain that I was not 
duly respected, and even reverenced, by my parishioners ; and I be- 
lieve that most of them have felt that I was true to the standard of 
righteousness taught and exemplified by Christ, which, nevertheless, 
the}* deemed impracticable in the present stage of human develop- 
ment. Under such circumstances, it has been all but impossible for 
me to accomplish much for my own ideal, or to do as much for the 
building up of the parish as I might have done if I had never risen 
above the old social and pastoral ideal. In that case I might have 
strenuously and successfully insisted on the establishment of a church, 
distinct from the congregation, — one of the ordinary type, observant 
of the sacraments ; also prayer and conference meetings for special 
religious culture, which, properly conducted, I deem very useful. But 
these have not been established ; and the field has been partly left to 
our Evangelical friends, who have sown and reaped therein with com- 
mendable zeal and some success. The Sunday school has been our 
chief religious instrumentality outside of public worship and the pul- 



PECULIAR RELATIONSHIPS. 275 

pit. This has always been comparatively prosperous. Social enter- 
tainments and incidental gatherings of various interest have had their 
place. In 1873, at the age of seventy }'ears, I tendered my resigna- 
tion as pastor, thereby giving the parish full opportunity to fill m}' 
position with a younger man, who might be better adapted to interest 
the people, and build up the parochial edifice. The resignation was 
met with so strong a remonstrance, and so unanimous a request for 
its withdrawal, that I recalled it, and so continued in my ministry for 
seven }*ears longer, finally closing my pastorate April 25, 1880. 

Although our religious society was and is denominated ecclesiasti- 
callj* Independent, we joined the "Worcester County Conference of 
Congregational (Unitarian) and other Christian Societies," Dec. 15, 
186«. I had been a Unitarian, of what I believed to be the New 
Testament pattern, from my youth up ; and all my parishioners were 
more or less of the same general persuasion. We received fraternal 
intimations beforehand that we should be cordially welcomed, on 
application, into the conference ; and so we were. No compromises 
of peculiar faith and practice were required on either side, and no 
objectionable obligations assumed. The connection has been mutu- 
ally pleasant to the parties, and, I trust, morally profitable. Mean- 
time we have endeavored to live on friendly and peaceable terms with 
our co-religionists and non-religionists of all denominations, freely 
according to them everv right which we claimed for ourselves. 

Since my resignation, April 23, 1880, the Hopedale pulpit has been 
supplied by numerous clergymen, but latterly largely by Rev. A. S. 
Garver, an eminently worthy man and acceptable preacher. At a 
regular parish meeting, held April 14, 1881, Rev. Mr. Garver was 
unanimously called to the pastorate, as my successor, on an annual 
salaiy of fifteen hundred dollars. 

I close by subjoining the names of the principal parish officers 
who have served since organization : to wit, as Executive Committee, 
Almon Timing, Anna T. Draper, Warren W. Dutcher, Joseph B. 
Bancroft, Nathan Chapman, William H. Humphrey, Frederick S. 
Cox, Delano Patrick, Frank J. Dutcher, and George 0. Hatch ; as 
Clerk, Sarah J. Hatch, Anna Thwing, Frank J. Dutcher, Anna M. 
Bancroft ; as Treasurer, William F. Draper, Eben D. Bancroft ; as 
Trustees, William H. Humphrey, William F. Draper, Almon Thwing ; 
as Collector, George 0. Hatch, Edward S. Stimpson ; as Super- 
intendent of Sunday School, William F. Draper, Walter E. Knight ; 
as Librarian, Frank J. Dutcher ; as Sexton, John S. Eaton, James D. 
Draper. Number of volumes in sunday school library, 900; average 
Sunday-school attendance, 75 ; seating capacity of the church, 350 ; 



276 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

audiences, from 75 to 150. Latterly a promising increase in all 
departments of parish interest. 

VII. MISCELLANIES. 

The Unitarians. — A Unitarian society was organized in the Centre 
about the year 1865, and continued to meet regularly for public worship 
in a hired hall for some two years. Rev. Daniel Bowen. now in Florida, 
was their pastor. I have tried unsuccessfully to find the records of 
that society, and by other means to ascertain the particulars of its 
organization, numbers, officers, and operations. No one of whom I 
have inquired seems able to give me any exact information, or to refer 
me to sources of authentic intelligence. I had some acquaintance 
with Mr. Bowen, who always appeared to be an intelligent and 
exemplary man. His leading parishioners are old and worthy friends 
of mine ; and perhaps if I had more generally and persistently pushed 
my inquiries among them, I could have made this account of their 
society more satisfactory. Their numbers and financial strength 
seem not to have been adequate to the permanent maintenance of 
their organization. It therefore soon became defunct, and there are 
no present hopeful indications of its resurrection. 

The Spiritualists. — There have been, and still are, many believers 
in modern Spiritualism among us ; but no permanently organized 
society exists within our limits. Several temporary organizations — ■ 
designed mainly to secure series of lectures, or circle stances — have 
successively arisen and passed away. I am not aware that any such 
are now operative ; though I presume private circles are held with 
more or less frequency, and public lectures are expected in the future, 
as circumstances may favor. Within the past twenty-five years 
numerous discourses from eminent speakers, both trance and normal, 
have called out large congregations ; and during several seasons con- 
tinuous regular meetings have been sustained for months in succession. 
But organization does not suit the genius of modern Spiritualism, 
and is not likely to prevail at present, if ever, anywhere under its 
inspirations. Individualism, and the largest liberty, seem to be so 
fondly cherished by its adherents generally, and they hold so many 
discordant views of truth and duty, that permanent organization is 
neither practicable nor desirable with the majority of them. Mean- 
time, religionists of all denominations have already absorbed, or will 
ultimately absorb, a large portion of the truth and good embraced in 
both ancient and modern Spiritualism, and incorporate it with the 
life of their own organizations. 

I conclude this chapter with the just and commendatory remark, 



THIS CHAPTER CONCLUDED. 217 

that though the creeds, ceremonials, ecclesiasticisms, beliefs, and 
unbeliefs of our people are so widely divergent, and though so many 
of us are inflexibly set in the way of our honest convictions, there is 
not a population of the same size in the wide world more mutually 
tolerant of differences, or more willing to think and let think peaceably, 
than the inhabitants of this municipality. 



278 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



CHAPTER XI. 

PAUPERISM, BOARD OF HEALTH, AND FIRE-DEPARTMENT. 

Maintenance and Management of the Poor till 1825. — Reference to Chap. VI., where 
the Subject was opened. — Early Agreements and Settlements with Mendon. — 
Approximate Conjectural Estimates of Numbers and Cost for many Years. — 
The Vendue Custom, its Abuses and Supersession. — The Contract System, its 
Abuses and Peculiarities. — The Town decides to buy a Farm, and establish 
an Asylum, and does so in 1825. 

Management and Operations since 1825. — Historic and Statistical Statements, 
exhibiting the more Important Facts relating to the Support of our Poor, in 
and out of the Asylum, as derived from Annual Reports by the Selectmen and 
Overseers of the Poor, especially their Printed Reports; closing with a List of 
Superintendents and Matrons of the Establishment. 

History and Stutistks of the Board of Health. — Its Organization in 1859. — Rules 
and Regulations then adopted. — Names and Doings of its Members briefly 
given, so far as ascertainable, to 1879. 

History and Statistics of our Fire-Department. — First Fire-Engines in Milford, 
1831. — First Volunteer Engine Co. — Subject first acted on by the Town in 1837. 
— Two Engine Co.'s in 1839. — Town Encouragements and Action. —Annual 
Expenses down to 1855. — Organization of the Fire-Department: Rules and 
Regulations. — Tabulation of the Principal Facts and Statistics, down to 1881, 
compiled from Annual Reports. — Names of Engineers and their Officers. 

MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE POOR TILL 1825. 

rr^HE reader is referred to page 96, Chap. VI., for the comruence- 
J- merit of this subject. The substance of what was there stated 
is, that our early townsmen had a great dread of pauperism in the 
meagreness of their taxable resources ; that their burdens of this 
nature were probabty much heavier than ours, in proportion to muni- 
cipal abilit} - ; that they availed themselves of the stringent laws then 
in force against gaining new inhabitancy, by passing certain votes, 
under which all comers into our territory since 1767 were warned out of 
town ; that the method of maintaining the poor was then such as gener- 
ally prevailed in New England, which was, venduing them, to be kept 
by the lowest bidder, or letting them out under special contract, to be 
boarded, etc., or making small stipends to their family relatives for 
taking care of such as were only partially chargeable for public sup- 
port ; that, consequently, some fared passably well, and others deplor- 
ably ill, according to the moral character of their keepers ; that once 
or twice the Town hired a workhouse, and put the poor in charge of 



EARLY STATUS OF OUR POOR. 279 

an overseer : and that various projects were proposed about purchasing 
a poor-farm, building an asylum, etc., none of which then proved 
practicable. 

According to the agreements and settlements made with mother 
Mendon, our town was bound to maintain all the poor properly belong- 
ing on its territory before incorporation, and all such as should be 
sent back from other towns for support that had ever belonged here. 
This occasioned afterwards some disputes between the two towns as 
to where certain families and persons, sent back for maintenance, 
did really belong. But such disputes were, I believe, all amicably 
settled. The recorded settlement of Mar. 26, 1781, purports that 
the joint committee of the two towns had " committed a written 
Division of Said Poor," etc., " unto the Town Clerks of Said Mendon 
and Milford to be Recorded." I have sought, but never found, in 
either town-clerk's office, this record of the division of the poor. I 
regret this ; for it deprives me of the important fact, how many poor 
Milford actually started with. Nor have I been able to find any 
record or document in our archives whereby to ascertain this fact. 
Indeed, there are verv few records or memoranda extant relating: to 
our town's poor, until the year 1794, and thereafter : during over thirty* 
years, my chief reliance for information has been the selectmen's 
order-books, containing also certain records of contracts about keep- 
ing poor persons. 

The following report of a joint committee, bearing date Jan. 18, 
1785, shows how matters stood between the two towns at that 
time : — 

" The Committees, appointed by the Towns of Mendon and Milford to 
Settle all disputes between Said Towns respecting the Poor that have been 
brought back to Said Towns from other Towns, have agreed that the Town 
of Mendon should take and maintain Luther Easling, Son of Rhoda Easling, 
as their Poor, and pay to the Town of Milford forty-five Shillings, and 
acquit the Town of Milford from all the Charges the Said Town of Mendon 
has been at in Supporting and transporting the Said Rhoda Easling and her 
Childreu at any time before this Date: and the Town of Milford to take the 
Daughter or other Child of the Sd. Rhoda Easling and Support it as their 
poor, and to acquit the Town of Mendon from all Cost and Charges they 
have been at in Supporting and transporting the Said Rhoda Easling aud 
Children at any time before this date: and that Priscilla Dolbear, Daughter 
of David Dolbear, be Supported by the Said Town of Milford, and Hannah 
Arnold and Abigail Hewes be Supported by the Town of Mendon. And it 
is the opinion of your Committee, that the original agreement, made between 
the Towns before the Town of Milford was set off, be and remain in full 
force, with this explanation thereon ; that is to say, that all persons brought 



280 HISTORY OF M1LFORD. 

back to Either of Said Towns, those born in Either Town shall return to 
the Town in which they were born — and those brought back which have 
otherwise gained a residence in Either of Said Towns, then they Shall return 
to the Town in which they last gained a lawful residence, and to be accord- 
ingly maintained; and also all Persons, old and young, Shall be Supported 
in and by the Town in which they then lived as their Home at the time when 
the Town of Milford was set off into a Separate Town. 

" [For Milford] Skth Nelson, [For Mendon] Peter Penniman, 
Samuel Warren, John Tyler, 

Samuel Jones. Benjamin Read." 

Previous to the year 1794, Milford warned out of town about fifty 
families that had settled on its territory since 1767, and probably in 
all, not fewer than two hundred and twent}'-five persons. Formal 
process was served on all these families, regardless of their standing. 
A small proportion of them were very likely to become paupers, and 
man}- of them became families of eminently respectable rank in town. 
How many of them actually left town, I find no data to show. I pre- 
sume to guess the number was very small. But the legal warning 
quieted all apprehensions of danger for the time, and not long after- 
wards ceased to be of any serious importance. As to the number 
of town's poor before 1794, it can only be conjectured approximately. 
I think it must have been nearly one per cent of the population ; 
beginning perhaps with seven persons in 1780, and rising to eight in 
1790, besides a few others each year slightly relieved. In 1794 my 
rather imperfect data seem to indicate certainly nine proper paupers, 
maintained at the cost of about $2.50, or an average of about fifty 
cents each, per week, excluding clothing, doctor's bills, and other inci- 
dentals. In 1805, out of a population of nine hundred and fifty I esti- 
mate probably twelve to have been fully or partially provided for, at 
an expense of about 83.75, or seventy-two cents each, per week. My 
data do not warrant pretensions to exact accuracy. In 1815, popula- 
tion one thousand or thereabouts, I find some fifteen names of town's 
poor, supported at a total cost of over 86.50, or an average of over 
seventy cents each, per week. Between 1805 and 1815 considerable 
amelioration was effected in the treatment of the poor. In 1806 
Arial Bragg, afterwards familiarly known among us as Col. Bragg, 
led off, and so strenuousl}' insisted on the abolition of the old vendue 
custom of letting out the town paupers to be kept by the lowest 
bidders, that a formal vote was passed to that effect. It was a 
custom that reduced the cost of providing for the poor to the lowest 
terms, but was fraught everywhere with lamentable abuses. Col. 
Bragg had tasted in early life of its privations, and witnessed them 



THE TOWN ASYLUM ESTABLISHED. 281 

in the experience of others with s}'mpathetic abhorrence. Happily 
he moved a goodly majority of his townsmen to unite with him in 
crushing out this abomination. It was partialh' and temporarily - 
revived afterwards, but the public sentiment against it had become 
so strong, that it soon died out in our town ; and thenceforth our poor 
have been treated with increasing humane consideration, till now they 
are far better provided for in our asylum, as to the substantial com- 
forts of life, than hundreds in their familv homes. 

In 1825 the Town took the important step of purchasing a farm and 
establishing an asylum for their poor. After considerable agitation 
of the subject, and a favorable report by a special committee of in- 
quiry, the question came legally before the Town, Feb. 7, 1825, and 
was decided in the affirmative by a }'ea and nay vote, — seventy-six 
to fifty-two. " Voted to purchase a farm for an establishment for the 
poor of said town." Chose Pearley Hunt, John Clafli'n, and Esek 
Greene "a committee for the above-mentioned purpose." "Voted 
that the Selectmen give security, in behalf of the Town, for the pa}-- 
ment of the farm which the Committee shall purchase." "Voted 
that the Committee shall agree with an Overseer, and make such 
other arrangements as are necessarv to carry the foregoing into 
effect." (Tuwn Records, vol. ii., pp. 423, 424.) The farm, ever since 
occupied, was purchased of Amariah Daniels for $3,500, and con- 
voyed b\' him to the then selectmen in a deed bearing date Feb. 17, 
1825 ; which will be found specified among the deeds to and from the 
inhabitants of Milford in Chap. XII. The new establishment was 
forthwith opened under the superintendence of John Stearns. For 
the 3'ear ending March 4, 1825, the town maintained, as nearly as I 
can ascertain from the Selectmen's orders, over twenty out of a pop- 
ulation of about twelve hundred, at a cost of perhaps SI, 150, avera- 
ging (if but twenty persons), about Si. 10^ each per week. Thus, on 
the basis of my estimates, the Town had paid out, during the forty- 
five years of its existence down to the spring of 1825, a total for 
the maintenance of its poor, of not less than $25,000, or perhaps 
$30,000. These, however, are too largely guess-work estimates to 
be critically trusted. But, before I come to the more reliable data 
and figures of subsequent times, I will present a few incidental 
curiosities of the period I have been traversing. 

Among the curiosities alluded to were the devices made use of for 
preventing and curtailing pauper expenses. Of course, whenever the 
burden could be thrown on other towns, with or without a lawsuit, 
it was done, as was the common practice of their neighbors. Here is 
a specimen of shrewdness: Mar. 30, 1790, " Voted to leave it with 



282 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

the Selectmen to provide a man and team to move Paul Lesure and 
his family to Partridgefield on the cost of the Town." This was 
a two-edged kind of charit}-. Still earlier, •' Voted that the family 
that was sent from Sutton to Mendon to be supported, return to 
Sutton again." I infer that Mendon had signified to Milford that 
this was a case for the latter to look after. The form of the vote 
exhibits cool wit ; inasmuch as the poor family was left to take all 
the responsibilitj- of returning to Sutton. When a family possessing 
a small homestead was in danger of becoming chargeable, the Town 
would loan them money enough to keep them from absolute want, 
and take a mortgage of the premises. In other cases humble abodes 
were bought or built for needy families to live in and pick up a scanty 
support with the least possible additional aid. There was nothing 
unnatural or very objectionable in such methods. It was felt to be 
dictated by a necessar}- and wise municipal economy. But when the 
vendue custom flourished, there arose some scandalous cases, as in 
most other towns. Nor did such cases wholly cease for some time 
after the town voted to abolish that barbaric custom. Still the poor 
were let out to be kept by contractors, — an individual here, a family 
there, and a group yonder, — so long as the town had no common 
asylum. When they were under the care of famih' relatives or 
humane contractors, there was little just complaint. But in some 
other cases stinginess and negligence produced their cruel fruits. 
These were semi-starvation and filth. Yet the}' were not always 
published till the sufferers fell into better hands. So late as Feb- 
ruary, 1812, our oldest extant selectmen's record of orders contains 
the following unsavor}' entries, — 

" Also one order to Seth Albee, for Cleaning the wid. Grace Adams of 
lice, etc., $6 17." " Also one order to Ruth Albee, of five Dollars and Sixty- 
seven cents, for Cleaning Rachel Kilborn of lice, etc., $5.67." 

These are the only grossly disgraceful instances that got on record, 
though tradition tells kindred tales, alike discreditable to the old s} - s- 
tem of pauper management. I mention these probably exceptional 
instances with reluctance, and only in contrast with the present man- 
agement of our poor, on which we have good reason to congratulate 
all parties concerned. There are other curiosities for the reader in 
the recorded written contracts made by the selectmen with those who 
engaged to keep the poor. Just when these written contracts came 
into vogue in our town, I have not ascertained. Here is the oldest I 
have found : — 



CURIOUS PAUPER CONTRACTS. 283 

" An agreement made by the Selectmen with Daniel Hunt, to let Samuel 
Albee and wife have house room and fire wood Six months from the first 
Tuesday of March, 1794, for which he is to have 2s. a week, and to have 3s. 
for a garden this year." 

" April 23 [1794]. Agreed with Noah Wiswall to keep the widow Wheat 
2 months for 4s. a week ; he is to Reduck out of that sum for all the work 
she does." 

" March 20, 1802. Then the Selectmen agreed with Elias Whitney for 
to keep the Widdow Sarah Hayward and Oliver Hayward [her son] untill 
the next Anual March Meeting, for Eleven Shillings pr. week ; provided 
they Remain in their usual State of Health ; and said Whitney is to find 
Oliver Hayward and keep him in as good Cloaths as he has when he receives 
him. Elias Whitney." 

" March 22, 1796. Then the Select Men of Milford Agreed with Thomas 
Albee to keep his Mother Albee, at the going price of Three pecks of Indian 
Corn per week, until the first Tuesday of March next " 

" Milford, March 10, 1804. I, the Subscriber, agree with the Selectmen 
of Milford to Keep and Board Ebenezer Torrey from the 13th of March, 

1804, to the 13th of March, 1805, for which I am to have 92 cents and 3 
Mills Per week; Provided he Remains as Well as Usual : also to Wash and 
Mend his Clothes, and Keep them in good Order. 

Caleb Wilson. >» 

44 March 11, 1805. This day the Select Men agreed with Mr. John Hero 
to Board and Keep the Widow Elizabeth Hayward from the 5th Day of March, 

1805, until the First Wednesday of March, 1806, at Seventy-five Cents Per 
Week. We also agree to give said Hero Two Gallons of New Rum, and 25 
Cents in Brandy or Opium. Provided She should not Remain as Well as 
Usual, Said Hero to be allowed all Reasonable Expense. 

John Hero." 

44 March 6, 1807. I, the Subscriber, agree with the Select men of Milford 
to take and Support the following named persons, said Town's poor, that is, 
John Leshure, widow Leshu re and her two youngest Children, Rachel Kil- 
bon, Oliver Hayward, and Stephen Temple and wife and 2 Children, at five 
Dollars and Seventy cents per week ; Oliver Hayward's Cloaths to be kept 
in as good repair as they now are; Extraordinary Sickness Excepted; the 
above Said persons to be kept till the first Tuesday of March next : if 
Stephen Temple and wife and Children are Discharged from the Town of 
Milford, two Dollars and twenty cents is to be reducted out of the above- 
mentioned Sum per week. Joel Hunt." 

As time rolled on, find abuses were detected, the agreements were 
made more stringent. Here is one, the last sample I will give you : — 

44 1, the Subscriber, do hereby promise and agree to take and Support, 
through Sickness and health, in a decent Manner for the Term of one year 



284 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

from this date, the following Persons, Poor of Milford : Namely, Asa Hay- 
ward, Oliver Hayward, John Lesure, Ebenezer Torrey, Joseph Sumner, Ruth 
Sumner and her Child, Grace Adams, Sarah Hayward, Hannah Kilbon, Ra- 
chel Kilbon, and Clear Said Town of Milford of all Expense whatever on 
their account, Except Clothing for Said Persons ; the Subscriber to have the 
use of what Bed Clothes now belong to Said Poor for their use; Said Sub- 
scriber, further and in addition to the above, doth hereby agree with the 
Selectmen of Said Milford not to put any of Said Poor to any other Person 
to keep without the Consent of Said Selectmen — for the Sum of Three hun- 
dred and Seventeen Dollars, to be paid in Town orders at the Expiration of 
Said Term : in addition to the above, Said Subscriber, in case any of Said 
Poor shall Die in said Term, is to See them Decently Buried at his own 
Expense. Daniel Hemenwat. 

"Milford, March 8, 1810. 

" X. B. Said Hemenway is to keep said Poor until the Tenth of March 
next." 

From this agreement it would seem that the regular paupers of the 
town in 1810 numbered eleven, though others were probably helped ; 
also that these eleven were supported at the cost of S3 17, exclusive 
of clothing and incidental charges. I presume, in view of this and 
numerous other similar agreements, that the fathers of the town felt 
that they were doing all the}* could for the well-being of their poor 
under the system then in operation. Thus I have given as clear and 
full a view of what was done for the maintenance of Milford 's poor, 
during the first forty-five years of its corporate existence, as my im- 
perfect resources allowed. In the next section my data, from authen- 
tic documents, will be far more ample, reliable, and satisfactory. 

MANAGEMENT AND OPERATIONS SINCE 1825. 

The Town took possession of their newly-purchased farm in the 
spring of 1825, elected responsible overseers, adopted a code of rules 
and regulations for the government of their pauper household, ap- 
pointed a superintendent, removed most of those who could be judi- 
ciously domiciliated together, stocked the establishment so far as 
necessar}', opened books of account, and, in fine, inaugurated the new 
order of things, as well as the nature of the case admitted. The 
dwelling-house was of the olden type, in ordinary repair, and barely 
large enough to accommodate tolerably the fifteen to twenty inmates 
needing quarters. The farm contained one hundred and ten acres 
at that time, with an outlying wood-lot of nine acres more. The 
outbuildings corresponded in size and qualit} - with the house, and 
there was room for improvement all about the premises. The cost of 



ASYLUM INAUGURATED AND IMPROVED. 285 

the establishment, as before stated, was three thousand five hundred 
dollars, — a debt running on six per cent interest. The records and 
accounts, intended to exhibit the number, classification, and cost of 
the poor, are not quite so lucid for several of the earlier years as I 
could wish, but I will deduce what information I can from them. So 
far as I ever heard, the institution has worked satisfactorily to all 
parties concerned, reasonable allowance being made for inevitable 
imperfections and incidental frictions. The Town have found it more 
economical, and the inmates far more comfortable, than under the 
former isolated system. It has been the practice to place all our poor 
in the asylum who could not, all things considered, be better provided 
for elsewhere. Sometimes, when family relatives were willing to care 
for them in their own homes, on a moderate allowance from the Town, an 
arrangement has been made to that effect. In other cases, supplies, to 
a limited extent, have been furnished to families at their own residence, 
who else might become wholly a town charge. In a few instances 
whole families have been taken out of the poor-establishment for a 
year, more or less, at a time, into the families of citizens who wanted 
their domestic services, and were willing to pay something for them, 
or at least guarantee the Town against ordinar}* expense on their 
account. The young have been bound out to service till of age, or 
otherwise handed over to such persons as desired to take them off the 
Town. In all these respects, I presume, our overseers have followed 
the customs prevalent in such institutions. I might here insert a copy 
of the rules and regulations, according to which the establishment 
has been governed since its inauguration in 1825. But I think this 
unnecessary. They differ little from the generalit}' of such codes in 
other towns, and have been revised from time to time, as was deemed 
expedient. 

In process of time the original buildings on the farm had to be 
superseded \>y new and better ones. In 1840 a substantial new barn 
was built, at a cost of §8 15. 38. In 1849 the present ample and com- 
modious mansion was erected, at a cost of S3, 562. 34. The farm has 
also been enlarged by an additional purchase of some ten or eleven 
acres. Meantime numerous improvements have been made all about 
the premises, and the} - are kept in good order. 

I proposed to myself that I would give a tabulated statement of 
our almshouse financial management, all the way down from 1825, 
year after year, to the present time. But I found it so difficult to 
compile an accurate exhibit, that I concluded to content myself with 
such historical facts as I could easily command from the records 
previous to the year 1856. Then the overseers began to make annual 



286 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

reports, which the Town printed. From that date I shall summarize 
the financial and other details of interest in regular succession of the 
j'ears. So far as I can judge, there was considerable variation in 
the numbers domiciliated at the asylum iu different j'ears, during this 
period from 1825 to 1856, and also in the numbers aided outside. 
There must consequently have been a corresponding difference in the 
annual expenses, aside from other changing costs. The number in 
the asylum ranges all the way from twelve to twenty-five. Some of 
these were transient inmates, either State paupers, or belonging to 
other towns, or home paupers needing to staj- only a part of the year. 
The number of outsiders relieved seems to have ranged from two or 
three to fifteen. Some of these received little aid, and others con- 
siderable. This latter class, I observe, at one time, during a visita- 
tion of small-pox, were quite expensive, on account of extraordinary 
provisions made necessarily for hospital, nursing, and medical attend- 
ance. The average annual cost of providing for the town's poor, 
notwithstanding all the economy practised throughout this period, 
appears to have been not less than from seven hundred dollars up to 
one thousand dollars. This properly included six per cent interest 
on the capital invested in the establishment, as well as the salary of 
the superintendent, and all other expenses. I do not find in the 
oldest overseer's book any such complete record of the names, number, 
sex, ages, and deaths of our poor, as I expected. Feb. 25, 1834, is 
the date of the earliest list. The names of eighteen are given in this 
list. The next year gives thirteen. In neither of these are the 
sex and age given. From what is plainly indicated, the sexes were 
nearly equal during these years ; and there were only three children in 
1834, — none in 1835. Almost all the others were aged, or somewhat 
elderly people. The list for 1836 gives the names and ages of fourteen 
inmates. No children are named. There were six males and eight 
females. The oldest male was seven t}'-eight years of age ; next 
oldest, seventy-five ; next, seventy-three ; next, sixty-seven ; next, 
fifty ; and the youngest, fort}--six. The females ranged downward 
from sixt}'-seven years to thirty. Two of the men were State paupers 
A little later list, for the same year, gives fifteen inmates, — an ad \ 
ditional female. In 1838 I find a list of twenty; in 1839 one rS 
twenty-five, — several children having been added. In 1840 twenty 
are given, — fewer children, and about the former proportions .la lv 
sex and age. In 1841 there were twenty-two, and fifteen out-.-i * 
more or less assisted. This is the first list of outsiders jr ; « eii 
Among these insiders and outsiders a larger proportion of youth uv' 
children appears. This year the overseers recorded a report so >, 



PAUPER STATISTICS SUMMARIZED. 287 

that even I could understand it. It makes the total expense of the 
Town, on account of its poor, $1,320.48. If this is to be assumed, 
I have laid my above average per year too low. I suspect, however, 
that some credits ought to be deducted. In 1842 the number of 
inmates comes down to fourteen, and the outsiders to three. In 
1843 there is a list of nineteen inmates, and three outsiders, — 
several children in this list. In 1846 the insiders are put down at 
twenty-two, and the outside recipients of help at twenty. In 1847 
we find but fourteen inmates, and six outsiders. In 1848 the 
numbers are, fifteen at the asylum, and five outside. I do not seem 
to find another list till 1856. Meantime there were several deaths 
at the establishment, either not recorded or so mixed in with the 
accounts that I cannot easily extract them. But it is observable, all 
the way through, that the deaths there were comparatively few, and 
the general health of the inmates remarkably good. 

As I have now reached the era of printed reports, I will tabulate 
the principal statistics necessary to be exhibited, year after year, as 
the}' are given. The first column designates the year ; the second, 
the average number provided for in the asylum ; the third, the number 
of town's poor helped outside of the asylum, and the cost ; the fourth, 
the deaths of town's poor ; the fifth, the deaths of State paupers ; the 
sixth, the total annual cost of town pauperism, as drawn out of the 
treasury by orders of the selectmen. These statistics omit some 
niceties of fact, and may not be exactly accurate on every point ; but 
the}' are sufficiently comprehensive and correct for the purposes of 
this history. Each year is understood to close between the middle 
of February and first of April, or thereabouts. The average number 
at the asylum implies, of course, that many more may have been 
transiently provided for there. Very brief notes will fill a seventh 
column, which will give the amount of personal property at the 
asylum. 



288 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



c 

-3 


< 

e 


■3 
C 

a 
to 

1 ° 


a 



. 1 
to 

u 

5 

co 


Total Expense. 


Brief Notes. 


1856 


13 


16 


(not found) 


_ 


15 


$2,141 67 


Cost of outsiders not given. 




1857 


14 


20 


$337 00 3 


- 


2,300 00 


The establishment reported prosperous. 


1858 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


2,285 70 


Not in command of this year's 


report. 


1859 


17 


15 


(not found) 


- 


8 


2,180 80 


Establishment in fair condition. 


1860 


14 


24 


$289 55 


o 


13 


2,578 19 


Movable property on hand, . 


$1,651 75 


1861 


20 


42 


36(5 20 


1 


11 


2,359 51 


i« ii it 


1,901 58 


1862 


22 


53 


661 60 


5 


10 


3,070 44 


it it ii 


1,731 64 


1803 


21 


52 


1,005 89 


3 


8 


3,000 88 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


2,300 94 


1864 


23 


50 


1,040 78 


4 


11 


3,914 14 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


3,182 47 


18G5 


26 


60 


1,150 28 


6 


26 


4,711 28 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


4,601 85 


1866 


32 


54 


1,630 79 


1 


10 


5,142 92 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


4,519 59 


1867 


34 


41 


1,448 94 


1 


7 


5,000 00 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


4,900 55 


1868 


25 


35 


1,413 67 


6 


4 


4,500 00 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


4,020 00 


1869 


20 


45 


1,857 45 


5 


3 


4,865 10 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


4,288 04 


1870 


20 


47 


2,182 06 


7 


4 


5,000 00 


Prosperous. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


4,577 75 


1871 


24 


44 


2,433 10 


8 


3 


5,000 00 


Fair condition. Movable 
property on hand 


4,433 19 


1872 


28 


55 


2,095 47 


5 


2 


5,506 01 


Fair condition. Movable 
property on hand 


4,242 00 


1873 


29 


195 


1,868 12 


7 


4 


4,863 78 


Insanity increases. Mov- 
able property on hand 


4,690 26 


1874 


28 


56 


2,319 14 


4 


— 


6,650 00 


Tramps abound. Movable 
property on hand 


4,628 80 


1875 


22 


56 


2,508 77 


- 


- 


6,597 84 


Expenses increase. Mov- 
able property on hand 


















4,558 00 


1876 


36 


88 


3,281 29 


- 


— 


8,600 00 


289 tramps lodged. Movable 
property on hand 


4,499 70 


1877 


39 


127 


6,627 98 


— 


— 


12,500 00 


Heavy expenses. Movable 
property on hand 


4,463 66 


1878 


36 


152 


7,167 06 


5 


— 


13,364 86 


Much sickness. Movable 
property on hand 


4,271 00 


1879 


36 


142 


5,434 03 


"" 


- 


11,539 23 


Deaths not reported. Mov- 
able property on hand. 


4,03S 48 


1880 


34 


98 


3,902 29 






12,479 31 


214 tramps. Movable prop- 
erty on hand 


4,092 58 



Whosoever has curiosity enough to find the formidable amount 
which it has cost the Town to maintain its poor since 1855, may do 
so. For some of the years no deaths were reported, probably through 
omission. For 1878 the overseers reported five deaths at the asylum, 
and a total of thirty-four, but without specification where. They 
say, "There has been more sickness among the poor that have re- 
ceived aid for the past year, and more deaths than ever in one } T ear, 
— thirty-four." This matter of deaths ought to be better reported. 
Many of the annual reports purport to give the average weekly cost 
per pauper. In 18G0 it is put down at §1.95 ; in 1870, at $1.90 ; in 



CAUSES OF PAUPERISM. — SUPERINTENDENTS, ETC. 289 

1879, at SI. 70 ; in 1880, at 81. 03. Just how this was ascertained, I 
do not clearly understand, but experts probably can. As to the 
causes of all this pauperism, I see that in one report the overseers 
charge four-fifths of it to intemperance, either directly or indirectly. 
The major portion of it undoubtedly proceeds from this desolating 
vice. But there are man}- other causes constantly co-operating to the 
general result. Some of these are obviously misfortunes, casualties, 
and infirmities which imply no blame as due to their subjects, or per- 
haps to any human being. Others are owing to customs, habits, and 
influences which society might rectify, were it wiser and better. The 
remainder is brought on individuals, either by their own follies and 
sins, or those of others, in less excusable ways. But when we con- 
sider the immense amount of ignorance and evil circumstances amid 
which our general population passes through mortal life, it is safer to 
pity than blame, and for the more favored classes to work for better 
conditions than to curse the legitimate consequences of unreformed 
causative influences. I think of nothing more to mention under this 
head, unless it be to give the names of those who have been superin- 
tendents and matrons of our poor-establishment since it was opened 
in 1825, and likewise their compensation. The overseers of the 
poor, during this period, will be found specified in their place in Chap. 
XVI., which treats of the succession of our civil officers, etc. So far 
as I have been able to ascertain the names of our superintendents, 
etc., the}" are as follows : — 

John Stearns and wife, to first of April, 1826; compensation, $300 per 

annum. 
Moses Albee and wife, to first of April, 1828; compensation one year, $230 

per annum. 
Elijah Hayward and wife, to first of April, 1829; compensation one year, 

$225 per annum. 
Nahum Legg and wife, to first of April, 1830; compensation one year, not 

found. 
Chester Clark and wife, to first of April, 1833; compensation three years, not 

found. 
Nathan Keith and wife, to first of April, 1835; compensation two years, $210 

per annum. 
Josiah Gould and wife, to first of April, 1837; compensation two years, $200 

per annum. 
Peter Adams and wife, to first of April, 1839; compensation two years, 

not clear. 
Asia Madden and wife, to first of April, 18-40; compensation one year ^300 

per annum. 
Joseph Richards and wife, to first of April, 1843; compensation three years, 

$254 per annum. 



290 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Cyrus Ballou and wife, to first of April, 1846; compensation two years, $250 

or more. 
Abner A. Leland and wife, to first of April, 1848; compensation two years, 

8300 perhaps. 
Alvan T. Adams (not clear just how this case was), 1851; compensation 

one year, not clear. 
Independence Gore and wife, to first of April, 1855; compensation four years, 

$350 or more. 
Ferdinand Whipple and wife, to first of April, 185S; compensation one 

year, 8350. 
Willard Follet and Mrs. Laura A. Ballou, to first of April, 1861; compensa- 
tion three years, 8350 per annum. 
John D. Balcomb and wife, to first of April, 1862; compensation one year, 

$250. 
Orlando J. Davis and wife, to first of April, 1867; compensation four years, 

$250-$300. 
Charles Leland and wife, to October, 1868; compensation one year and a 

half, $250. 
Orlando J. Davis and Mrs. Eliza Chapman, to April, 1869; six months, $178. 
Sumner Harrington and wife, to April, 1S79, etc. ; eleven years, $450, $500, 

$600. 
Elias Whitney and wife, to April, 1880, etc. ; one year, etc., $550. 

I suppose it will not do to assume that the above is perfectly accu- 
rate, as to names, facts, and figures ; for it was very difficult to 
deduce them from the records and accounts at command. But the 
errors, if an}', must be unimportant. Perhaps I ought to say that Mr. 
Harrington received $550 per annum for the years 1877 and 1879, 
ending April 1, 1880; though for the three preceding years he re- 
ceived SG00. 

HISTORY AND STATISTICS OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH. 

Milford decided to have a Board of Health earl}- in 1859. At 
their April meeting of that year it was voted to choose a Board to 
consist of five members, three of whom should be physicians and two 
not. Their first annual report (which was printed, as all subsequent 
ones have been) opens the history of the Board as follows : — 

" At the Annual Town Meeting, holden April 4, 1859, Dr. Dwight Rus- 
sell, Dr. A. C. Fay, Dr. J. Barnes, George W. Stacy, and A. T. Wilkinson 
were chosen as a Board of Health for the year ensuing. 

44 Dr. Fay and Dr. Barnes said, on notification, that they should not 
serv» and, in view of that fact, were not notified to attend the meeting for 
the organization of the Board. 

44 At a meeting of said Board, holden May 9, George W. Stacy was chosen 



BOARD OF HEALTH ORGANIZED. 291 

Chairman and A. T. Wilkinson Secretary. Dr. Dwight Russell was chosen 
physician to the Board. 

44 The following Rules and Regulations were adopted for the government 
of the Board; and it was voted that the same be published for three suc- 
cessive months in ' The Milford Journal: ' — 

" ' Article I. — The Board of Health shall examine into all nuisances, 
sources of filth, and causes of sickness, that may, in their opinion, be injuri- 
ous to the inhabitants within the town, and shall destroy, remove, or pre- 
vent the same, as the case may require. 

" ' Art. II. — Whenever any nuisance, source of filth, or cause of sick- 
ness, shall be found on private property within the town, the Board of Health 
shall order the owner or occupant thereof to remove the same at his own 
expense, within twenty-four hours after notice is served upon him; and if 
the owner or occupant thereof shall neglect so to do, he shall forfeit the sum 
of twenty dollars for every day that he shall knowingly permit such nuisance, 
filth, or cause of sickuess, to remain, after the time prescribed for the removal 
thereof. 

" ' Art. III. — If any householder shall know, or have reason to believe, 
that any person within his family is taken sick with the small-pox, he shall 
immediately give notice to the Board of Health; and, if he refuse or neglect 
to give such notice, he shall forfeit a sum not exceeding fifty dollars. 

" ' Art. IV. — When any physician shall know that any person whom he 
is called upon to visit is infected with the small-pox, or any other disease dan- 
gerous to the public health, such physician shall immediately give notice to 
the Board of Health; and every physician who shall neglect or refuse to give 
such notice, shall forfeit a sum not less than fifty dollars, nor more than 
one hundred dollars. 

44 1 Art. V. — Any person who shall deposit, or cause to be deposited, in 
any pond, or stream of water, any dead or living animal, or deposit, or cause 
to be deposited, in any public street or highway, any substance which may 
be deemed a nuisance, such person shall be dealt with according to law. 

44 4 Art. VI. — The Board of Health would recommend that each individual 
pay particular attention to cleanliness, personal, and also to the condition of 
drains, cesspools, out-buildings, and all sources of filth and disease in his 
vicinity, thereby removing one of the most common causes of disease in a 
thickly-populated community. 

44 4 Art. VII. — We would recommend vaccination as a preventive to the 
small-pox, and that all heads of families and guardians of youth see that 
those under their care be vaccinated; also that the physician of the Board 
be instructed to vaccinate all those who may apply to him, that in his judg- 
ment may require vaccination, and that the expeuse may be charged to the 
Town, when in his opinion the applicants are unable to pay for the same. 
It was also voted that each member of the Board be a health officer, for the 
purpose of discharging the duties of tne Board, and that any official act thus 
performed shall be considered sanctioned by the Board. 

44 4 Voted, To adopt the following form of notice to be served upon owners, 



292 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

occupants, or persons responsible, in any case of nuisance, viz. : Whereas 

complaint has been made to the Board of Health that is a nuisance, 

and whereas the Board of Health, after due examination, judge the same 
to be injurious to the public health, and justly obnoxious to complaint, you 
are hereby required to prevent or remove the same forthwith." 



I suppose these Rules and Regulations, in substance at least, if not 
in form, have continued in force ever since, or certainly very similar 
ones. 

This report of Feb. 25, 1860, sets forth the importance of health 
regulations in a populous community ; that several prominent nui- 
sances had been abated (specifying the same) ; that proper precau- 
tionary measures had been taken for the future ; that one case of 
small-pox and three cases of varioloid had come under the notice 
of the Board, the small-pox case proving fatal ; that there had been 
some reluctance in certain quarters to conform to the requirements 
of the Board ; and that the selectmen had made thorough work of 
vaccinating those who needed it throughout the town. 

The report for '61 is signed by the same secretary, and I infer that 
the same gentlemen constituted the Board, though I have not made 
myself certain that none were changed. Certain nuisances are alluded 
to as still persistently cherished by some of the inhabitants : one case 
of unmodified small-pox had occurred and proved fatal, and five cases 
of varioloid had been successfully treated. The contagion was not 
allowed to spread. The Board recommended that the selectmen order 
general vaccination annually. 

In '62 Bainbridge Havward and Elias Whitnev constituted the 
Board, and reported that they had had little to attend to ; no conta- 
gious case of disease, but some nuisances to abate. They repeated 
the recommendation of their predecessors, that the selectmen order 
general vaccination annually. 

In '63, Elias Whitney, Richard Carroll, and Wm. H. Sadler con- 
stituted the Board. Their report was brief, — more business than 
usual ; several cases of filth-nuisance ; two of small-pox, one of which 
proved fatal, and one of varioloid, all costing 837.99, charged to the 
account of State paupers. 

Report for '64 not found. 

For '65, Elias Whitney, Richard Carroll, and Willard Bragg, con- 
stituting the Board, reported nine cases of small-pox, one fatal ; " also 
the usual amount of nuisances, such as drains, dead dogs, etc." Ex- 
pense of sickness, including vaccinations by Dr. W. M. Parker, phy- 
sician to the Board, §91.50, — paid for out of the town treasury. 



SUMMARY OF ANNUAL REPORTS. 293 

In '6G there were six cases of small-pox, six of varioloid, two deaths 
from the contagion, and the usual amount of nuisances, — all cost- 
ing the Town SI 15.77. Zibeou C. Field, John S. Mead, and James 
R. Davis constituted the Board. 

For '67 the report says : " The duties of the Board of Health during 
the past year have been arduous. A visitation of that fearful scourge, 
the cholera, was seriously anticipated." Great precautions in the 
wa\' of prevention were taken. No well-authenticated case of cholera 
occurred, and only one of small-pox. Careful attention to vaccination 
was recommended. No expense mentioned. Signed by Dr. Francis 
Leland, L. B. Felton, Dr. W. M. Parker, Elias Whitney, and William 
P. Miller, the Board. 

In '68 the Board organized, May 1, by "election of Richard Car- 
roll as chairman and Dr. I. H. Stearns as secretary and physician ; " 
John Madden, 2d, was the onby other member. The rules adopted 
were "published for five months in 'The Milford Journal.'" All 
cases causing complaint settled "without resort to legal measures." 
The report says, " No infectious or contagious disease has prevailed 
in town the past year. Indeed, Milford is one of the most healthy 
locations in Massachusetts." 

Report for '69 very brief, and signed only by Dr. W. M. Parker. 
Who his colleagues were, I have not gone to the records to learn. 
No cases of small-pox or other contagious disease, but numerous nui- 
sances abated " without resort to legal measures." 

In '70 Drs. A. C. Fay, W. M. Parker, and Thos. W. Flatley consti- 
tuted the Board. Substance of their report : rules and regulations duly 
published in " The Milford Journal ; " no cases of small- pox or other 
contagious diseases during the past year ; other neighboring towns 
have suffered seriously, showing the importance of our protection by 
thorough vaccination; many nuisances removed "without resort to 
legal measures;" more drains and sewers needed; let the laws of 
cleanliness, as a preventive of disease, be better and better observed. 

In '71 Drs. Thos. W. Flatley, Dwight Russell, and W. M. Parker, 
with G. B. Knight as clerk, constituted the Board. With the excep- 
tion of some nuisances peaceably abated, the sanitary condition of 
the town reported in good order, the same as last year. 

In '72 report not found in print, though on title-page of town- 
reports purporting to be among the rest. 

In '73 the same omission, though the selectmen's report says the 
Town had to expend $891.44 on account of the prevalence of small- 
pox. 

In '74 the Board consisted of Drs. Thos. W. Flatley (who died 



294 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

during the year), ~\Vm. M. Parker, and J. Allen Fay. Their report 
represents the town to have been unusually healthy during the past 
j-ear, — no disease requiring the attention of the Board. They had 
found a responsible party who engaged to remove night-soil gratui- 
tously, if suitably encouraged b} - the citizens. They earnestly recom- 
mend and urge the importance of town sewers, as economical in the 
end, though costly at the outset. 

In '75 nothing found in my copy of pamphlet reports ; nor in that 
for '76, nor in that for '77, nor in that for '78, nor later. It seems 
that the duties of the Board of Health have for the last several years 
been assigned to the selectmen. Either the latter have made no spe- 
cific reports of their doings in this capacity, or I have not been expert 
enough to distinguish the particulars. I presume them to have dis- 
charged their sanitary duties faithfully, but perhaps shall be excused 
for not looking up and presenting even the more interesting facts 
and events of their administration. I might have waived this section 
entirely, but thought it was well to give it a place in its order. 1 

HISTORY AND STATISTICS OF OUR FIRE-DEPARTMENT. 
I have it on the authority of Seth P. Carpenter, Esq., that the first 
movement to get up a fire-engine company in Mil ford was started 
about the year 1831. A considerable number of public-spirited citi- 
zens, who realized the danger from fire to the public and private 
buildings in town, especially in the growing village at the Centre, 
resolved to procure one or two fire-engines, and man them. Of course 
this must be done by purely voluntary contribution and association. 
Two of the old-fashioned tub engines, manufactured in Belchertown, 
at the cost of $125 each, were purchased. The intention was to have 
two companies, one in the upper village and the other in the lower; 
but only one company could be organized, which was in the lower 
village. William Godfrey, who was much interested in having an en- 
gine manned in his immediate vicinity, when unsuccessful, stored his 
engine under one of his sheds then standing near the parish common, 
where it finally fell to pieces. Mr. Carpenter was, I think, the first, 
or certainly an earl} - , commander of the pioneer company organized. 
But their engine was a small, clums}- thing, which was thought to 

1 Since the foregoing wan penned, ray attention has been called to a sharp controversy in Eng- 
land on the merits of vaccination, so earnestly urged by our Board of Health and kindred ones 
generally. The opponents of vaccination in that country plead strong facts and reasons against 
the practice, as propagating many foul and dangerous diseases worse than the small-pox ; and 
they have confident hopes that Parliament will ere long radically modify, if not repeal, its vuc- 
cinution laws. The controversy has been transplanted to this country, and is taking root here. 
What will be the result, remains to be seen. 



ORGANIZATION OF FIRE-DEPARTMENT. 295 

perform a notable exploit when made to throw water over the Brick 
Meeting-house tower, only some sixt}' feet high. They soon bought 
a second-hand Hunneinan engine for §350, which did much greater 
execution. This, however, was not satisfactory long, and a nice new 
Hunneman was procured at a cost of S800. This could be worked 
admirably. 

In 1837 the subject was brought before the Town, to see what they 
would do about raising money to aid in the equipment of fire-appa- 
ratus. A vote was obtained to aid in the work to an amount not 
exceeding two hundred dollars. Some time in 1838 Engine Company 
No. 2 was formed, and the Town paid 650 towards a house for it. 
The same year the Town commenced choosing officers called fire- 
wards, which I suppose was in accordance with the general statutes 
of that period. These officers continued to be annually chosen down 
to 1854, when a special act was passed by the Legislature, authorizing 
the establishment of a regularh' organized fire-department. In 1843 
the Town paid the poll-taxes of its engine-men, and, besides other 
encouragements, appropriated 8838 for a new engine and apparatus. 
Thenceforth protection against fire beeame annually an increasing 
town charge, though for a time moderate. It was some time before 
firemen got much for their services. Their pay began with remission 
of their poll-tax, and gradually rose. 

Their first realty respectable engine-house, built in 1844, cost the 
town §1,044.56; engine repairs and services the same 3*ear cost 
$53.91. In '45 the Town paid for engine repairs, etc., $324.14, and 
for firemen's poll-taxes $66.08. In '46 the expense was quite small ; 
likewise in '47 and '48. In '49 it amounted to only Si 72.46. In 
'50 it rose to $282.95, and in '51 to S668.78. In '52, with new 
engine, hook-and-ladder company, house, etc., it went up to $3,300. 
In '53 it stood, with cost of reservoirs, $490.14. In '54 it amounted 
to $1,692.90. 

Before proceeding farther in this line of annual expenses, I will 
bring up the retinue of historic facts and events. B}' referring to 
the selectmen's record of appointments, I find that their first appoint- 
ment of engine-men was for No. 1, Aug. 19, 1837 ; and their number 
was thirty. Jan. 26, 1838, they appointed twenty-four men for No. 2. 
As new men were wanted, the} - were thenceforth appointed bj* the 
same authority, — sometimes a few, and sometimes the whole of a 
company at once. The} - also discharged firemen, as occasion ren- 
dered proper. The names of all firemen are given, but it will hardly 
be expected that I should transcribe them into this work. In 1854, 
when the engineers were directed by the selectmen to organize the 



296 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

fire-department, pursuant to the forementioned act of the Legislature, 
they promptly assembled, July 1 of that year, and soon after com- 
pleted their work by choosing the necessaiy officers, adopting by-laws, 
etc. Their own rules and regulations, as also those sanctioned by the 
Town (both sets printed) are as follows : — 



RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPANIES ATTACHED 
TO THE MILFORD FIRE-DEPARTMENT. 

" Article I. Each company may propose candidates for its department, 
specifying their ages, and, if minors, the certificate required by the Fire 
Ordinances; all appointments shall be approved by the Board of Engineers, 
and returned to the company. Whenever a candidate is rejected by the Board 
of Engineers, he will not be allowed to act as a member of the company. No 
person under eighteen years of age shall be appointed as a member of the 
Department. 

" Art. II. It shall be the duty of the Foremen of the several companies 
to make, or cause to be made, on the last Monday in April, annually, to 
the Chief Engineer, a statement of the condition of the engine or other 
apparatus, with an inventory of all the property intrusted to their care, and 
belonging to the town, together with a correct list of the names of the mem- 
bers; also, special reports of all officers chosen, and all resignations, dis- 
charge of members, and all cases of neglect of duty or disobedience of orders. 
They shall also see that the engines, houses, and other apparatus are kept 
neat, clean, and ready for immediate use, and the passage to said house 
clear of snow and other obstructions, preserve order in their several com- 
panies, and require and enforce a strict compliance with the Town Ordi- 
nances and regulations of the Board of Engineers. In their absence, the 
Assistant Foremen shall perform their duties, and other times render them 
such assistance as they may require. 

44 Art. III. Any member expecting to be absent from town ten days or 
more, shall be required to procure a substitute, to be approved by the Fore- 
man of his company, whose name he shall hand to the Clerk of the com- 
pany; but no member shall be allowed a substitute except in case of sickness 
or absence from the town, and in no instance for a longer period than one 
month, except in case of sickness. 

44 Art. IV. It is required of the members of the Department, as a gen- 
eral rule, not to open the doors or windows of a building on fire, without a 
supply of water can be procured, and to be careful to avoid unnecessarily 
damaging furniture or other goods by water. At a fire where water cannot 
be procured by suction, or a line of engines, the members will endeavor to 
prevent the fire from spreading by means of buckets or otherwise, until a 
supply can be had. The members of each company will remain with the 
engine and apparatus of which they have charge, except when otherwise 
directed by an Engineer. 

44 Art. V. In the absence of an Engineer, on the arrival at a fire, as a 



RULES OF THE FIRE-DEPARTMENT. 297 

general rule, the first engine is to be taken to the nearest reservoir or place 
where a supply of water can be obtained, immediately placed in readiness 
for operation; and, in case the fire cannot be reached for want of sufficient 
quantity of hose, the officers will exert themselves to obtain another engine 
to receive the water and pass it on towards or to the fire. Engine companies 
will not call upon each other for hose, but upon the Engineer. 

"Art. VI. The Hook-and-Ladder Company, on arriving at a fire, will 
take their station as near the same as under existing circumstances shall be 
thought expedient. The commanding officer will immediately on his arrival 
report himself to the Engineer in command. 

" Art. VH. Members of each company are to have the control of the 
apparatus committed to their care, which is not to be handled, used, or in 
any way meddled with by the members of other companies, unless by per- 
mission of an Engineer ; and whenever, at a fire, one company shall have 
hose or other apparatus belonging to another, they shall in all cases promptly 
return the same to the company to whom it belongs. 

"Art. VIII. On no occasion shall any officer allow his company to 
run their engine or carriage in returning from a fire or alarm, or drill, and 
in all cases they shall keep to the right. 

" Art. IX. When any repairs shall be necessary upon any engine or 
carriage, or other apparatus, the Foreman shall give information to the Chief 
Engineer if practicable; if not, to any Engineer. No bills are to be paid 
until approved by the Board of Engineers. 

"Art. X. Water must not be taken from any reservoirs except in case 
of fire, or by order of an Engineer. 

" Art. XI. Whenever a fire shall occur known to be out of Milford, no 
engine or apparatus shall be taken to said fire unless by the consent of the 
Chief Engineer or his Assistants. 

" Art. XII. The members of the several companies regularly admitted 
and appointed shall wear such caps, badges, or insignia, as the Board of 
Engineers shall from time to time direct to be furnished at the expense 
of the town ; and no other person or persons shall be permitted to wear 
the same except under such restrictions and regulations s the Board of 
Engineers may direct. 

"Art. XIII. Every member of the Fire Department shall be held 
responsible for any property of the Department intrusted to his care ; and, 
in case of loss or damage through neglect, its value shall be deducted from 
his compensation. 

" Adopted by the Board of Engineers, Feb. 4, 1861. 

" S. C. Shepard, Chief Engineer. 
W. F. Barber, Assistant Engineer. 

A. C. Withington, Assistant Engineer. 
George Jones, Assistant Engineer. 

B. Hayward, Assistant Engineer. 
George Hancock, Assistant Engineer. 
N. VV. Heath, Assistant Engineer.'" 



298 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE FIRE-DEPARTMENT, 
AND CITIZENS, TO BE OBSERVED AT FIRES. 

ADOPTED BY THE BOARD OF ENGINEERS, AND APPROVED BY THE TOWN OF 
MILFORD, NOV. 20, 1854, FOR PREVENTING AND EXTINGUISHING FIRES. 

" Section 1. It shall be the duty of the Engineers, upon alarm of fires, 
to immediately repair to or near where the fire may be, and to take proper 
measures that the several engines and other apparatus be arranged in the 
most advantageous situation, and duly worked for the effectual extinguish- 
ment of the fire ; to require and compel assistance from all persons as well 
as members of the fire-department, in extinguishing the fire, removing fur- 
niture, goods, or other merchandise from any building on fire, or in danger 
thereof ; to appoint guards to secure the same, and also in pulling down or 
demolishing any house or other building, if occasion requires, and further to 
suppress all turmoil and disorder. 

"It shall also be their duty to cause order to be preserved in going to, 
working at, or returning from fires, and at all other times when companies 
attached to the fire-department are on duty. 

" Sect. 2. The Chief Engineer shall have the command at fires over all 
other Engineers, all members of the fire-department, and all other persons 
who may be present at fires, and shall direct all proper measures for the 
extinguishment of the fires, protection of property, preservation of order, 
and observance of the fire-laws; provided that no building on fire, or in 
danger thereof, shall be pulled down, blown up, or otherwise demolished, 
■without the concurrence of two or more of the Engineers, if present. 

" Sect. 3. In case of the absence of the Chief Engineer, the Engineer 
next in rank who shall be present shall execute the duties of the officer with 
full powers. 

" Sect. 4. If any member of either of the several companies belonging 
to the fire-department shall wilfully neglect or refuse to perform his duty, 
or shall be guilty of disorderly conduct, disobedience to the officers or to any 
Engineer, he may for such offence be discharged from the fire-department, 
and shall be liable to a fine of not less than two nor more than ten dollars. 

" Sect. 5. All persons present, not members of either of the said com- 
panies, are hereby enjoined to obey the directions of any Engineer given at 
a fire, and to render their services, if required by any Engineer, under a 
penalty of not less than five nor more than twenty dollars; and it is enjoined 
upon the Chief Engineer to prosecute all violations of this section. 

" Sect. 6. It shall be the duty of such of the Constables of the town as 
may be selected by the Engineers for that service, to repair, on the alarm of 
fire, immediately to the place where the fire may be, and there to use their 
best skill and power, under the direction of the Chief Engineer, for the 
preservation of the public peace, the prevention of theft, destruction of prop- 
erty, and the removal of all suspected persons, for which service the Con- 
stable shall receive such compensation as shall in each case be ordered by 
the Engineers. 



RULES AND REGULATIONS. 299 

" Sect. 7. And it is further ordered that no person shall carry any fire- 
brands, lighted matches, or other ignited materials, openly in the streets or 
thoroughfares of the town; and no owner or occupant of any dwelling-house, 
shop, or other buildings, shall maintain, or cause to be erected, any defec- 
tive chimney, hearth, oven, stove or stovepipe, fire-frame, or other fixtures, 
or shall have a deposit of ashes, shavings, or other combustible material, 
which may give just cause of alarm, or be the meaus of kindling or spread- 
ing fire, under penalty of not less than two nor more than twenty dollars. 

" Sect. 8. That if any chimney, stove-pipe, or flue, within the town, 
where any other buildings are so near as to be endangered therefrom, shall 
take or be set on fire, the occupant of such house to which such chimney, 
stove-pipe, or flue appertains shall forfeit and pay the sum of two dollars: 
provided it shall be lawful for any person to set fire to and burn his chim- 
ney or stovepipe between sunrise and noon, if the buildings contiguous are 
wet with rain or covered with snow. 

" Sect. 9. That no person shall discharge or set off any squibs, ser- 
pents, rockets, fire-crackers, or other fireworks, in any place within the 
town, without leave from an Engineer, under a penalty of not more than 
twenty dollars. 

44 Sect. 10. That no person shall make any bonfire, or fire for burning 
brush, rubbish, or any other fire in the open air, in the night-time, without 
leave from an Engineer, under the penalty of not less than two nor more 
than twenty dollars. 

44 Sect. 11. And it shall be the duty of the Chief and other Engineers 
to inquire for and examine into all shops, new buildings erecting, or other 
places, where defective chimneys, flues, stoves, or stovepipe may be, and 
where shavings or other combustible material may be collected and depos- 
ited, and from time to time, and at all times, to be vigilant in taking care of 
and the removal of the same, whenever in the opinion of any two of them the 
same may be dangerous to the security of the town from fire; and the owners 
or occupants of such defective chimneys, flues, stoves or stovepipe, shavings, 
or other combustible matter, who shall refuse or neglect to remove the same 
forthwith after being ordered thereto by any two Engineers in writing, shall 
forfeit and pay five dollars for each day afterwards that the same shall remain 
un removed. 

44 Sect. 12. All members of the fire-department, while on duty at a fire, 
shall wear such badges as are provided for them; and any member refusing 
or neglecting to wear the same until the several companies shall be dis- 
missed at roll-call, shall forfeit all pay for bis services for three mouths pre- 
vious to such refusal or neglect, unless he can furnish an excuse that shall 
be satisfactory to a majority of the Engineers." 

The Department began to make annual reports to the Town in the 
spring of 1856, which have generally, if not always, been printed, 
along with the other official reports. The Board of Engineers has 
consisted, ordinarily, of from nine to six members, according to the 
convenience of circumstances. 



300 



HISTORY OF MILFORD. 



All that now seems necessary for mc is to tabulate the more im- 
portant facts, events, and statistics deducible from these printed 
annual reports, then close with the names of engineers successively 
serving, and their principal officers, — mingling only a few general 
remarks. Let my first column designate the year ; the second, the 
number of firemen in service, including the engineers ; the third, the 
number of engines ; the fourth, the number of carriages for various 
apparatus ; the fifth, the number of feet of leading hose ; the sixth, 
the number of engine-houses ; the seventh, the number of reservoirs ; 
the eighth, the number of alarms answered ; the ninth, the number 
of actual fires in buildings; the tenth, total cost of the year to the 
Town ; and the eleventh, brief notes. The years begin and end in 
Februarv. 









V 
















o 


1 


f 




S 1 




m 




h* 






K 


C 


S 


"ct 




o 

a! 


X 


E 

00 


s 


= 




£ 


ce 




O 


M 


u 


A 


'*! 


y 


El* 


- 




< 


< 



5 
o 



Xotes. 



l«5fi 

1857 
1858 
1859 

1860 
18151 
18(52 
18(53 
1864 
18(i5 
1866 

18(57 
1868 

18(59 
1870 
1871 
1872 
187:! 
1874 

1875 
187(5 
1877 
1878 
187!) 
1880 



125 


2 


o 


1,400 


2 


8 


• 


• 


125 


o 


2 


1,400 


2 


10 


14 


8 


172 


5 


2 + 


1,775 


3 


11 


20 


,2 


160 


5 


2 + 


2,280 


3 


12 


24 


12 


1(5!) 


5 


2 


2,2-10 


3 


12 


32 


11 


1(53 


5 


2 


2,275 


3 


15 


25 


13 


164 


5 




2,275 


3 


15 


11 


8 


171 5 


2 


2,275 


3 


15 


13 


8 


174 


5 


a 


2,275 


3 


15 


32 


11 


171 


5 


2 


2,275 


3 


15 


26 


10 


181 


5 


o 


3,750 


3 


15 


32 


15 


196 


5 


o 


3,750 


3 


15 


32 


14 


217 i 4 


2 


5,1.50 


4 


15 


27 


9 


216 


4 


2 


3.000 


4 


16 


21 


9 


193 


4 


2 


3,000 


4 


16 


36 


13 


19.3 


4 


2 


4,050 


4 


17 


31 


9 


194 4 


2 


4,850 


4 


17 


27 


13 


1G8 6 


2 


4,(550 


5 


17 


14 


6 


179 5 


2 


4..350 


5 


17 


26 


11 


182 ! 5 


2 


5.350 


5 


17 


19 


9 


1(55 5 


2 


5,350 


5 


17 


16 


5 


167 


5 


2 


5,300 


5 


17 


8 


6 


1(57 


5 


2 


5,950 


5 


17 


30 


18 


170 


5 


2 


6,650 


5 


18 


19 


7 



•? 1,549 41 
3,222 03 

2,147 91 

1,742 33 
2,462 49 
1,233 20 
563 62 
648 75 
674 98 
730 48 

6,172 07 
1,138 52 
13,159 62 
2,913 23 
3,716 10 
7,427 82 
5,321 23 
6,346 93 

8,030 13 
6,057 02 
4,593 .'55 
5,432 66 
(5,0(55 96 
5,165 97 



$16,775, property. 
This year's report not found. 
Hose, hook-and-ladder car- 
riages. 
§1,963, property. 

900, property. 
900, property. 
1,110, property. 
1,015, property. 
No further returns of prop- 
erty. 



New steamer and equip- 
ments. 



Span of horses for regular 
service. 

Fire-extinguisher, Hopedale. 
Another steamer. 



Every thing in good order. 



* Not given. 



There are some interesting details which I found it impossible to 
notice in the above table ; but perhaps it is sufficientl}' inclusive. 
The number of carriages specified applies only to those of the 
"Wide-Awake Hose Co." and " Excelsior IIook-and-Ladder Co.," 



THE DEPARTMENT AND ENGINEERS. 301 

which have continued as regular organizations since 1854. The 
other engine-companies have always had carriages attached to them. 
Actual fires include only fires in buildings, a few of which were out 
of town. There have been fires in woods, piles of lumber, etc., also 
more or less false alarms every } - ear. The early reports gave the 
amount of property destroyed not covered b}' insurance. It would 
have been well to continue this item in subsequent reports, but for 
some reason it was dropped. The Board of Engineers has been 
annually organized from 185-4 downward, and well officered. From 
all that I have ever known or heard, our Fire-Department has 
always been deservedly respected for its efficienc}', and acquitted 
itself to the general satisfaction. This is plainly indicated by the 
appropriations made annual!}' for its maintenance. Some may have 
deemed it too expensive ; but most of our citizens know that their 
firemen have very arduous and dangerous duties to perform, for which 
the money the}' get, and the pecuniar}' outlays made to furnish them 
conveniences, are but a moderate equivalent. They therefore accord 
to them an honorable appreciation. The names of our engineers, and 
their years of service, as nearly as I could ascertain, are desiguated 
in the following list : — 

Aaron Claflin, 1854, through, perhaps, '55. 

Aaron C. Muyhew, 1854, through, perhaps, '55. 

Nelson Parkhurst, 1854, through, perhaps, '55. 

Artemas B. Vant, 1854, '55, '56, '57, '58, '59, '60. 

Albert C. Withington, 1855, '56, '57, '58, '59, '60, '61, '62, '63, '64, '65, '66, 

'67, '68, '69, '71, '72, '74. 
Elbridge Mann, 1854 to '56. 
Charles T. Eames, 1854 to '57. 
James H. Barker, 1854 to '56. 
John P. Daniels, 1854 to '56. 
George W. Lebonveau, 1855, '56. 
Horace B Hero, 1854 to '56. 
Peter Corbett, 1854 to '57. 
John G. Gilbert, 1854, '55. 

Willard F. Barber, 1855, '56, '57, '58, '59, '60, '61. 
Lloyd H. Cook, 1855, '56. 
George Jones, 1856, '57, '58, '59, '60, '61, '62. 
Elliot Alden, 1857, '58. 
J. C. Hubbard, 1857, '58. 
George Hancock, 1859 to '62. 
Bainbridge Hayward, 1859 to '65. 
Nathan W. Heath, 1861, '62. 
L. B. Felton, 1862 to '69. 

v / 

/ 
/ 



302 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

J. H. Mason, 1864, '65. 

David M. Brown, 1864. 

Albert M. Sumner, 1864 to '73. 

Seth C. Shepard, 1856 to '61. 

JElbridge A. Vant, 1864 to '68. 

W. H. Ring, 1865, '66, '67. 

Asaph Withington, 1866, '67, '68, '70, '76, '77, '78, '79, '80, '81. 

D. B. Washburn, 1866, '67, '68. 

Alfred A. Burrell, 1868. 

J. M. Woods, 1869, '70, '71, '72, '73, '75, '76, '77, '78, '79, '80. 

Zibeon C. Field, 1S69. 

Zimri Thurber, 1869, '70, '71, '72, '73. 

J. C. Bradford, 1869. 

William C. Gillman, 1870, '71, '75, '76, '77, '78. 

Moses Day, 1870, '71, '72, '73, '75, '76, 77, '78, '79, '80. 

J. K. Lilley, 1870. 

Davis Wilbur, 1871, '72, '73, '74, '75. 

Henry C. Skinner, 1873, '79, '80, '81. 

Andrew J. Ames, 1874. 

A. S. Tuttle, 1874. 

Andrew Bagley, 1874, '75, '76, '77, '78. 

Gordon N". Hayward, 1S74. 

Joseph B. Bancroft, 1874, '75, '76, '77, '78, '79, '80, '81. 

M. A. Vant, 1875, '76. 

M. W. Edwards, 1877, 78, 79, '80, '81. 

L. Wakefield, 1879, '80. 

E. B. Hood, 1880, '81. 

James Powers, 1880, '81. 

O. D. Holmes, 18S0, '81. 

The Selectmen annually appoint the Engineers, who, since 1854, 
have usually met early in May, to organize their Board by the choice 
of officers. Their officers have almost uniformh' been a Clerk and 
Treasurer, a Chief Engineer, and one, two, or more Assistant 
Engineers. I will give the names and terms of sen-ice of the Clerk, 
who acts also as Treasurer, and of the Chief Engineers, in regular 
succession down. Most of the assistants rose to be chiefs. 

CLERKS AND TREASURERS. 

Nelson Parkhurst, from 1854 to Jan. 1, 1855. 

James H. Barker, to May, 1855. 

Albert C. Withington, from May, 1855, to Aug. 7, 1865; again from May 1, 

1868, to May 1, 1872. 
Elbridge A. Vant, from Aug. 7, 1865, to May 1, 1868. 
Julius M. Woods, from May 1, 1872, to May 1, 1878. 
Henry C. Skinner, from May 1, 1878, to the present time. 



CHIEF ENGINEERS — PRINCIPAL FIRES. 303 

CHIEF ENGINEERS. 

Aaron Claflin, from July 3, 1854, to Oct. 23, 1854. 

Artemas B. Vant, from Oct. 23, 1854, to May 1, 1860. 

Seth C. Shepard, to May 1, 1861. 

Bainbridge Hayward, from May 1, 1861, to May 1, 1865. 

James M. Mason, from May 1, 1865, to Aug. 7, 1865. He removed from 

town. 
Albert C. Withington, from Aug. 7, 1865, to May 4, 186S. 
Julius M. Woods, from May 4, 1868, to May 1, 1871, etc. 
Zirari Thurber, to 1873. 
Davis Wilber, from 1873 to 1874. 
William C. Gillman, 1874 to 1878. 
Julius M. Woods, 1878 to 1881. He has lately removed from town. Have 

not seen his successor's name. 

SOME OF OUR PRINCIPAL FIRES. 

1799. March 31. — During the night, the cabinetmaker's shop and 
dwelling-house of Phinehas Eames were burnt, and three persons perished 
in the flames: viz., Jotham Hayward, Charles Turner, and Elijah, son of 
Phinehas Eames. 

1814. Oct. 26. — The clothier's establishment of Nathan Parkhurst, 
just below Charles-river bridge, Main St., took fire in the daytime, and the 
flames spread over it so suddenly that two female operatives were unable to 
escape, both losing their lives: viz., Lucinda, wife of Henry Allen, and his 
sister, Dolly Allen. 

1828. August. — The cotton and woollen factory of Stephen R. and 
Parmenas P. Parkhurst, on the " Island," so called. 

1838. Feb. 28. —John Clafliu's hotel and store, on the site of the 
present " Mansion House." 

1842. Nov. 19. — Lyman P. Lowe's factory at Bungay, — still desolate. 

1853. Jan. 3, midnight. — John Mason's boot-shop, in which were con- 
sumed the Town Treasurer's principal books, etc., from 1780 to 1853. 

1854. April. — Seth P. Carpenter's steam mill, just before our Fire 
Department was organized. 

1856. Oct. 1. — A dwelling-house of Otis Parkhurst, in which his feeble 
daughter Adelaide perished. 

1857. Jan. 16. — Union Block, Tremont Block, two large dwelling- 
houses, a store, the building in which the post-office was then kept, and 
much other property, were destroyed, in spite of extraordinary exertions by 
the firemen. 

1857. March 29. — Steam mill of Cephas Lawrence, near depot. 

1860. April 28. — Steam saw-mill of John P. Lawrence, on the Plains. 

1860. Oct. 23. — Methodist meeting-house in North Purchase, by reck- 
less rowdies. 

1866. Nov. 1. — Pierce Brothers' nail and heel-plate factory, the freight 
depot of Boston and Worcester Railroad, etc. 



304 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

1868. April 2. — Gen. Orison Underwood's boot-shop. 

1871. Jan. 23. — Great fire on Main St., which destroyed valuable build- 
ings, owned by M. A. Blunt, N. W. Heath, and others, and also the lives 
of three females: Mrs. Sarah J. (Scott) Newton, a Mrs. Thurber, and a 
servant-girl, whose name I was never told, or have forgotten. (These 
three, with those before-mentioned, make nine lives lost by fire in our 
town during its corporate existence.) 

1873. July 6. — Benjamin H. Spaulding's straw-factory, store-house, 
and barn, as also A. B. Vant's boot-shop. 

1873. Nov. 18. — Gen. Orison Underwood's boot-manufactory, on Pearl 
Street. 

1878. July 9. — Coal-yard buildings of Barney & Sons, near depots. 

1878. Oct. 25. — The Comstock Factory, so called, with adjacent build- 
ings and property, valued at over forty thousand dollars, belonging to Green 
Brothers, and others, all in the neighborhood of the depots. This is our 
last heavy fire, down to the present writing; and it threatened destruction to 
very valuable properties, which were saved by the energy and skill of our 
firemen. 

1881. May 18. — Just after midnight, Capt. Elbridge Mann's large 
boot-manufactory, 229 Main Street, with valuable machinery, goods, and 
stock. Also, the old "9 o'clock schoolhouse" tenement, near by. 

I have passed over many fires by which dwelling-houses, barns, 
shops, etc., were consumed. Those of this nature which have 
occurred since 185-4 may be found specified on the records of the 
Fire Department. 



EARLIEST BURIALS OF OUR DEAD. 305 



CHAPTER XII. 

CEMETERIES, ROADS, STREETS, COMMONS, ETC. 

Burial of the Dead, and Cemeteries. — Earliest Burials at the Town-seat of Men- 
dou. — Tbe Old Precinct Burying-place is historically treated of in Chap. V. — 
No Town Action concerning Burials till 1792. —The South Milford Graveyard 
established by the Town, 1799. — About the Deed rirst taken, etc. — A Hearse 
and Hearse-house provided, 1805 —Addition to Burying-ground bought, 1809, 
and Tombs built. —Particulars of Interest relating to the Old Cemetery, the 
New One, Vernon Grove, South Milford, North Purchase. — Full History of all 
the Town Cemeteries —The Pine-Grove, Catholic, and Hopedale Cemeteries 
noticed. — Remarks on the Treatment, Present State, and Conjectural Future 
of our Old Burying-ground. 

Roads, Ways, Streets, Commons, etc. — History of our Oldest Roads and Principal 
Thoroughfares, from the First Settlement of our Territory, Mendon Layings- 
out, etc., down to the Present Time, in which the Old" Country Road," " Eight- 
rod Road," " Sherborn Road," etc., are fully treated of.— All our Streets named 
by the Town, 18b"3. — They are taken up in Alphabetical Order. — Their His- 
tory briefly given, with Descriptions of their Position, Length, Width, and Con- 
tents, including Public Grounds and our Railroads. — Final Summary of Extent 
in Miles and Number of Acres. 

BURIAL OF THE DEAD, AND CEMETERIES. 

THE earliest settlers on our territory naturally buried most of 
their dead in the oldest burying-ground, at Mendon town-seat. 
A few may have been carried to their native places in other towns, 
more or less distant. A still smaller number perhaps were consigned 
to resting-places on their own farms or in family enclosures. For 
the most part, burial in Mendon continued to be the general practice 
until the Second or Easterly Precinct was incorporated, Dec. 23, 1741. 
The number of sculptured stones in the old Mendon graveyard, that 
tell the names and ages of our forefathers buried there, is small in- 
deed. In those days, only here and there a noted personage, in our 
rural towns, attained to the honor of such sculptured memorials. 
Some little time after the Precinct was set off, burials commenced in 
our oldest cemetery, — to use the modern term for a burying-ground. 
The spot seems to have been selected in the south-easterly part of what 
now constitutes this ancient enclosure, and covered in Precinct days 
about three-fourths of an acre. The land belonged, in early Precinct 
times, to Amos Binncy, or to him and Thomas Bailey jointly ; being 



306 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

then a part of what became the Twitchell farm. There was some sort 
of tacit understanding between the Precinct and the then owner or 
owners of this estate, that the dead might be buried there ; but the 
Precinct was, for some reason, unable to obtain a deed of the ground. 
In 1748 Rev. Amariah Frost, who had received a legal power-of- 
attornej- from Binney and Bailey to sell their farm, sold the same to 
Ephraim Twitchell, jun., " excepting out of said lands three-quarters 
of an acre for a Burying-place, as shall be agreed upon most commo- 
dious therefor upon Nathaniel Morse line." This is all the title that 
has been found on record which the Precinct ever had to this spot of 
ground ; but their possession and use of it seems never to have been 
disputed. In 1780 it passed under the control of the Town. If the 
reader will turn back to Chap. V., he will find a full history of this 
old cemetery, from its inception till its control descended from the 
Precinct to the Town : I therefore now take up its thread under town 
administration. 

If I have followed the municipal records as accurately as I aimed 
to do, the Town took no public action concerning the burial of the 
dead till 1792. They then ordered a "grave-cloth" to be bought, 
and chose Ezekiel Jones sexton. Who officiated in this capacity 
before, or how burials were managed, is not told ; doubtless accord- 
ing to custom and the common consent. It was several years before 
sextons came to be annually chosen, or otherwise regularly appointed 
by the selectmen. 

April 2, 1798, the Town "Voted to buy the land of Mr. Ephraim 
Twitchell at the upper end of the Grave yard, and also a piece on the 
North side of the Grave Yard, as was Agreed on by the Committee 
for that purpose ; which was to give Mr. Twitchell Twent}' five shil- 
lings." (Records, vol. ii., p. 8.) I suppose this agreement went into 
effect for the enlargement of the graveyard, but I have found no deed 
from Twitchell to the Town conveying the land indicated. Nov. 18, 
1799, the Town "Voted to accept of the grave }'ard, laid out in the 
3d District by the school house, as a Town's grave yard, to ake care 
and fence the same, when there shall be a deed given to the town of 
the same." (Records, vol. ii., p. 37.) This original portion of the 
South Milford Cemetery was estimated to contain sixty-six rods of 
ground. It appears to have been a donation from Elijah Albee to 
the Town, the nominal consideration being only two dollars. The 
conveyance was made to Ichabod Thayer, Nathl. Parkhurst, James 
Perry, George Kelle}', and Jno. Corbett, the then selectmen, and 
their successors in office, "for the use and benefit of said Town for 
a Grave yard, or Burying ground, forever." It bears date Jan. 20, 



THE FIRST HEARSE AND TOMBS. 307 

1801, and was acknowledged before Saml. Jones, Esq., April 19, 
1813. It has never vet been recorded in Worcester. I found it in 
the town-clerk's office, among certain old files of papers, long stowed 
away. As it is not on record, I am the more particular to designate 
it, and will copy its description of the premises : — 

" Beginning at a Stake and stones at the Southwest Corner, thence Run- 
ning eastwardly seven Rods, bounding Southerly on Daniel Wedge's land, 
thence Running Northerly Ten Rods to a Stake and stones, thence Run- 
ning westerly eight Rods to the Road, the Two last lines bounding on the 
grantor's land, thence Running Eight Rods and a half on the Road to the 
first-mentioned bounds; Containing by estimation sixty six Rods, be the 
same more or less : Reserving four Rods where the school house now stands 
for the use of the District, which was heretofore deeded away, reference 
being had thereto." 

Thus the Town obtained the original portion of its second ceme- 
tery. The addition will be noticed in its place. Dea. Gideon Albee 
had previously erected a tomb thereon in companj* with one of his 
neighbors, and a few burials had been made. 

Sept. 2, 1805, the Town " Chose Col. Ichabod Thayer, Lt. Ephraim 
Chapin, and Lt. David Stearns, a Committee to purchase a Carriage 
for Carrying the Corps of the dead to the grave yard, and to build a 
house suitable to secure the same ; said Carriage to be a 4 Wheeled 
one ; raised 150 dollars for the above said purpose ; the building to 
cover the Carriage to be set in the northeast corner of the Grave 
yard." This was the town's first hearse and hearse-house. Our older 
citizens remember the establishment well. (Records, vol. ii., p. 146.) 
March 6, 1809, " Voted to accept the report of the Committee chosen 
to purchase burying ground ; which Report is to give Elijah Thayer 
after the rate of 100 dollars per acre for about half an acre of Land." 
(lb., vol. ii., p. 185.) Thayer had come into possession of the land 
formerly owned by Nathl. Morse, and later by Eleazer Wight ; and of 
this he conveyed a narrow strip running the whole length of the old 
graveyard on its southerly side, containing eighty-one rods. His deed 
bears date April 7, 1809, and is on record, B. 183, p. 485 ; consid- 
eration, $50,621. April 3, 1809, " Voted that Col. Ichabod Thayer, 
Col. Saml. Jones, Col. Benjamin Godfrey, Majr. Pearley Hunt, Capt. 
Nathaniel Parkhurst, Lt. David Stearns, Dea n Seth Nelson, and Capt. 
Levi Chapin, should have the Privilege to Build Tombs at the East 
End of the Grave Yard." The same privilege granted, the May en- 
suing, to Oliver Daniell and Nathan Parkhurst. (Records, vol. ii., 
pp. 187, 188.) This sombre array of nearly a dozen tombs, latterly 



308 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

demolished, at the south end of what is now School Street, presented 
a front not easily forgotten by our adult inhabitants. I find nothing 
more on this general subject except the annual choice of two sextons, 
which commenced in 1806, till May meeting, 1820. Then a commit- 
tee of three was chosen " to repair the Grave yards." In 183.3 the 
hearse-house was removed to another position. The same year the 
selectmen were ordered to see the graveyards cleaned up, the grave- 
stones righted, and necessar}* repairs made. In 1837 the proposition 
of Jared Rawson to set out seventy-five shade-trees around the old 
graveyard, at forty cents apiece, was accepted by the town. Mean- 
time the South Milford cemetery had been enlarged by the addition 
of half an acre at the north end, purchased of Joseph Albee for $10. 
Deed dated Sept. 10, 1836, and recorded with Worcester Deeds, B. 
319, p. 256. 

About this time a project for a new cemetery began to be agitated. 
It was repeatedly brought before the Town for consideration, and 
committees appointed to investigate the subject. At length, Nov. 13, 
1837, " Voted, that the Town purchase the whole of the land belong- 
ing to Samuel Oliver, as stated in a report of a committee chosen on 
the sixth day of March last, ' to procure a suitable piece of ground 
for a graveyard ; ' Provided he will convey to said Town all the 
privileges thereto belonging that were conveyed to him." It seems 
that Samuel Oliver, for three hundred and fifty dollars, conveyed the 
land desired to the Town, Nov. 13, 1837, and the same is on record 
with Worcester Deeds, B. 329, p. 507. The amount of land in this 
purchase appears from the deed to have been twelve acres and thirty- 
eight rods. April 2, 1838, " Voted, to choose a committee to consist 
of five, to prepare the piece of land recently purchased by the Town 
for a graveyard, for that purpose." "Chose Clark Ellis, Rufus 
Thayer, Arial Bragg, Samuel L. Scammell, and Isaac Brigham " 
(vol. iii., p. 240). The report of committee just named was 
accepted Nov. 19, 1838, and another committee of five chosen, 
consisting of the Selectmen, to dispose of the burial-lots, etc. 
April 1, 1839, " Voted, that the Selectmen act as a committee in 
selling all or any part of the land belonging to the Town, adjoining 
the new burying-ground, not included within said burying-ground." 
Perhaps I ought to have stated that the tract of land bought of 
Sam'l. Oliver lay southerly of Central St., and easterly of Bow St., 
including what is now owned by the Milford and Woonsocket Railroad 
Co. ; also what is occupied by the Cochran & Thayer boot manu- 
factory. Numerous burial-lots were soon sold in this new burying- 
ground, and the dead multiplied there. Proper access to it was 



CHANGES — OTHER NEW CEMETERIES. 309 

opened by the laying-out of necessar}' ways, and other conveniences. 
In 1846 the Town ordered a receiving-tomb to be built thereon, ad- 
jacent to Bow St. ; and various measures were consummated regulating 
the avenues and arrangement of lots. But there was so much dis- 
satisfaction in relation to this cemeten-, that, in the autumn of 1847, 
a scheme was started to change the location, procure a new tract for 
burial purposes, and remove the remains already deposited to some 
other resting-place. 

A long series of inquiries, discussions, and transitional steps, 
mostly in the form of town action, finally resulted in purchasing 
about twenty-one acres of Abel Albee, and establishing " Vernon- 
grove Cemeten'." But, before this was accomplished, a cemetery 
was provided for and opened in the North Purchase. This appears 
from the following vote, passed April 30, 1849: "Voted, that the 
Selectmen be authorized to draw sufficient money from the Town's 
Treasury to pay for a piece of land from Ellis Sumner, for a burying- 
ground, as recommended by a committee of said Town, on the twenty- 
ninth day of January last, and for fencing and making a road to the 
same." " Voted, that the Treasurer be authorized to take a deed of 
the land for the North Purchase burying-ground, so called " (vol. iv., 
p. 183). This cemetery is situated in what may be called the south 
central part of North Purchase, a short distance east of Purchase St., 
and contains about two acres. It was bought of Ellis Sumner for 
two hundred dollars, and conveyed to the Town by a deed known to 
have been executed, but never recorded, and now lost. 

The tract of land constituting Vernon-grove Cemetery, bought of 
Abel Albee, is situated about a mile south-eastwardly from the Town 
Common, a short distance east of Depot St., from which it has an 
ample ri^ht of way included in Albee's convevance. That convev- 
ance covers twenty-one acres and twenty-three square rods. It bears 
date May 2, 1859, and is recorded in B. 624, p. 355. The considera- 
tion was 81,080.23. It was not without considerable difficulty that 
the Town authorities got this cemetery laid out in proper condition 
for the burial of the dead, and that thej- made satisfactory arrange- 
ments for the removal of those who had been buried in the previously 
selected locality, so as to clear the ground there for other uses. But, 
in one way or another, the object was accomplished, and the receiving- 
tomb removed to the new cemetery. In due time, by-laws, rules, 
and regulations were adopted for its orderly management, under 
the general direction of trustees annually chosen for that purpose. 
Trustee reports began to be annually made to the Town in 1863, and 
printed along with its other official reports. It is hardly necessary for 



310 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

me to go into the details of these reports, or to tabulate their statis- 
tics. The}' give, from year to year, the number of burial-lots sold, 
the names of purchasers, and the account current of receipts and dis- 
bursements, so as to show its financial standing. The cemetery is 
handsomely laid out. Numerous lots have been taken up, orna- 
mented, and occupied. Many removals of the olden dead have been 
made from the ancient burying-ground to this new abode, and fresh 
burials are continually occurring. Its headstones and more stately 
monuments, including that of our fallen soldiers, exhibit to the 
beholder a very respectable array of mortuary taste and elegance, in 
accordance with the modern popular style. In 1877-78 an unhappy 
controversy arose among our citizens respecting the appropriation of 
funds to this cemetery, — one party claiming, under the by-laws 
enacted by the Town for its management, several thousand dollars as 
pledged to its improvement, against which the other party protested. 
The case went before the judiciary, and was finally decided in favor of 
the protesting party. This case appears among the judicial reports 
in Chap. XIV. 

Besides our four town cemeteries hereinbefore described, we have 
several of a more private nature. Pre-eminent among these, and 
over all others, is the " Pine-grove Cemetery." This is owned and 
sustained by a strong corporation of influential citizens belonging to 
this and some of the neighboring towns. The proprietors were 
incorporated in 1841, and hold their annual meeting in Ma}', when 
the}' choose a board of directors, treasurer, secretary, etc. Their 
cemetery is located on the west side of Cedar St., about two miles 
north-east of the Town Common, and covers a romantic tract of 
some twenty-eight acres, obtained in two several purchases. The 
first purchase of seventeen acres was soon enclosed, beautifully laid 
out, and artistically fitted for use. It abounds with admirable monu- 
ments, and exhibits a rich profusion of the various ornamentations 
wherewith the present generation delight to honor their dead. It has 
a house and garden-grounds for its superintendent, and is constantly 
cared for with tasteful assiduity. William P. Miller has long been its 
superintendent, and is deservedly esteemed for the acceptable manner 
in which he has discharged his official duties. The second purchase 
of eleven acres, lying west of the first, remains outside of the 
enclosure, in an unimproved state. 

The Catholics of St. Mary's Church have a large and numerously 
peopled cemetery, located also on Cedar St., on the easterly side, a 
short distance southerly of Pine Grove. It now contains about eight 
acres. Its first four acres were purchased by Rev. Geo. A. Hamilton, 



CONCLUSION ABOUT CEMETERIES. 311 

the first regular pastor, and opened for burials, probabh T , in 1850. 
Rev. Father Cuddihy has enlarged it under his pastorate to double its 
original size. It is respectably laid out and ornamented. Its head- 
stones and obelisks display the usual Catholic emblems, and proclaim 
to the passing observer what a host of these comparativelj - new-comers 
have already gone to their long home. Conspicuous therein is a 
monument erected by Father Cuddihy to the memory of his im- 
mediate pastoral predecessor, Rev. Edward Farrelly, who died here 
of consumption, Aug. 13, 1857. 

Hopedale, too, has its own humble cemetery, a little west of the 
village, just over the river, where the remains of a considerable 
number of its loved ones rest in peace. It was laid out in 1847, 
covers over two acres of ground, has a decent receiving-tomb, is in 
charge of the parish trustees, has a superintendent of burials, and 
presents a few unpretentious monuments, but can boast of little 
sepulchral display. All the cemeteries in town, public and pro- 
prietary, have good receiving- tombs and other desirable conveniences ; 
and the most ordinarj- of them are more or less advanced in the line 
of modern improvement. Town hearses and their accompaniments 
have been latterly superseded by those of professional undertakers, 
who perform burial operations in a more aesthetic st} - le. Indeed, 
funeral expenses have grown to dimensions which man}" sensible 
people seriously deprecate, though our vicinage has not yet reached 
the extravagance of metropolitan populations. 

Our oldest burying-place has of late j'ears received rather rough 
usage, especially its easterty portion. First, the whole front range 
of tombs were abandoned b}* their proprietors, their materials carried 
off by purchasers, and an unsightly opening made into the }'ard. 
Then, large numbers of remains were removed by famih - relatives and 
others to Vernon-grove Cemetery or elsewhere, and the ground left 
in a broken condition. Afterwards, with or without town permission, 
large quantities of earth were carted away for various purposes, in 
some cases paying too little respect to the bones and ashes of the 
dead. Afterwards a question was -aised whether a part of the 
ground, at least, did not belong to the Congregational parish, b}- 
right of inheritance from the ancient precinct. The Town, however, 
claimed the whole, and strenuousl} - contested all parish pretensions. 
The court finally decided the case in favor of the Town. (See Chap. 
XIV.) Should all the remains of the dead be removed, and the land 
become salable real estate, a valuable property will fall to the Town. 
And here I will close this section. 



312 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

ROADS, WAYS, STREETS, COMMONS, ETC. 

The first public road travelled by our earliest settlers constituted 
the southern boundary-line of what became the Easterly Precinct of 
Mendon. and ultimately Milford.' It was long designated in records, 
documents, and deeds as "the Country Road." It led from Men- 
don to Medfield, and is said to have followed, partly at least, the 
ancient Indian path mentioned in the original Indian deed of the 
eight miles square. Some part, if not the whole of it in Mendon 
territory, was laid out ten rods wide by the old plantation authorities. 
It started from the Rehoboth road, then so called, about a mile south 
of Mendon town, and came out by the now AVillis Gould place, to the 
Lewis B. Gaskill place, a little west of Mill River ; thence it ran cast- 
ward into Bellingham, Medway, etc. I mention this road on account 
of its use by our forefathers, and because, also, when Milford was 
incorporated she was bound to bear half the expense of keeping its 
bed and bridges in repair forever (in connection with so much of the 
old Mendon road across the Xeck to the then Sheffield's Mill at the 
now Lewis B. Gaskill place, as formed our boundary-line). It is a 
curious item in our history, that Milford escaped from its obligation 
to help keep this boundaiy-road in repair by the interposition of the 
"9th Massachusetts Turnpike Corporation," so entitled. That cor- 
poration got its grant Feb. 23, 1800, on condition that the turnpike 
should be finished in three years. This turnpike followed the bed of 
the boundary-road from Xeck Hill to Bellingham, with the exception 
of about seventy rods, more or less, at the south-west corner of our 
territory, which happened to be laid a little easterly of the old road- 
bed, and within our limits. In 1831 the turnpike corporation got sick 
of its property, and petitioned the "Worcester County Commissioners 
to lay out all their turnpike within the county as a public highway. 
Mendou opposed the petition in vain. The pike was laid out as a 
highway ; and there was no legal mode of renewing Milford's former 
obligation to pay half the expenses of keeping that part in repair 
which constituted its boundan', excepting the aforesaid seventj'-rod 
piece, which was of course left wholly on our hands. Thus Milford 
has been relieved of all burden in respect to this boundary-road (with 
the exception of the said seventy rods or thereabouts) for the last 
seventy-nine years : and as to the seventy-rod piece, the commis- 
sioners inadvertently omitted to give Milford the customary order ; 
and it is only within a year or two that the Town has paid an} - atten- 
tion to it in the wa} - of repairs. There is but little common travel 
over it, and occasional wood-carters are its principal users. Never- 



THE OLDEST ROADS. 313 

theless, I suppose it will have to remain open, and the Town must 
give it the necessaiy consideration. 

Next in order is the famous " Eis-ht-rod Road." I give this the 
next place because it was made a boundary-road at the incorporation 
of Milford, and the new town was bound to bear one-half the expense 
of repairing and maintaining it. B3- special mutual agreement, June 
29, 1780, the respective portions which the two towns should keep in 
order were specifically assigned. But the road was never of much 
use to the public. There were at no time on it more than two or 
three cheap dwellings, and some of these were inhabited only a few 
3-ears after our incorporation. The result was, Mendon at length dis- 
continued it as a town-road, and so of course Milford escaped all 
further burden on account of it. Why it was ever laid out, neither 
record nor tradition seems to afford much information. The Mendon 
record simply says, " A Highway Laid out by the Committee to laj- 
out the Sixth Division of Land, of Eight Rods Wide upon the Neck, 
lengthways of said Neck. Laid out April 4th, 1718." The tract of 
land covering the hill from "North Hill" towards Upton line, and 
extending southwardly almost to the " Old Country Road " near the 
Barak Penniman place, was called from very early times " the Neck." 
How it got this name, is not told ; probably from some fancy of the 
first surveyors. It appears to have been laid out by a committee 
of the old proprietors, and to have been adopted by the Town. Its 
southern terminus was "the Highway leading across said Neck from 
Muddy Brook to Wheelock's Mill," the present Lewis Gaskill place. 
So it forms our extreme south-west corner. Its northern terminus is 
thus defined : " Northward up to the North Hill, on the high land of 
the Neck, and so across the North Hill, home to Marlborough Road." 
Nearly its whole length was then and is now woodland or pasture. 
It is not unlikely that the proprietor's committee who laid it out 
believed it would attract settlers, and enhance the value of common 
lands near it. I can imagine no other motive. Our incorporation 
act speaks of it as then " reduced to Four Rods " wide. If so, Men- 
don just then reduced it ; as the preliminary agreement was to run 
the line in the " middle of the Eight-rod Road." It may be assumed, 
therefore, that from and after Milford was set off, Mendon regarded 
the road as onh' a four-rod one : however, the old designation, " Eight- 
rod Road " ma} - have still continued. 

Next in importance is the " Sherborn Road," now our Main St., 
extending from Mendon line to that of Holliston. Sherborn origi- 
nally* included Holliston. It was the old neighbor of Mendon in 
that direction, and in some respects a rival. A road thither was an 



314 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

early necessity, but it was some time in getting legalized. The first 
layings-out of land all along its general route provided for it by spe- 
cific reservations, or allowances, of a strip three or four rods in width. 
For several years it must have been a rough and rather crooked cart- 
path, — say from 1703 or 1705 to 1720. Although it was recognized 
in various documents as "• Sherborn Road," and although Mendon 
laid out several roads within our limits previous to am* recorded 
action on this, it must be regarded as in fact our oldest thoroughfare. 
It was not till 1739, according to Mendon records, that her select- 
men formally laid out this road. This now seems very strange, and 
even then its track was vaguely defined. Here follows the record : — 

A ROAD FROM MENDON TO HOLLISTON BY POST'S. 

" Mendon, September 24th, 1739. The Selectmen then met, and stated 
a Highway Leading from Mendon to Holliston. Beginning at the Ten Rod 
way that leads through Mendon, between Capt. Seth Chapin's and Capt. 
William Rawson's land [known in our time as the Doggett place and Silas 
Dudley's], down to John Post's; thence, where the path was formerly drawn, 
to John Thwing's, said road being four rods wide; thenre to the Bridge, 
bounded southerly with heaps of stones; thence, as the path is now, to the 
northeast corner of Seth Chapin's wall [presumed to be Seth Jr.'s], said 
road being two rods wide; thence, as the path is now drawn, to a heap of 
stones rising the Hill, in Thomas Gage's fence; thence to a heap of stones 
by a Stump in said Gage's enclosure; thence to a heap of stones, leading 
into said way; theuce, as the path is now drawn, to Holliston Line; said 
road being three rods wide. Laid out by William Torrey, John French, 
Jacob Aldrich, Selectmen." 

This makes rather an obscure thing of the " Sherborn Road," con- 
sidering that it was only about two years before the incorporation of 
"the Easterly Precinct." One would be tempted to think that the 
selectmen of Mendon must have recognized this road at some earlier 
period, whereof no record was made, or, if made, had been lost. 
Nevertheless, we must accept what was done as the existing record 
stands. The general line of the road remaiued quite unchanged till 
after the year 1800, though occasional. slight straightenings had been 
made. In 1800 the era of turnpikes and county roads seems to have 
been inaugurated in Massachusetts, as in some other portions of the 
countr}'. It was a favorite scheme with enterprising citizens on the 
line from Boston through Dedham, Medfield, Mendon, Uxbridge, etc., 
out into Connecticut, to open a good turnpike, or connection of turn- 
pikes, through to Hartford. That scheme soon went into practical 
effect. Meantime, the citizens in the next tier of towns north, from 
Brighton, through Holliston and Milford, to Mendon, were shrewd 



SHERBORN ROAD IMPROVEMENTS. 315 

and ambitious enough to increase the travel over that route. Turn- 
pikes were not to their taste, and they resorted to county action. 
The then county courts of Middlesex and Worcester, having authority 
in road matters, willingly lent their sanction to the project of widen- 
ing, straightening, and improving this more northerly route of roads. 
Our '* Sherborn Road" was of course included: then it became a 
county road. In 1802 it was laid out anew. Post Lane was aban- 
doned, from its starting-point in Mendon down to the residence of 
Capt. Gershom Nelson, which stood where our generation have been 
accustomed to recognize its successor as the "Amos Cook house." 
From that point to Mendon the road was laid out as at present run- 
ning. Eastward from Hopedale Corner the road was not so much 
changed ; yet it was wisely straightened in many places, being, in 
almost every instance of change, laid more to the north-westward. 
From the Sylvanus Adams place to the Obed Daniels place, it origi- 
nally wound crookedly along the higher ground, often more than its 
present width ; so from the Dexter "Walker place to the Major Chapin 
place it was greatly straightened, now running at some points several 
rods westerly of its former bed. Through the centre and most of the 
way to the old Gibbs cellar- hole (famous for its Balm of Gilead trees) , 
the changes were comparatively slight ; thence, north-easterly for half 
a mile, it was much varied, straightened, and improved. Beyond 
this point to Holliston line judicious alterations were made ; thence 
eastward, through its whole course, corresponding improvements suc- 
ceeded. The expense of these improvements, so far as Milford was 
concerned, was defrayed partly by voluntary subscription, but mainly 
hy taxation, and does not appear to have been seriously burdensome. 
They were mosth* or quite completed before the close of 1803, nearly 
at the same time with the turnpike from Medway to Mendon. The 
loudest complainant of grievance in the whole affair is said to have 
been Col. Samuel Nelson. He protested vehemently against having 
his farm sliced up as it was by switching the road off from "Post 
Lane." But the Town paid pretty fair damages, and, as soon as the 
road was passable, discontinued "Post Lane," giving that part of 
its bed to Samuel anu his father which ran through their premises ; 
and they seem to have done virtually the same by all the other citi- 
zens whose lands adjoined the discontinued pieces of the old road. 
Thus good humor was promoted all along the line. This Main St., 
as we now call it, has received various widenings, straighteuings, and 
rejuvenations from time to time since 1803, but none of fundamental 
importance enough to deserve special notice. 

In 1718 the selectmen of Mendon laid out a road from a point 



316 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

below the Lowell Fales place, near land then belonging to Jacob 
Aldrich, on " Mill Plain," so called, " by Benjamin Albee's house," 
which stood on the south side of the way opposite to the Jesse How- 
ard place, thence running north-eastwardly by the Corbett place, now 
occupied by Charles Knights, over into " Second Plain," then so 
called, across the river at "White's Bridge," to Bellingham line. 
This now bears the name Mellen St. It was probably designed origi- 
nallv to facilitate communication between the neighborhood westward 
and south-westward of the Albee "Corn-Mill," now Lewis Gaskill's 
place, and the "Great Meadow," lying north-eastwardly of Bear 
Hill, on the frontier of Sherborn ; for at that time meadow-land 
was highly valuable, and the " Great Meadow " shared b}' numerous 
proprietors. There was a rude way to it leading from the Dr. John 
Corbett place, later Dr. Scammell's, east of Bear Hill, out to the 
"Sherborn Road." This Mellen St. road entered the Dr. Corbett 
way a short distance beyond White's Bridge, and saved much travel. 

In 1721 a highway three rods wide was laid from the western 
terminus of the above Mellen St. road, just below the Lowell Fales 
place, northwardly through Howardtown, sometimes so called, and 
thence north-westerly to the "Sherborn Road," near the Dexter 
Walker place. The hither portion is thus described in the record : 
" Said way is marked by a Line of marked trees and heaps of stones 
on the easterly side of said way, home to the road, or way, that leads 
from Town towards Sherborn, near the Sumners ; a heap of stones 
being the Bounds where said way comes into Sherborn Road ; said 
way being laid out through land where there was allowance for 
a wa\ - , excepting cross a corner William Chainey's land next to 
Sherborn Road." The most southerly part of this highwa}* is now 
a portion of Plain St. ; the middle section belongs to South Main 
St. ; from South Main St. to Greene it is called Cortland St. ; and 
from thence to Main St., b}* Obed Daniels's place, it bears the name 
of Elm St. The reader will notice, (1) that the record quoted recog- 
nizes the "Sherborn Road" as existing in 1721, — eighteen years 
before it was formally laid out in 1739 ; (2) that it locates the origi- 
nal residence of the Sumners, Ebenezer and Joseph, elsewhere de- 
scribed ; and (3) that it indicates a north-easteny corner of William 
Cheney'3 farm, also elsewhere described. I allude to these points 
because they explain and confirm other interesting facts treated of in 
this volume. 

In 1723, "Laid out a way of two rods wide," beginning " near the 
House of Thomas White, Jr.," [known in our time as the Ezekiel 
White alias Dr. Clark place], thence to "Mill River, a little below 



SEVERAL OLD ROADS. 317 

Sergt. Thomas White's Corn-Mill," and thence over the river three 
rods wide " to the Eight Rod way on the Neck." All but a fraction 
of this way, lying easterly of Ransom J. Clark's, on Greene St., was 
discontinued, and sold out to bordering owners in 1791. Iu 172:] the 
road was renewedby laid which now includes Plain St. from Mendon 
line to Mellen St., all Mellen and nearly all Beaver St. The route 
is thus described: " Through the Mill Plain by Obadiah Wheelock's 
House [supposed to have stood over one of the lilac cellar-holes] ; 
so continuing said way [two rods wide] by the House of Benjamin 
Albee, Jr., over Second Plain into the corner of John Rockwood's 
fence [who is understood to have owned the widow Pond place] ; 
thence said Road to be three rods wide, and to run through Second 
Bridge River ; so continuing by the land of Benjamin Thayer to a 
AValnut stand marked on the southeasterly side of said wa\- ; thence 
by marked Trees on the same side said way, near as the Road is now 
drawn, unto a Black Oak Tree marked, said Tree standing in the 
fence of Jonathan Hay ward, near the Great Meadow." So here we 
have over again the way to the famous " Great Meadow," of which 
the Mellen St. road, herein before described, was a part. The old 
way, now called Beaver St., was a long-travelled cart-path before 
being legally laid out, having been opened as early as 1703, or per- 
haps still earlier ; though the date is somewhat doubtful. 

In 1731 a road was laid from John Chapin's (the Ezekiel White, 
now the wid. Sarah Clark, place) southerly across the plain to John 
Green's land, and near his house, a little eastward from the Spindleville 
Machine-Shop. This road was superseded, in 1773, by that part of 
Greene St. lying between Ransom J. Clark's and said machine-shop. 
Of course the former road was discontinued. It might gratify the 
curiosity of a few readers, but would be tedious to the majority, to 
follow out in detail this history of the old roads, drift-ways, and bridle- 
paths which were laid out before Milford was set off from Mendon. 
I have estimated them at about fifty in number. Several are referred 
to in ancient documents, of which I find no record as ever formally 
laid out, but onhy recognized as travelled ways. Most of these have 
been discontinued, either b}' Town action or silent common consent. 
Such are now hardly traceable, and some of them utterly obliterated. 
I shall therefore content mj-self with noticing particularly only three 
or four highwa}-s which may be included among our thoroughfares. 
Two of these afford us good communication with Hopkinton, one 
with Upton, one with Mendon, Bellingham, etc., and one with Med- 
way. The railroads will, of course, receive attention in their place. 

The North Purchase road — the main portion of which is now 



318 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

called Purchase St. — was mostly provided for by reservations in the 
old la}ings-out, and in deeds, or b}' cutting through common lands. 
The first settlers drew the original path accordingly. In 1731 the 
selectmen of Mendon — Daniel Lovett and Seth Chapin — began 
at Hopkinton line, in land then belonging to William Brewer of 
Weston, but afterwards purchased by Josiah and Peter Ball, and laid, 
as the record reads, "a Highwa\- of three rods wide, Beginning at 
the west corner of William Brewer's land ; then bounded easterlj* on 
said Land, then on Common Land, from said Brewer's south corner 
to the North Corner of Nathanh I Jones' Land [known in later times 
as the Esq. Saml. Jones place] ; thence to a heap of stones, by said 
Jones' fence East from his House ; thence parti}- through Common 
Land, and part through said Jones' land ; said Road being bounded 
by marked Trees and heaps of stones on the west side of said road 
through said Lands abovesaid ; and through William Hayward's to 
Richard Gardner's Land." At that time Richard Gardner owned 
all the land that afterwards came into possession of Isaac and Jonas 
Parkhurst, — the first Milford Parkhursts, — all the way from above 
the widow Jemima place to Main St., in the centre. In 1736 Daniel 
Lovett. Seth Chapin, jun., and William Torrey, selectmen of Mendon, 
laid out a highwa\* of three rods wide through Jonas and Isaac Park- 
hurst's land, beginning at the point where the section laid five years 
before stopped. They followed the path as opened southerly down 
to John Peck's, about twenty rods south of Isaac Parkhurst's house, 
and there halted again. Nearly twelve years later, in 1748, Nathaniel 
Nelson, George Bruce, and John Chapin, selectmen for that } - ear, 
completed the legal lay-out down to what is now School St., to 
Nathaniel Morse's, — known in later times as the Abner Wight and 
Dr. G. D. Peck place. After Milford became a town, this road was 
much straightened, and improved from time to time. In 184-4 the 
county commissioners ordered widenings, straightenings, and a thor- 
ough reconstruction, all the way through, a distance of three miles 
and sixty-nine rods ; which cost the Town, for damages and con- 
struction, $2,526.51. 

The road towards Hayden Row, a much-travelled avrnue to Hop- 
kinton Centre, now called Cedar St., started thus : — 

" Mendon, March 4th, 1742-3. The Selectmen met and laid out a Two 
Rod way, Beginning at Jonathan Whitney's, on the East side of the North 
Cedar Swamp, in said Town " [Jona. Whitney was the grandfather of Major 
Hackaliah, and gt. gd. father of Jesse, whose widow and daughter now 
dwell in the brick house on the Plain. He was a large landholder in the 
easterly and north-easterly neighborhood of the Cedar Swamp. The record 



CEDAR, WEST, AND SOUTH MAIN STREETS. 319 

proceeds], "said Road, Leading through the Land of Thomas Gage [who 
owned the land on the south-easterly verge of the swamp], with a Line of 
marked Trees on the easterly side of said way; said Gage giving the land 
which said Road takes up, through his land, about eighty rods. Thence 
through Common Land to land of Thomas Tenney [who then owned the 
Noah Wiswall place] ; then through Land of said Thomas Tenney, about one 
hundred an<l three Rods, till it comes to land of John Kilburn [gd. father 
of Stephen, and gt. gd. fr. of Otis, both deed.]; then through the lands of 
said Tenney and Kilburn, a rod in width on each, where a Lane is now 
drawn between them, till it comes to the Country Road Leading to Hollis- 
ton; the said Road being about Seventy Rods in Length between said parties, 
and having marked Trees on the East side. Daniel Lovett, Saml. Thayer, 
Nathan Penniman, Uriah Thayer, Selectmen." 

In 1797 the selectmen of Milford laid that part of this road which 
extended from the then Holliston line by Lieut. Jesse Whitney's 
house (the one we have known with the old stone chimne}*), following 
the trodden path southward to where the first-mentioned laying-out 
started, supposed to be near Jonathan Whitney's first abode, just east 
of Pine-grove Cemetery. This addition was accepted, with some 
reluctance, in 1798. Many improvements have been made on this 
road from time to time, the most important of them in 1848 and 
1853, all which cost the Town nearly three thousand dollars. In 
1859 an alteration of the Holliston line added considerably to the 
length of this road towards Ha}deu Row. Hopkinton having much 
improved their portion of this thoroughfare, it is now a ver}- credit- 
able one to both towns, and much travelled. 

The principal road between Milford and Upton Centres, though 
man\' times rectified and improved at different periods, was very 
unsatisfactorj* down to 1834, when the county commissioners new 
laid it, and mostly over new ground, greatly straightening its course, 
shortening the distance, and rendering it a respectable highway. Our 
part of it was nearly two and three-fourths miles in length, and cost 
a little short of eighteen hundred dollars. It is now called West St. 

Our communication with the easterly parts of Mendon, with Bel- 
lingham, and thence with the easterly part of Blackstone, Woonsocket, 
R.I., etc., is through So. Milford. There our roads strike the old 
"Country Road," alias the later turnpike, which, as has been told, 
forms our southern boundary. What now bears the name of South 
Main St., and its accessories, afford great conveniences of travel to 
and from central and So. Milford, in the directions above indicated. 
Previous to 1830 the old roads were crooked, narrow, and ill-graded. 
But during that year, in pursuance of orders from the county com- 



320 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

missioners, South Main St. was constructed and opened. It started 
from Main St., near the Godfrey estate, passed through the Nathan 
Wood place, and struck the old road at the easterly terminus of what 
is now called Cortland St. Thence it followed the travelled way to 
the present junction of Plain St., whence it took new ground in a 
direct course through the Wedge lands to the old road again, opposite 
Elijah Warfield's, and thence to the Penniman store. The distance 
was about two miles and a-half, the ground comparativeh - level, and 
the materials of easy command. The straightening, widening, and 
grading altogether presented a very great improvement on the old 
route ; and the cost of construction was but about four hundred 
dollars, — a profitable expenditure. Probably all the incidentals did 
not raise the total above five hundred dollars. I call Plain St. one of 
South Main's accessories. It commences beyond the old Eli Bowker 
place, passes So. Milford schoolhouse, and reaches the " Old Country 
Road " at what was long known as the Nathan Allen place. It is an 
ancient highwa} - , as we have already seen, has been improved con- 
siderably of late years, and accommodates much travel between 
Milford, Woonsocket, and the intervening region. Depot St. is 
another important accessory of South Main. It extends from Central 
St., below the depots, and passes southerly, by Vernon-grove Ceme- 
tery, out into South Main St., a little south of Wood St. It was 
laid out and built in I860. It has a fair width, a level grade, and 
takes much travel to and from the immediate vicinit}' of the depots in 
connection with South Main St. 

Our principal highwa}- to Medwaj* is called Medway St. It was 
located by the county commissioners, and built by the Town in 1835. 
Dominic McDevitt contracted to construct the whole of it, from Main 
St., between the then residences of Christopher C. Daniell and Zeba- 
diah Flagg, one mile one hundred and seven rods and fifteen links, 
to Medway line, for ninety-four cents per rod, or a total of about 
$401.50. It traverses a mainby level surface, crosses a cove of the 
famous " Great Meadow," and reaches the ancient Sherborn boundary 
a little beyond Thomas W. Woods's place, formerly Hiram Kilburn's. 
The territory along this border was inherited b}- Holliston from the 
mother town of Sherborn, and was retained till March 3, 1829, when 
the Gen. Court set it off to Medway, under an arrangement for 
rectifying town-lines. Thus Medway became our neighbor where 
Holliston had been aforetime, and she met this new avenue from our 
centre with one of corresponding excellence. Previousby to 1835 our 
communication with West Medway was over a zigzag and poor road. 
Now we need no better one. 



ALL OUR STREETS NAMED BY THE TOWN. 321 

March 31, 1862, the Town "Voted that a committee of eight be 
chosen to give proper names to all the streets in town ; when Charles 
Leland, George Jones, Obed Daniels, James H. Barker, Leonard J. 
Wilson, Lloyd H. Cook, Lewis Fales, and Leonard Hunt were chosen 
for said committee " (vol. v. p. 26). This committee reported names 
for all the streets then existing, March 2, 1863 ; and their report was 
accepted by the Town. 

I will now notice our streets in their alphabetical order, as exist- 
ing at the present date ; giving briefly such descriptions, historical 
facts, and statistical particulars as seem necessary. In so doing, I 
must premise that there may be some slight inaccuracies in my figures 
relating to length, width, and contents of certain roads, owing to 
imperfect data as well as to incidental mistakes ; but I believe the 
whole to be substantially and sufficiently correct, as I had the careful 
assistance of our Town-clerk. 

Adin St., from Main, next south of Prospect, to Hopedale, near the 
church ; laid out and accepted, 1867 ; slightly varied, 1877 ; named 
after mj-self; 164 rods and 14 feet long, 3 rods wide; contents, 3 
acres, 14 rods, aud 44 feet. 

Asylum St., from West, northerly by the Town Asylum, out to the 
ancient Moses Chapin place ; a very old way, whose first opening I 
have not ascertained ; the larger southerly portion a part of the old 
road to Upton; the northerly part laid out 20 feet wide, 1797; the 
whole subsequently widened and improved at various times ; named 
with reference to the Town As}~lum ; supposed, from imperfect data, 
to be 390 rods long and 2 rods wide ; contents, 4 acres 140 rods. 

Asj'lum St. (new), from West, opposite Hazel, to Town Asylum; 
named with reference to the Asylum ; accepted, 1867 ; 74^- rods long 
and 2| wide ; contents, 1 acre 26 rods. 

Beach St., from Main, just east of Charles-river Bridge, south- 
easterly, crossing B. & A. Branch R. Rd., to Central ; laid, accepted, 
and amended in parts at three several times, viz., 1841, 1850, and 
1851 ; 125 rods 15 links long, 2£ plus wide ; contents, 2 acres 6 rods. 
Beaver St., from Main, alias East Main, southerl}*, passing Brook, 
crossing R. Rd., passing Ferguson, crossing Medway, passing Birch, 
Maple, Mt. Pleasant, and Maple again, to Bellingham line, towards 
the upper end of the factory pond ; one of our very oldest travelled 
ways, at least its largest portion, — already treated of; originally laid 
3 rods wide ; variousiy straightened and improved from time to time ; 
named from its having had several ancient beaver-ponds in its vicin- 
ity ; supposed, from imperfect data, to be not far from 800 rods long, 
and, though I doubt its average width, to be about 2| rods wide; 
contents, 12 acres 80 rods. 



322 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Birch St., from E. Main to Beaver; the north-westerly end laid 
out, 1809; the south-westerly end, 1811; the main central portion, 
1833 ; north-westerly end discontinued, 1848, but soon re-opened ; the 
whole street estimated to be 270 rods long and 2^ wide ; contents, 
4 acres 35 rods. 

Bragg St., from E. Main to Holliston line ; of brief extent ; named 
from its near adjacenc}' to the Bragg families ; perhaps 12 to 15 rods 
long, — call it 15 rods and 3 wide ; contents, 45 rods. 

Branch St., from Purchase, in the ancient Ball neighborhood, east- 
ward, 17 rods 16 links long, and 2 wide; accepted, 1859; contents, 
35£ rods. 

Brook St., from E. Main to Beaver, across a small brook, a little 
east of the old Wiswall place; supposed, from imperfect data, to be 
35 rods long and 2 wide ; contents, 70 rods. 

Camp St., from Purchase, next north above Haven, westward, 
crossing Reservoir to Upton line at Mill River; an old road, first 
laid out b}* the selectmen of Mendon to Reservoir St., or thereabouts, 
2 rods wide, 1754, also 1759 ; and the westerly portion thereof by the 
same authority, H rod in width, 1764; probabl}' wholly or partly a 
proprietor's pathway, long prior; said westerly portion relaid, 2 rods 
wide, 1813, and the easterly portion improved thenceforth from time 
to time ; the whole being about 450 rods long and 2 wide ; contents, 
2 acres 130 rods. 

Carroll St., from Hayward, easterly, to Carroll's farm; accepted, 
1869 ; 73 rods long and 2£ wide ; contents, 1 acre 22 rods. 

Cedar St., from E. Main to Hopkinton line, the road towards Hay- 
den Row, already treated of in historic detail ; not far from 920 rods 
long and 3 wide ; probably named with reference to the cedar swamp 
and pond near which it passes ; contents, 17 acres 40 rods. 

Cemetery St., from Claflin to Milford and Woonsocket R. Rd. ; 
laid out and accepted, 1867 ; so called from proximity to the new 
cemetery (as it then was) ; 28£ rods long, 2 wide ; contents, about 
57 rods. 

Centre St., in Hopedale Village, from Hopedale St. to Dutcher ; on 
the recorded plan of Hopedale site designated as Union St. ; ac- 
cepted, 1872 ; 20 rods long, 2 wide ; contents, 40 rods. 

Central St., from Main, across Bow, by the R. Rd. depots, Depot 
St., Front, Beach, and East, over Bear Hill, to Mt. Pleasant; laid, 
accepted, and partially altered at several different times, viz., 1850, 
in connection with Beach St., 2\ rods wide, by the R. Rd. depots, 
to "the graveyard road," then so called, now Bow St. ; 1852, from 
Main to Bow, same width; also, 1852, extended over Bear Hill; 



NAMES AND DESCRIPTION OF STREETS. 323 

and later, much improved by sundry widenings and demarcations, 
particularly in 1863 ; being now 294 rods 16 links long and 3 rods 
wide ; contents, 5 acres and 84 rods, nearly. 

Chapel St., from Hopedale to Dutcher ; so named from being next 
south of the first Hopedale Chapel ; accepted, 1872 ; 20 rods long 
and 2 wide ; contents, 40 rods. 

Chapin St., from Main to South Main, near Leonard, named prob- 
ably from its crossing land inherited by a descendant of Major Levi 
Chapin ; accepted, 1871 ; 46 rods long and 2 wide ; contents, 92 
rods. 

Cheney St., from Cedar to Deer; on the ancient "Wales Cheney 
(later Alexander Cheney) place, whence its name ; accepted some 
time between 1848 and 1853 ; 45 rods long and 2 wide ; contents, 92 
rods. 

Cherry St., from 27 West to High ; accepted, 1873 ; 41 plus rods 
long and 30 feet wide ; contents, 75 rods. 

Chestnut St., from Franklin, passing Orchard Lane, to a private 
way ; accepted, 1863 ; 67 rods 17 links long and 35 feet wide ; con- 
tents, 143^ rods, nearly. 

Claflin St., from South Bow, passing Cemetery and Prospect Ave- 
nue, to Forest ; named after the former proprietor of the land crossed, 
John Claflin, Esq. ; accepted, 1867 ; 89 rods long and 2 rods wide ; 
contents, 1 acre 18 rods. 

Congress St., from South Main, passing Parish Common, Park, 
Exchange, West, Fayette, Pine, and Spruce, crossing "Walnut and 
Fountain, passing Vine, to Silver Hill St., near Reservoir; mainly 
an old way, first travelled b}- early settlers along its general course ; 
the southerl}- portion laid out, 1744, by Mendon authorities ; another 
portion by the same authorities in 1745 ; straightened, widened, and 
improved at various times since Milford became a town, and finally 
completed, in its present state, between 1862 and 1872 ; about 700 
rods long, averaging 2£ wide ; contents, 10 acres 150 rods. 

Cortland St., from South Main, near the ancient Ha}-ward first 
settlement, later the Isaac Davenport place, out north-westerly to 
Greene St., near the first Joseph Sumner place, later Phinehas Eames 
place, and since occupied by James Batchelder ; a piece of one of 
our oldest roads ; originally laid out by Mendon selectmen, 1721 ; 
long our most prominent road towards Providence, R.I. ; never much 
altered or improved ; little travelled now, and a good specimen of 
our old-time roads throughout the town ; about 160 rods long, laid 3 
wide, but cannot be more than 2£ ; contents, 2 acres 41 rods, by 
estimation from imperfect data. 



324 HI STORY OF MILFORD. 

Count}' Road, from West to Fisk's Mills ; laid out by count}' com- 
missioners, 1873 ; length within our limits, 335 rods and 3 wide ; con- 
tents, 6 acres 45 rods. 

Court St. , from Main to Spring, slicing off from Town Common a 
piece at the west end 12 rods long and 42 feet wide, then extending 
southerly 24 rods 3£ links, with a width of 24 feet ; whole length, 36 
rods 3£ links ; contents, 65 rods. 

Cross St., from West to Lawrence; accepted, July 16, 1855; 80 
rods 15 links long and 2 rods wide; contents, 1 acre 1 rod plus. 
This street has since been called Quinlan. 

Deer St., from Cedar, passing Cheney, across Charles River, to a 
point inland where a house once stood, owned by Alexander Cheney 
in his da}', but latterly burnt ; date of acceptance difficult to ascer- 
tain ; length, from imperfect data, estimated at 200 rods, width 2 ; 
contents, 2 acres 80 rods. 

Depot St., from Central, near the R. Rd. depots, passing Forest 
and Vernon, to South Main, a little south of Wood ; first laid in 
1850; relaid, with some alteration, 1851 ; and its bounds more ex- 
actly defined, 1863 ; named with reference to its connection with the 
R. Rd. depots; 250 rods 8£ links long, and 3 rods wide; contents, 
4 acres 111 rods. 

Dilla St., from Purchase next north of Fountain, across Charles 
River, to Cedar, just north of Pine-grove Cemetery ; accepted, after 
considerable procrastination, 1838 ; named in memory of Miss Dilla 
Twitchell, a somewhat eccentric maiden lady, who formerly dwelt in a 
house on its route, remarkable as long the affectionate foster-mother 
of numerous cats, for whom she tenderly cared till her decease in 
1830 ; 307 rods 1 link long, and 2£ rods wide ; contents, 4 acres 108 
rods, nearly. 

Dominic St., from Middleton to Reade ; accepted, 1876; named 
with respectful reference to Dominic MoDevitt, an enterprising and 
venerable Irish-American citizen of the vicinity ; 20 rods 1\ links 
long, 30 feet wide ; contents, nearly 37 rods. 

Draper St., from Hopedale to Dutcher, just north of Community 
Square, on which the church stands; accepted, 1872; named with 
respectful reference to George Draper, one of its immediately adja- 
cent residents; 15 rods 7 links long, and 3 rods wide; contents, 
about 46 rods. 

Dutcher St., from Adin to Freedom ; accepted, 1872; named with 
respectful reference to Warren W. Dutcher, whose residence graces 
its southern extremity; 124 rods 2£ links long; 17 rods 17£ links 
at the end near the church is 3 rods wide, and the other portion 2 ; 
contents, 1 acre 106 rods. 



NAMES AND DESCRIPTION OF STREETS. 325 

East St., from Beach, crossing Central, south to Mathewson's farm ; 
accepted in part, 1861, and the other part. 1870; the part north of 
Central (not found) wide, the part south 2i rods; contents, 2 acres 
18 rods. 

East "Walnut St., from Hay ward, easterly, near Mt. Pleasant; ac- 
cepted, I860; 60 rods long, and 2 wide ; contents, 120 rods. 

Eben St., from Purchase, near Tyler; an ancient way, laid out bj' 
Mendon selectmen, 1731, when John Jones, jun., lived on the Eben- 
ezer Sumner place, and then called "a three-rod highway;" it is 
now about 100 rods long, and probably not more than 2 wide ; con- 
tents, as estimated from imperfect data, 1 acre 40 rods. Its name 
must have been given, partly at least, in memory of the two Ebenr. 
Sumners (father and son), who formerly dwelt at its north-easterly 
terminus. 

Elm St., from Main, opposite Prospect, to Greene, opposite Cort- 
land ; originally a part of the same ancient Providence road with 
Cortland, laid by Mendon selectmen, 1721. In 1757 it was found 
that Joshua Chapin, who then resided where Obed Daniels now does, 
had built his house, by mistake, on the bed of the road ; wherefore 
the road was bent northward opposite his house, aud he made it pass- 
able at his own expense. In 1767 Dr. William Jennison refitted the 
house, and opened it as a tavern. The road was originally laid 3 
rods wide, but I shall guess it now to be 2i, and about 68 rods long ; 
contents, 1 acre 10 rods. 

Emmons St., from Walnut, northerly, to Fountain ; accepted, 1873 ; 
70 rods 5 links long, and 2£ wide ; contents, 1 acre 16 rods. 

Exchange St., from Main, opposite Central, passing Fayette, to 
Congress, opposite West ; first laid, 1834 ; relaid, with slight vari- 
ations, the same year ; and finally relaid, with other slight variations, 
and accepted, 1854 ; named from "William A. Hayward's building on 
its north-east corner, called " the Exchange ; " 33 rods 12 links long, 
and 2i wide ; contents, 83^ rods. 

Ferguson St., from Beaver, near Medway St., to Med way line ; an 
old piece of road, whose date I have not ascertained, being a part 
of the former crooked way towards Medway ; discontinued, 1849 ; 
relaid, 1868, with-additional width ; land-damages to be paid when 
the widening should actually be made (a yet future event) ; 67 rods 
11 feet long, and 2 rods wide ; contents, 135 rods. 

Forest Street, from Depot to Grove ; accepted, 1860 ; named as 
originally called when formerly laid out for building-lots by the then 
land-owner, the tract through which it passed being in its forest 
state ; 63 rods 2 links long, and 2£ rods wide ; contents, about 158 
rods. 



326 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Fountain St., from Purchase, next south of Dilla. south-westwardly, 
across Congress, to near the ancient Ebenezer Cheney place, later the 
home of Ichabod, Elijah, and Artemas Thayer, and now known as the 
Justin E. Eames place ; laid out east of Congress St. first in 1833, 
but not actually built till 1849 ; from Congress St. to Eames's laid 
and accepted, 185-4 ; named at the request of Mr. Eames, with refer- 
ence to a natural spring or fountain of water on his farm, near its 
terminus; whole length, 121 rods; width, 2£ rods ; contents, 1 acre 
1221 r ods. 

Franklin St., from 174 Main, opposite Parish Common, passing 
Chestnut, to Grove ; accepted, 1863 ; 49 rods 15 links long, width 
varying from 33 feet to 27 ; contents, about 96 rods. 

Freedom St., from West, passing Dutcher and Hopedale, over Mill 
River, to Mendon line ; in part a ver}* old road, and in part new ; 
having, as the matter now stands on record, two branches towards 
Mendon line, viz., the new North Mendon road, laid out by the 
county commissioners, 1870, and the old " Salt Box " road, as relaid 
by said commissioners, 1851. The general course of this road was 
probably an early proprietors' path, from the ancient Tyler neighbor- 
hood in North Mendon to now Milford Centre. It became first a 
legal town highway, 1748; alterations quite important in Hopedale, 
and sanctioned b}' the town, 1849 ; the old road west of Hopedale dis- 
continued, 1850, but re-opened by the county commissioners, 1851, 
with considerable improvements ordered, and finall}' the new road 
aforesaid laid by the count}* commissioners, 1870. From West St. to 
the fork at the foot of Neck Hill the distance is about 423 rods, with 
a general width of 2 rods, made plus in some places for materials ; 
the •■ Salt Box " branch is 158^ rods long, and 2 wide ; the new road 
branch is about 131 rods long, and 3 wide; entire length, 712 rods 
10 links ; the whole contents are about 10 acres 77 rods. Some extras 
for material are included. 

Frost St., from Maple to Medway line; laid out, 1762, and called 
a '• rod-and-a-half way," about 80 rods long; if so, contents, 120 
rods. 

Fruit St., from Main, near Greene, to South Main ; accepted, 1856 ; 
83 rods 19 links long, and 2\ rods wide ; contents, 1 acre 49 rods. 

Granite St., from 25 Pearl, passing Winter, to 24 Sumner; ac- 
cepted, 1857 ; 29 rods 11 links long, and 45 feet wide; contents, 80 
rods plus. 

Grant St., from Walnut, near schoolhouse, northerly, to Fountain ; 
accepted in part, 1870; a continuation accepted, 1877; length, 70 
rods 17^ links; contents, 1 acre 17 rods. 



NAMES AND DESCRIPTION OF STREETS. 327 

Greene St., from Main, near Fruit, passing Elm, Cortland, and 
Hopedale, to Mill ; partly an old and partly a new road ; the old por- 
tion already treated of; a small portion of the very oldest part (from 
the widow Sarah Clark's to Ransom J. Clark's) laid in connection 
with a now long-discontinued road to Mendon, 1723 ; a larger section 
(from said widow Clark's, northerly, to Cortland and Elm Sts.) laid 
17.32 ; another section (from Ransom J. Clark's to Mill St. or there- 
abouts) laid 1773, in lieu of an older one further east; numerous 
straightenings, extensions, and improvements made, as follows : 1839, 
from Newell Nelson's to the then widow Green saw-mill, now Spin- 
dleville machine-shop; 1850 and 1851, the northerly new section 
added (from Main to Cortland and Elm) ; various other considerable 
improvements made at sundry times (mostly between the southerly 
end of the new section and the Newell Nelson place), all presenting 
a now respectable street about 490 rods long, with an average width 
which I shall call 3 rods ; contents not far from 9 acres 30 rods. 

Grove St., from South Main, crossing Forest, passing Prospect 
Avenue, to South Bow ; laid out by the county commissioners, who 
sanctioned the selectmen's previous laying ; named with reference to 
a considerable grove through or near which it passed; 119 rods 19 
links long, and 2^ rods wide ; contents, 1 acre 139 rods. 

Haven St., from Purchase, at the ancient Corbett place, north- 
easterly to Hopkinton line ; an old road, first travelled as a settler's 
path ; laid out as a highway by Mendon selectmen, 1764, and relaid 
by them, 1771 ; short piece of road laid on the easterly side; for the 
accommodation of Luther Haven, 1804, twent}* or more rods long, 
and H wide (which I include) ; the southern section (from Corbett' s 
to Haven's) straightened and much improved, 1854 ; likewise the 
remaining section to Hopkinton line, 1858 ; named with respectful 
reference to the Haven family ; the whole now 394 rods long, and 
mostly 2 wide ; contents, 4 acres 158 rods. 

Haj-ward St., from Main, near schoolhouse, passing Cook, B. & A. 
R. Rd., Carroll, and East Walnut, to Mt. Pleasant ; laid and accepted, 
1864 ; named with respectful reference to Samuel W. Ha}ward, one 
of the land-owners ; 121 rods 8^ links long, and 2£ rods wide ; con- 
tents, 1 acre 148 rods. 

Hazel St., from "West, opposite Asylum (new) ; first laid, 1843 ; 
relaid and accepted in 1850 ; the name a fancy one, I suppose ; 45 
rods long, and 2 wide ; contents, 90 rods. 

High St., from Water, near Tha}-er, crossing West, passing Cherry 
and Spruce ; accepted, 1859 ; continuation, 1860 ; 133 rods long, and 
2| wide ; contents, 2 acres 12 rods. 



328 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

Highland St., from "West, opposite Prospect, passing Laurel and 
Vine, to Silver Hill St., near Reservoir; quite an old road, portions 
of it having been laid out by Mend on selectmen, at the following 
dates; viz., the southern portion, in connection with what is Pros- 
pect St., 1739 ; the most northerly portion, in connection with what 
is now Vine St., 1745; and the central portion, 1749; in all these 
cases said to be two rods wide. With its various improvements, 
made from time to time, it must, I think, still be called a 2-rod road ; 
imperfect data obliges me partly to guess its length, which I estimate 
to be about 720 rods ; contents, 9 acres. 

Hill St., from West to Asylum, near the Town As}-lum ; in part 
old, but mostly new; laid, 1841; called Hill from the Hill at its 
easterly terminus ; 109 rods 7 links long, 2^ rods wide ; contents, 
1 acre 112| rods. 

Hollis St., from Main to South Main; accepted, 1870; 30 rods 
long, and 32 feet wide ; contents, 58 rods, nearly. 

Hope St., from Hopedale to Dutcher; accepted, 1872; 20 rods 
long, and 2 wide ; contents, 40 rods. 

Hopedale St., from Freedom, through Hopedale Village, passing 
Chapel, Social, Centre, Peace, Draper, Adin, crossing Main, and 
passing Thwing, to Greene ; a compound of new and old roads, whose 
history is as follows : opened as a bridleway, or private road, from 
the old Jones house to Hopedale Corner, 2 rods wide, 1805 ; relaid 
as a public road, with some alteration of track, along the same route, 
2£ rods wide, 1838 ; extended north to what is now Freedom St. (its 
course somewhat changed) from the old south line of the Jones farm 
northward, and the whole made 3 rods wide, by the Hopedale Com- 
munity, to the acceptance of the town, before 1850 ; that portion 
extending from Hopedale Corner to Greene laid out by the county 
commissioners, 2^ rods wide, 1847 ; its name derived from that of 
the village through which it passes ; being north of Main St. 188 rods 
long, 3 wide, and south of Main St. 167 rods long, 2£ wide ; entire 
length, 355 rods ; entire contents, 6 acres 2l£ rods. 

Howard St., from South Main, easterly, crossing Charles River and 
M. & W. R. Rd., passing southerly, recrossing the river and R. Rd., 
and thence to Mellen, near South Main ; the general route originall}- 
a mere leading-way of the first settlers; settled on from 1706 and 
downwards ; sections of it early laid out by Mendon authorities ; ex- 
tended, straightened, and improved under the sanction of Milford 
authorities in 1789 and 1797, but never made an object of conspicuous 
interest ; it was named, I presume, with honorable reference to the 
Howard alias Havward families, who have inhabited its neighbor- 



NAMES AND DESCRIPTION OF STREETS. 329 

hood, more or less numerousby, ever since its first settlement by 
Jonathan Hay ward, son of the first Samuel Hay ward of old Mendon, 
in 1706, or thereabouts; imperfect recorded data oblige me to com- 
pute proximately its length to be 440 rods, and its width about 2 rods ; 
contents, 5 acres 80 rods. 

Jefferson St., from 98 Main, passing Spring Lane and Jefferson 
Alley, to North Bow ; laid and accepted, 1851 ; 63 rods long, and 
3 wide ; contents, 1 acre 29 rods. 

Jefferson Alley, from Spring to Jefferson ; accepted, 1863 ; 10 rods 
21 links long, 18 feet wide ; contents, 12| rods. 

Laurel St., from Highland to West; part, I think, of an old road, 
whose date I have not ascertained; computed, without exact data, to 
be about 45 rods long, and 2 wide ; contents, 90 rods. 

Lawrence St., passing Quinlan and crossing Lee, in the locality 
formerly called Lawrenceville, but latterly, rather disrespectfully, 
Whistlv Beer ; deriving its name from Cephas Lawrence, who built 
small dwellings on it for sale, and procured its laying out by the 
town; accepted, July 16, 1855; 80 rods 15 links long, and 2 rods 
wide ; contents, 1 acre 1£ rod. 

Lee St., from West, near Cross, crossing Lawrence, to Water; 
accepted, 1861 ; 34 rods 19| links long, and 2 rods wide ; contents, 
69 rods, nearby. 

Lincoln St., from Pearl to Sumner: accepted, 1870; 36 rods plus 
long, and 2 wide ; contents, 73 rods, nearly. 

Lincoln Square ; a minute triangular common at the junction of 
Main, School, and Pine Sts., graced with a very useful and con- 
venient watering fountain ; contents probably very small. The foun- 
tain provided by the town, 1873. 

Main St., from Mendon to Holliston lines; the ancient "Sher- 
born Road," alread}' treated of; truly our Main St.; being 1,542 
rods long, or thereabouts ; that is, 4 miles 262 rods, and averaging 
not less than 3 rods wide ; contents, 28 acres 146 rods. This street 
east of Charles River is sometimes called East Main. 

Maple St., from Beaver, near Birch, passing Frost, southerly and 
westerh', to Beaver again ; a complex of old and new roads too diffi- 
cult to trace specifically back to the oldest piece ; two or three several 
layings-out between 1750 and 1850; the whole length, as estimated 
from imperfect data, being about 380 rods long, and averaging per- 
haps 2£ wide ; contents, 5 acres 55 rods. 

Marvel St., first laid out and accepted, 1782 ; discontinued beyond 
Asia Madden's barn to Upton line, 1842 ; re-opened and improved 
the whole length, 1852 ; 180 rods long, and 2 wide ; some guess- 



330 HISTORY OF MILFORD. 

work in computation, but approximately correct ; contents, 2 acres 
40 rods. 

Mechanic St., from Purchase, passing Winter, eastward toward the 
pond ; 40 rods long, and 2 rods 10 links wide ; contents, 96 rods. 

Medway St., from (East) Main, crossing B. & A. Branch R. Rd., 
Birch and Beaver Sts., to Medway line; already treated of; 427 rods 
15 links long, and 3 rods wide ; contents, 8 acres 2f rods. 

Mellen St., from Plain, passing Newton and Warfield, crossing 
South Main, passing Howard, crossing Charles River, to Belling- 
ham line ; a part of the ancient way to tl the Great Meadow," alread\' 
treated of; named in memory of Henry Mellen, who dwelt on it much 
of his lifetime ; estimated, without actual measurement, to be 270 
rods long, and 2£ wide ; contents, 3 acres 125^ rods. 

Middleton St., from East Main, southerly, almost to R. Rd. ; ac- 
cepted, 1876 ; 26 rods 11 feet long, and 30 feet wide ; contents, 48 
rods plus. 

Mill St., from Plain, a little north of So. Milford cemetery, pass- 
ing Greene, through Spindleville, over Mill River, to Mendon line ; 
mostly an ancient road, partly laid in 1734, and partly 1744 ; straight- 
ened, widened, and improved, 1792 and 1832 ; estimated, without 
actual measurement, to be 390 rods long, and 2\ wide ; contents, 5 
acres 77 rods. 

Mt. Pleasant St., from Beach, near Main, east of the bridge, over 
the northerly part of Bear Hill, eastward, to Beaver St. ; originally 
laid out by Mendon selectmen as a "driftway," 1742; gates and 
horse-blocks ordered to be maintained on it by Milford, 1789 ; which, 
not satisfying the inhabitants near it, the Count}' Court of Sessions 
were called, who opened it as a highway, 1791 ; computed to be 410 
rods long, and 2\ wide on the general average ; contents, about 5 
acres and 122 rods. 

Mystic St., now, after discontinuance of its easterly section in 
1848, extending only from West down to the ancient Abraham Jones 
place, later known as Nathaniel Rawson's, and still later as that of 
Jared Rawson ; computed, without accurate measurement, to be 20 
rods long, and perhaps 2 wide ; contents, 40 rods. 

Newton St., a short piece of road in South Milford, just south of 
the dwelling-house, once a schoolhouse, from Plain to Mellen St. ; 
laid first, I am inclined to think, in connection with a piece adjacent 
to the cemetery in 1791, but afterwards ignored; laid anew, 1857; 
9 rods 13 links long, 2£ wide ; contents, about 23 rods. 

North Bow St., from Main, near the Town-house, passing Spring 
and Jefferson, to Central, opposite South Bow, of which it is the 



NAMES AND DESCRIPTION OF STREETS. 331 

counterpart ; first laid out, 1840, rather imperfectly ; relaid better, 
1854 ; further improved, 1855 ; somewhat widened, 1860 ; nearly 76 
rods long, and 3 plus wide ; contents, 1 acre 68 rods. 

Oliver St., from Water to (not ascertained) ; accepted, 1873; 23 
rods 8£ feet long, and 2 rods wide ; contents, 47 rods plus. 

Otis St., from Chapin to Fruit; accepted, 1872; 32 rods 7 links 
long, and 2 rods wide ; contents, 64^ rods. 

Park St., from Main, opposite South Bow, passing Parish Com- 
mon, to Congress ; accepted, 1857 ; 10 rods 19 links long, and 3 rods 
wide ; contents, 92 rods. 

Parkhurst St., from Hayward, near the R. Rd. crossing, running 
some distance parallel with the R. Rd., whence turning an angle, it 
reaches Hayward again at a distant point ; accepted, 1879 ; named 
with respectful reference to some of the Parkhursts interested ; 73 
rods long, in part 2 rods wide, and in part 24 feet ; contents, 134 
rods. 

Peace St., from Hopedale to Dutcher ; accepted, 1872; named by 
the writer ; 20 rods long, and 2 wide ; contents, 40 rods. 

Pearl St., from Main, between Church Block and the Sumner Hotel, 
to Purchase, near the foot of Walnut ; laid out in two pieces at two 
different times, viz., the principal portion from near the front of Pearl- 
street Universalist Church, to Purchase, 1833, 70 rods long, and 3 
wide ; and the south end, 8 rods 8 links, at three several times, in 
connection with North Bow St ; whole length, 78 rods 8 links, and 3 
rods wide; contents, 1 acre 75 rods, nearly. An error in " Milford 
Directory" makes Pearl St. extend northward to Fountain St., which 
needs correction. 

Pine St., from 103 Main, at junction with School,